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1.
Primates ; 60(5): 449-457, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342225

RESUMO

Frugivorous vertebrates such as primates are important dispersal agents in tropical forests, although the role of folivorous colobines is generally not considered. However, recent studies reported seed dispersal by endo- and epizoochory in colobine primates, including the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), suggesting that the role colobines play in seed dispersal might have been underestimated. In the Lower Kinabatangan Floodplain in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we investigated whether seeds were still able to germinate after being ingested by proboscis monkeys. Faecal samples (n = 201) from proboscis monkeys were collected between 2015 and 2017. Intact seeds belonging to eight plant species were found in 77% of the faecal samples. Nauclea spp. were the most abundant plant species, accounting for 98% of all intact seeds. This study is the first to conduct germination trials on seeds defecated by proboscis monkeys. Higher germination success was recorded in ingested Nauclea spp. seeds than in control seeds, from both ripe and unripe Nauclea orientalis fruits (P < 0.001). Therefore, we suggest that proboscis monkeys play a role in seed dispersal by enhancing the germination success of defecated seeds for at least some plant species. Similar to other colobines, although proboscis monkeys may provide a lower contribution to seed dispersal (low seed diversity over short distances) than other sympatric frugivores, this study emphasises that proboscis monkeys do contribute to the dispersal of intact seeds, such as Nauclea spp., in potentially suitable riverine habitats.

2.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041315

RESUMO

Designed as a new method to facilitate the reintroduction and post-release monitoring of orangutans and other apes, implanted radio-telemetry (IRT) was developed and first deployed in 2009. Since that time, it has been necessary to collate and review information on its uptake and general efficacy to inform its ongoing development and that of other emerging tracking technologies. We present here technical specifications and the surgical procedure used to implant miniaturized radio transmitters, as well as a formal testing procedure for measuring detectable transmission distances of implanted devices. Feedback from IRT practitioners (veterinarians and field managers) was gathered through questionnaires and is also presented. To date, IRT has been used in at least 250 individual animals (mainly orangutans) from four species of ape in both Asia and Africa. Median surgical and wound healing times were 30 min and 15 days, respectively, with implants needing to be removed on at least 36 separate occasions. Confirmed failures within the first year of operation were 18.1%, while longer distances were reported from positions of higher elevation relative to the focal animal. IRT has been a transformational technology in facilitating the relocation of apes after their release, resulting in much larger amounts of post-release data collection than ever before. It is crucial however, that implant casings are strengthened to prevent the requirement for recapture and removal surgeries, especially for gradually adapting apes. As with all emerging technological solutions, IRT carries with it inherent risk, especially so due to the requirement for subcutaneous implantation. These risks must, however, be balanced with the realities of releasing an animal with no means of relocation, as has historically been, and is still, the case with orangutans and gorillas.

3.
Ecol Evol ; 9(7): 3937-3945, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015978

RESUMO

Strongyles are commonly reported parasites in studies of primate parasite biodiversity. Among them, nodule worm species are often overlooked as a serious concern despite having been observed to cause serious disease in nonhuman primates and humans. In this study, we investigated whether strongyles found in Bornean primates are the nodule worm Oesophagostomum spp., and to what extent these parasites are shared among members of the community. To test this, we propose two hypotheses that use the parasite genetic structure to infer transmission processes within the community. In the first scenario, the absence of parasite genetic substructuring would reflect high levels of parasite transmission among primate hosts, as primates' home ranges overlap in the study area. In the second scenario, the presence of parasite substructuring would suggest cryptic diversity within the parasite genus and the existence of phylogenetic barriers to cross-species transmission. By using molecular markers, we identify strongyles infecting this primate community as O. aculeatum, the only species of nodule worm currently known to infect Asian nonhuman primates. Furthermore, the little to no genetic substructuring supports a scenario with no phylogenetic barriers to transmission and where host movements across the landscape would enable gene flow between host populations. This work shows that the parasite's high adaptability could act as a buffer against local parasite extinctions. Surveys targeting human populations living in close proximity to nonhuman primates could help clarify whether this species of nodule worm presents the zoonotic potential found in the other two species infecting African nonhuman primates.

