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2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(5): 2438-2446, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523364

RESUMO

AIMS: National studies have demonstrated disparities in the treatment and survival of pancreatic cancer patients based on socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to identify specific differences in perioperative management and outcomes based on patient SES and to study the role of a multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) in mitigating any variations. METHODS: The study analyzed patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a large hospital system. The patients were categorized into groups of high and low SES and whether they were managed by the authors' pancreatic cancer MDC or not. The study compared differences in disease characteristics, receipt of multimodality therapy, perioperative outcomes, and recurrence-free and overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 162 low-SES patients and 119 high-SES patients, 54% were managed in the MDC. Outside the MDC, low-SES patients were less likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had less minimally invasive surgery, a longer OR time, less enhanced recovery participation, and more major complications (p < 0.05). No SES disparities were observed among the MDC patients. Despite similar tumor characteristics, the low-SES patients had inferior median overall survival (21 vs 32 months; p = 0.005), but the MDC appeared to eliminate this disparity. Low SES correlated with inferior survival for the non-MDC patients (17 vs 32 months; p < 0.001), but not for the MDC patients (24 vs 25 months; p = 0.33). These findings persisted in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: A pancreatic cancer MDC standardizes treatment decisions, eliminates disparities in surgical outcomes, and improves survival for low-SES patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Classe Social
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(7): 3743-3752, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210238

RESUMO

Physical activity may improve cognitive function in women with breast cancer. In a cross-sectional study, we explored the relationship between cognitive function and physical activity (actigraph) and cardiorespiratory fitness (sub-maximal graded exercise test) in 73 postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer prior to the initiation of systemic adjuvant therapy. Cognitive function was assessed with a standardized battery of neurocognitive measures assessing eight domains. Data were analyzed using partial correlations, controlling for age and total hours of actigraph wear-time. Women were, on average, 63.71 (± 5.3) years of age with 15.47 (± 2.48) years of education. For physical activity, greater average number of steps per day were associated with better attention (r = .262, p = .032) and psychomotor speed (r = .301, p = .011); greater average hours of moderate and moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity were associated with better visual memory (r = .241, p = .049; r = .241, p = .049, respectively); and greater average daily energy expenditure was associated with better visual memory (r = .270, p = .027) and psychomotor speed (r = .292, p = .017). For fitness, higher peak maximum VO2 was associated with better concentration (r = .330, p = .006), verbal memory (r = .241, p = .048), and working memory (r = .281, p = .019). These results suggest that higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with better cognitive function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) to examine whether physical activity improves cognitive function in women with breast cancer are warranted. These RCTs should also determine the mechanisms of the influence of physical activity on cognitive function. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02793921; Date: May 20, 2016.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física
4.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 11(1): e30-e35, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Regional nodal irradiation (RNI) improved disease-free survival by 3% to 5% in 2 large randomized trials, but this small absolute advantage relies on accurate contouring and dose delivery. We audited our network to determine compliance on regional nodal coverage, contouring, and dosimetric parameters with respect to accepted guidelines. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In our network, we have established a clinical pathway for patients with node-positive breast cancer that guides indications for RNI and dosimetric goals. We reviewed records of 183 patients with nodal macrometastases after upfront surgery or involved nodes of any size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Radiation treatment plans were examined to determine lymph node volumes treated, whether nodes were contoured, quality of nodal contours, and whether target coverage and normal organ dosimetric constraints were met when RNI was delivered. RESULTS: Despite the presence of macrometastases on sentinel lymph node biopsy, no lymph nodes were treated in 2.2% (4 of 183). Of 179 patients who received nodal irradiation, 18 received radiation to axillary levels 1 and 2 only, and 161 patients received RNI. Overall, regional nodes were not treated despite strong indications in 7.6% (14 of 183). Treated nodes were not contoured for 2.2% (4 of 179), and lymph node contours were unacceptable in 15.4% (27 of 175). Of patients receiving RNI, 14.9% (24 of 161) did not have adequate nodal target volume coverage, mean heart dose was >4 Gy for 3.1% (5 of 161), and lung V20 Gy was >35% for 8.7% (14 of 161). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to indications for regional nodal treatment was high, but nodes were either not contoured or had unacceptable contour quality in 18% of plans, and coverage was inadequate in 15%. Because the small disease-free survival advantage seen in trials may be decreased with these deviations, routine clinical practice requires detailed peer review to fully translate results of clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Humanos , Linfonodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The assessment of therapeutic response after neoadjuvant treatment and pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been an ongoing challenge. Several limitations have been encountered when employing current grading systems for residual tumor. Considering endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) represents a sensitive imaging technique for PDAC, differences in tumor size between preoperative EUS and postoperative pathology after neoadjuvant therapy were hypothesized to represent an improved marker of treatment response. METHODS: For 340 treatment-naïve and 365 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs, EUS and pathologic findings were analyzed and correlated with patient overall survival (OS). A separate group of 200 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs served as a validation cohort for further analysis. RESULTS: Among treatment-naïve PDACs, there was a moderate concordance between EUS imaging and postoperative pathology for tumor size (r = 0.726, P < .001) and AJCC 8th edition T-stage (r = 0.586, P < .001). In the setting of neoadjuvant therapy, a decrease in T-stage correlated with improved 3-year OS rates (50% vs 31%, P < .001). Through recursive partitioning, a cutoff of ≥47% tumor size reduction was also found to be associated with improved OS (67% vs 32%, P < .001). Improved OS using a ≥47% threshold was validated using a separate cohort of neoadjuvant-treated PDACs (72% vs 36%, P < .001). By multivariate analysis, a reduction in tumor size by ≥47% was an independent prognostic factor for improved OS (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The difference in tumor size between preoperative EUS imaging and postoperative pathology among neoadjuvant-treated PDAC patients is an important prognostic indicator and may guide subsequent chemotherapeutic management.