4.
Ecohealth ; 16(4): 638-646, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927165

RESUMO

Land-use changes can impact infectious disease transmission by increasing spatial overlap between people and wildlife disease reservoirs. In Malaysian Borneo, increases in human infections by the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi are hypothesised to be due to increasing contact between people and macaques due to deforestation. To explore how macaque responses to environmental change impact disease risks, we analysed movement of a GPS-collared long-tailed macaque in a knowlesi-endemic area in Sabah, Malaysia, during a deforestation event. Land-cover maps were derived from satellite-based and aerial remote sensing data and models of macaque occurrence were developed to evaluate how macaque habitat use was influenced by land-use change. During deforestation, changes were observed in macaque troop home range size, movement speeds and use of different habitat types. Results of models were consistent with the hypothesis that macaque ranging behaviour is disturbed by deforestation events but begins to equilibrate after seeking and occupying a new habitat, potentially impacting human disease risks. Further research is required to explore how these changes in macaque movement affect knowlesi epidemiology on a wider spatial scale.

5.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 8: 25-32, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619706

RESUMO

Lemuricola (Protenterobius) nycticebi is the only pinworm species known to infect strepsirrhine primates outside Africa, and the only pinworm species yet described in slow lorises. Here, we provided a detailed morphological comparison of female and male worms, and a first description of fourth-stage larvae collected from free-living slow lorises (Nycticebus menagensis) in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we also reconstructed the species' phylogenetic relationship with other pinworms infecting primates. Both morphological and molecular results indicated a distinct association between L. (P.) nycticebi and its host. However, while taxonomy identified this species as a member of the Lemuricola clade and grouped pinworms infecting lemurs and slow lorises together, phylogenetic reconstruction split them, placing L. (P.) nycticebi within the Enterobius clade. Our results suggest that L. (P.) nycticebi may represent a different taxon altogether, and that it is more closely related to pinworm species infecting Old World primates outside Madagascar. Pongobius pongoi (Foitová et al., 2008) n. comb. is also proposed.

6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 3(1)2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274426

RESUMO

We present evidence for a case of spotted fever rickettsiosis with severe complications in a young adult male. Although spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) have been reported as the most prevalent cause of rickettsiosis in rural areas of Sabah, Malaysia since the 1980s, this is the first detailed case report of suspected SFGR in the state. Current data on the prevalence, type, and thorough clinical reports on complications of SFGR and other rickettsioses in Sabah is lacking and required to raise the awareness of such diseases. There is a need to emphasize the screening of rickettsioses to medical personnel and to encourage the use of appropriate antibiotics as early treatment for nonspecific febrile illnesses in this region. Suspected rickettsioses need to be considered as one of the differential diagnoses for patients presenting with acute febrile illness for laboratory investigations, and early treatment instituted.

7.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 89(5): 327-334, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114703

RESUMO

Reducing the size of food particles is crucial for herbivores. Seasonal dietary changes are known to influence animals' chewing efficiency. Proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) are foregut fermenters, with a high chewing efficiency allowing them to achieve very fine faecal particles. In this study, we investigated how proboscis monkeys' chewing efficiency varies between wet and dry seasons, hypothesising differences possibly related to diet change. Faecal particle size analysis is an established approach to estimate chewing efficiency in mammalian herbivores. We analysed 113 proboscis monkey faecal samples collected in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, between 2015 and 2017. By following standard sieve analysis protocols, we measured a mean particle size MPS0.025-8 of 0.45 ± 0.14 mm, and confirmed a previous result that proboscis monkeys have a very low faecal MPS. This study highlights a seasonal influence on proboscis monkeys' chewing efficiency, with smaller MPS (better chewing efficiency) during the wet season. During that time of the year, individuals may potentially change their diet, as all faecal samples contained intact seeds. Whether the seasonal MPS difference in proboscis monkeys is smaller than in other colobines due to their "rumination" strategy remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Colobinae/fisiologia , Fezes , Herbivoria , Mastigação , Tamanho da Partícula , Animais , Bornéu , Dieta , Malásia , Estações do Ano
8.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 10(6): 655-662, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992728

RESUMO

Foregut fermentation is well known to occur in a wide range of mammalian species and in a single bird species. Yet, the foregut microbial community of free-ranging, foregut-fermenting monkeys, that is, colobines, has not been investigated so far. We analysed the foregut microbiomes in four free-ranging proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) from two different tropical habitats with varying plant diversity (mangrove and riverine forests), in an individual from a semi-free-ranging setting with supplemental feeding, and in an individual from captivity, using high-throughput sequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA genes. We found a decrease in foregut microbial diversity from a diverse natural habitat (riverine forest) to a low diverse natural habitat (mangrove forest), to human-related environments. Of a total of 2700 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in all environments, only 153 OTUs were shared across all individuals, suggesting that they were not influenced by diet or habitat. These OTUs were dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of the habitat-specific microbial communities showed a wide range of differences among living environments, although such bacterial communities appeared to be dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, suggesting that those phyla are key to understanding the adaptive strategy in proboscis monkeys living in different habitats.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Colobinae/microbiologia , Florestas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rúmen/microbiologia , Clima Tropical
9.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 7(2): 141-146, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988792

RESUMO

Within host communities, related species are more likely to share common parasitic agents, and as a result, morphological similarities have led researchers to conclude that parasites infecting closely related hosts within a community represent a single species. However, genetic diversity within parasite genera and host range remain poorly investigated in most systems. Strongyloides is a genus of soil-transmitted nematode that has been reported from several primate species in Africa and Asia, and has been estimated to infect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, although no precise estimates are available. Here we describe a case of infection with a cryptic species of Strongyloides in a Bornean (Philippine) slow loris (Nycticebus menagensis) living within a diverse community of several primate species in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Malaysian Borneo. Fresh fecal samples were collected from five primate species and nematode larvae cultured from these samples were selected for phylogenetic analyses. Sequences obtained for most larvae were identified as S. fuelleborni, grouping into three different clusters and showing no aggregation within specific hosts or geographic location. In contrast, a set of parasite sequences obtained from a slow loris clustered closely with S. stercoralis into a different group, being genetically distinct to sequences reported from other primate hosts, humans included. Our results suggest that although S. fuelleborni infects all haplorrhines sampled in this primate community, a different species might be infecting the slow loris, the only strepsirrhine in Borneo and one of the least studied primates in the region. Although more data are needed to support this conclusion, we propose that Strongyloides species in primates might be more diverse than previously thought, with potential implications for ecological and evolutionary host-parasite associations, as well as epidemiological dynamics.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200828, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028844

RESUMO

Niche differentiation, the partitioning of resources along one or more axes of a species' niche hyper-volume, is widely recognised as an important mechanism for sympatric species to reduce interspecific competition and predation risk, and thus facilitate co-existence. Resource partitioning may be facilitated by behavioural differentiation along three main niche dimensions: habitat, food and time. In this study, we investigate the extent to which these mechanisms can explain the coexistence of an assemblage of five sympatric felids in Borneo. Using multi-scale logistic regression, we show that Bornean felids exhibit differences in both their broad and fine-scale habitat use. We calculate temporal activity patterns and overlap between these species, and present evidence for temporal separation within this felid guild. Lastly, we conducted an all-subsets logistic regression to predict the occurrence of each felid species as a function of the co-occurrence of a large number of other species and showed that Bornean felids co-occurred with a range of other species, some of which could be candidate prey. Our study reveals apparent resource partitioning within the Bornean felid assemblage, operating along all three niche dimension axes. These results provide new insights into the ecology of these species and the broader community in which they live and also provide important information for conservation planning for this guild of predators.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Felidae/fisiologia , Simpatria , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bornéu , Ecologia , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Probabilidade , Análise de Regressão , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
11.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195584, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630671