6.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 22(8): 80, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601947

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma is an area of active investigation with numerous completed and ongoing trials studying a variety of therapeutic interventions utilizing diverse designs. Here, we review completed and ongoing neoadjuvant trials in melanoma, discuss endpoint assessment, and highlight biomarker development in this context. RECENT FINDINGS: High-risk resectable melanoma with clinically detectable lymph node (LN) with or without in-transit and/or satellite metastases represent ~ 20% of melanoma patients and have a high risk of relapse despite definitive surgery. Adjuvant therapy with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy or BRAF/MEK-targeted therapy has improved relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in large phase III trials and is approved for this indication. However, despite surgery and adjuvant therapy, many patients relapse and/or experience treatment-related toxicity, underscoring the need to identify and understand mechanisms of response and resistance. In melanoma, neoadjuvant therapy is an active area of research with numerous completed and ongoing trials utilizing FDA-approved and novel agents with intriguing results. Neoadjuvant therapy for regionally metastatic disease is an established standard in multiple cancers, where it has been shown to improve operability, facilitate biomarker development, and even is a registrational endpoint for drug development in breast cancer. Recently, a spate of neoadjuvant studies in melanoma has looked at a swathe of agents with promising clinical and biomarker results. Coordinated efforts are underway to translate these findings to earlier stage disease while prioritizing the evaluation of new strategies in unresectable disease.


Assuntos
Melanoma/terapia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
7.
Mod Pathol ; 33(9): 1832-1843, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376853

RESUMO

Mutations in RAS occur in 30-50% of metastatic colorectal carcinomas (mCRCs) and correlate with resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. Consequently, mCRC biomarker guidelines state RAS mutational testing should be performed when considering EGFR inhibitor treatment. However, a small subset of mCRCs are reported to harbor RAS amplification. In order to elucidate the clinicopathologic features and anti-EGFR treatment response associated with RAS amplification, we retrospectively reviewed a large cohort of mCRC patients that underwent targeted next-generation sequencing and copy number analysis for KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA. Molecular testing was performed on 1286 consecutive mCRC from 1271 patients as part of routine clinical care, and results were correlated with clinicopathologic findings, mismatch repair (MMR) status and follow-up. RAS amplification was detected in 22 (2%) mCRCs and included: KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS for 15, 5, and 2 cases, respectively (6-21 gene copies). Patients with a KRAS-amplified mCRC were more likely to report a history of inflammatory bowel disease (p < 0.001). In contrast, mutations in KRAS were associated with older patient age, right-sided colonic origin, low-grade differentiation, mucinous histology, and MMR proficiency (p ≤ 0.017). Four patients with a KRAS-amplified mCRC and no concomitant RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA mutations received EGFR inhibitor-based therapy, and none demonstrated a clinicoradiographic response. The therapeutic impact of RAS amplification was further evaluated using a separate, multi-institutional cohort of 23 patients. Eight of 23 patients with KRAS-amplified mCRC received anti-EGFR therapy and all 8 patients exhibited disease progression on treatment. Although the number of KRAS-amplified mCRCs is limited, our data suggest the clinicopathologic features associated with mCRC harboring a KRAS amplification are distinct from those associated with a KRAS mutation. However, both alterations seem to confer EGFR inhibitor resistance and, therefore, RAS testing to include copy number analyses may be of consideration in the treatment of mCRC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 28(3): 415-35, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24880939

RESUMO

The last 30 years has seen a revolution in melanoma. Fundamental elements of the surgical, adjuvant medical, and systemic therapy for the disease have been significantly altered toward improved management and better outcomes. The intent of this article is to reflect on past efforts and research in melanoma and the current landscape of treatment of melanoma. The authors also hope to capture the excitement currently rippling through the field and the hope for a cure. The intent of treatment of advanced melanoma, which was once considered incurable, has changed from palliative to potentially curative.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Imunoterapia/tendências , Melanoma/cirurgia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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