RESUMO

Understanding determinants shaping infection risk of endangered wildlife is a major topic in conservation medicine. The proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, an endemic primate flagship species for conservation in Borneo, is endangered through habitat loss, but can still be found in riparian lowland and mangrove forests, and in some protected areas. To assess socioecological and anthropogenic influence on intestinal helminth infections in N. larvatus, 724 fecal samples of harem and bachelor groups, varying in size and the number of juveniles, were collected between June and October 2012 from two study sites in Malaysian Borneo: 634 samples were obtained from groups inhabiting the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary (LKWS), 90 samples were collected from groups of the Labuk Bay Proboscis Monkey Sanctuary (LBPMS), where monkeys are fed on stationary feeding platforms. Parasite risk was quantified by intestinal helminth prevalence, host parasite species richness (PSR), and eggs per gram feces (epg). Generalized linear mixed effect models were applied to explore whether study site, group type, group size, the number of juveniles per group, and sampling month predict parasite risk. At the LBPMS, prevalence and epg of Trichuris spp., strongylids, and Strongyloides spp. but not Ascaris spp., as well as host PSR were significantly elevated. Only for Strongyloides spp., prevalence showed significant changes between months; at both sites, the beginning rainy season with increased precipitation was linked to higher prevalence, suggesting the external life cycle of Strongyloides spp. to benefit from humidity. Higher prevalence, epgs, and PSR within the LBPMS suggest that anthropogenic factors shape host infection risk more than socioecological factors, most likely via higher re-infection rates and chronic stress. Noninvasive measurement of fecal parasite stages is an important tool for assessing transmission dynamics and infection risks for endangered tropical wildlife. Findings will contribute to healthcare management in nature and in anthropogenically managed environments.


Assuntos
Colobinae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Animais , Bornéu , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Florestas , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Malásia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Floresta Úmida , Fatores de Risco , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Estrongiloidíase/transmissão , Estrongiloidíase/veterinária , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Tricuríase/veterinária
12.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195444, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649279

RESUMO

Identifying the consequences of tropical forest degradation is essential to mitigate its effects upon forest fauna. Large forest-dwelling mammals are often highly sensitive to environmental perturbation through processes such as fragmentation, simplification of habitat structure, and abiotic changes including increased temperatures where the canopy is cleared. Whilst previous work has focused upon species richness and rarity in logged forest, few look at spatial and temporal behavioural responses to forest degradation. Using camera traps, we explored the relationships between diel activity, behavioural expression, habitat use and ambient temperature to understand how the wild free-ranging Bornean banteng (Bos javanicus lowi) respond to logging and regeneration. Three secondary forests in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo were studied, varying in the time since last logging (6-23 years). A combination of generalised linear mixed models and generalised linear models were constructed using >36,000 trap-nights. Temperature had no significant effect on activity, however it varied markedly between forests, with the period of intense heat shortening as forest regeneration increased over the years. Bantengs regulated activity, with a reduction during the wet season in the most degraded forest (z = -2.6, Std. Error = 0.13, p = 0.01), and reductions during midday hours in forest with limited regeneration, however after >20 years of regrowth, activity was more consistent throughout the day. Foraging and use of open canopy areas dominated the activity budget when regeneration was limited. As regeneration advanced, this was replaced by greater investment in travelling and using a closed canopy. Forest degradation modifies the ambient temperature, and positively influences flooding and habitat availability during the wet season. Retention of a mosaic of mature forest patches within commercial forests could minimise these effects and also provide refuge, which is key to heat dissipation and the prevention of thermal stress, whilst retention of degraded forest could provide forage.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Florestas , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Clima Tropical , Animais , Bovinos , Ritmo Circadiano , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Biodivers Data J ; (6): e24777, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674940

RESUMO

Background: Males of Opadometa are difficult to associate with conspecific females, and sex-matching errors may persist in the taxonomic literature. Recommended best practices for definitive sex matching in this genus suggest finding a male in the web of a female, or better yet, mating pairs. New information: A male Opadometa was observed hanging on a frame line of the web of a female Opadometa sarawakensis, a species for which the male was previously undescribed. This occurred during a tropical ecology field course held at the Danau Girang Field Centre in Sabah, Malaysia. A taxonomic description was completed as a course activity.

14.
Sci Adv ; 4(2): eaaq0250, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507881

RESUMO

Male proboscis monkeys have uniquely enlarged noses that are prominent adornments, which may have evolved through their sexually competitive harem group social system. Nevertheless, the ecological roles of the signals encoded by enlarged noses remain unclear. We found significant correlations among nose, body, and testis sizes and a clear link between nose size and number of harem females. Therefore, there is evidence supporting both male-male competition and female choice as causal factors in the evolution of enlarged male noses. We also observed that nasal enlargement systematically modifies the resonance properties of male vocalizations, which probably encode male quality. Our results indicate that the audiovisual contributions of enlarged male noses serve as advertisements to females in their mate selection. This is the first primate research to evaluate the evolutionary processes involved in linking morphology, acoustics, and socioecology with unique masculine characteristics.


Assuntos
Colobinae/anatomia & histologia , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Face , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Voz
15.
Curr Biol ; 28(5): 761-769.e5, 2018 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456144

RESUMO

Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources is increasingly affecting the highly biodiverse tropics [1, 2]. Although rapid developments in remote sensing technology have permitted more precise estimates of land-cover change over large spatial scales [3-5], our knowledge about the effects of these changes on wildlife is much more sparse [6, 7]. Here we use field survey data, predictive density distribution modeling, and remote sensing to investigate the impact of resource use and land-use changes on the density distribution of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Our models indicate that between 1999 and 2015, half of the orangutan population was affected by logging, deforestation, or industrialized plantations. Although land clearance caused the most dramatic rates of decline, it accounted for only a small proportion of the total loss. A much larger number of orangutans were lost in selectively logged and primary forests, where rates of decline were less precipitous, but where far more orangutans are found. This suggests that further drivers, independent of land-use change, contribute to orangutan loss. This finding is consistent with studies reporting hunting as a major cause in orangutan decline [8-10]. Our predictions of orangutan abundance loss across Borneo suggest that the population decreased by more than 100,000 individuals, corroborating recent estimates of decline [11]. Practical solutions to prevent future orangutan decline can only be realized by addressing its complex causes in a holistic manner across political and societal sectors, such as in land-use planning, resource exploitation, infrastructure development, and education, and by increasing long-term sustainability [12]. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/tendências , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Animais , Bornéu , Indonésia , Malásia , Recursos Naturais/provisão & distribução , Dinâmica Populacional
16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 880, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343863

RESUMO

The origin of the elephant on the island of Borneo remains elusive. Research has suggested two alternative hypotheses: the Bornean elephant stems either from a recent introduction in the 17th century or from an ancient colonization several hundreds of thousands years ago. Lack of elephant fossils has been interpreted as evidence for a very recent introduction, whereas mtDNA divergence from other Asian elephants has been argued to favor an ancient colonization. We investigated the demographic history of Bornean elephants using full-likelihood and approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our results are at odds with both the recent and ancient colonization hypotheses, and favour a third intermediate scenario. We find that genetic data favour a scenario in which Bornean elephants experienced a bottleneck during the last glacial period, possibly as a consequence of the colonization of Borneo, and from which it has slowly recovered since. Altogether the data support a natural colonization of Bornean elephants at a time when large terrestrial mammals could colonise from the Sunda shelf when sea levels were much lower. Our results are important not only in understanding the unique history of the colonization of Borneo by elephants, but also for their long-term conservation.


Assuntos
Elefantes/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bornéu , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fósseis , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
18.
Curr Biol ; 27(22): 3487-3498.e10, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103940

RESUMO

Six extant species of non-human great apes are currently recognized: Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, eastern and western gorillas, and chimpanzees and bonobos [1]. However, large gaps remain in our knowledge of fine-scale variation in hominoid morphology, behavior, and genetics, and aspects of great ape taxonomy remain in flux. This is particularly true for orangutans (genus: Pongo), the only Asian great apes and phylogenetically our most distant relatives among extant hominids [1]. Designation of Bornean and Sumatran orangutans, P. pygmaeus (Linnaeus 1760) and P. abelii (Lesson 1827), as distinct species occurred in 2001 [1, 2]. Here, we show that an isolated population from Batang Toru, at the southernmost range limit of extant Sumatran orangutans south of Lake Toba, is distinct from other northern Sumatran and Bornean populations. By comparing cranio-mandibular and dental characters of an orangutan killed in a human-animal conflict to those of 33 adult male orangutans of a similar developmental stage, we found consistent differences between the Batang Toru individual and other extant Ponginae. Our analyses of 37 orangutan genomes provided a second line of evidence. Model-based approaches revealed that the deepest split in the evolutionary history of extant orangutans occurred ∼3.38 mya between the Batang Toru population and those to the north of Lake Toba, whereas both currently recognized species separated much later, about 674 kya. Our combined analyses support a new classification of orangutans into three extant species. The new species, Pongo tapanuliensis, encompasses the Batang Toru population, of which fewer than 800 individuals survive. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Pongo/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma , Genômica , Hominidae/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , Pongo/classificação , Pongo/fisiologia , Pongo abelii/genética , Pongo pygmaeus/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0184804, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020111

RESUMO

Riparian ecosystems are amongst the most biodiverse tropical habitats. They are important, and essential, ecological corridors, linking remnant forest fragments. In this study, we hypothesised that crocodile's actively select nocturnal resting locations based on increased macaque predation potential. We examined the importance of riparian vegetation structure in the maintenance of crocodile hunting behaviours. Using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and GPS telemetry on animal movement, we identified the repeated use of nocturnal resting sites by adult estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) throughout the fragmented Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary in Sabah, Malaysia. Crocodile resting locations were found to resemble, in terms of habitat characteristics, the sleeping sites of long-tailed macaque; positioned in an attempt to avoid predation by terrestrial predators. We found individual crocodiles were actively selecting overhanging vegetation and that the protrusion of trees from the tree line was key to site selection by crocodiles, as well as influencing both the presence and group size of sleeping macaques. Although these findings are correlational, they have broad management implications, with the suggestion that riparian corridor maintenance and quality can have implications beyond that of terrestrial fauna. We further place our findings in the context of the wider ecosystem and the maintenance of trophic interactions, and discuss how future habitat management has the potential to mitigate human-wildlife conflict.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Jacarés e Crocodilos/fisiologia , Estuários , Plantas , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Geografia , Malásia , Modelos Teóricos , Árvores
20.
J Vet Med Sci ; 79(11): 1892-1898, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904261

RESUMO

There is currently no available information regarding the veterinary management of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi), either in captivity or in the wild. In this study, 12 Sunda clouded leopards were anesthetized between January 2008 and February 2014 for medical exams, and/or GPS-collaring. Seven wild-caught individuals were kept in captivity and 5 free-ranging animals were captured by cage traps. Two anesthesia combinations were used: medetomidine-ketamine (M-K) or tiletamine-zolazepam (T-Z). Atipamezole (0.2 mg/kg im) was used as an antagonist for medetomidine. Medetomidine (range: 0.039-0.054 mg/kg) and ketamine (range: 3-4.39 mg/kg) were administered during 5 immobilizations, resulting in median induction times of 7 min. After a median anesthesia time of 56 min, atipamezole was injected, observing effects of antagonism at a median time of 12 min. T-Z (range: 6.8-10.8 mg/kg) was administered on 7 occasions. Median induction times observed with this combination were shorter than with M-K (4 min vs 7 min; P=0.04), and anesthesia and recovery times were significantly longer (244 and 35 min vs 56 and 16 min, respectively; P=0.02). Lower heart rates were measured in the M-K group, while lower rectal temperatures were found in the T-Z group. Both combinations resulted in safe and reliable immobilizations, although given the favorable anesthesia and recovery times of M-K, we recommend this approach over T-Z for the veterinary handling of Sunda clouded leopards.


Assuntos
Felidae/fisiologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bornéu , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imobilização/métodos , Masculino
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