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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 109089, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many active buprenorphine prescribers treat few patients monthly, but little information is available regarding how prescribers' buprenorphine caseload fluctuates over time or how long it takes new prescribers to reach higher patient caseloads. We examine buprenorphine-prescribing clinicians' patient caseloads over time and explore prescriber characteristics associated with different caseload trajectories. METHODS: Using 2006-2018 national buprenorphine pharmacy claims, we calculate monthly patient caseloads for buprenorphine prescribers for 6 years following a clinician's first filled buprenorphine prescription. We use K-means clustering to identify clusters of clinician caseload trajectories and bivariate analyses to examine prescriber and county characteristics associated with different trajectory classes. RESULTS: We identified 42,067 buprenorphine prescribers with 3 trajectory classes. High-volume (1.4%;n = 571) whose mean monthly patient caseload increased to approximately 40 patients through the initial 20 months and stabilized at 40 or more patients; moderate-volume (9.2%;n = 3891) whose mean patient caseload increased during the initial 20 months, stabilizing at 15-20 patients; and low-volume (89.4%;n = 37,605), who typically had fewer than 5 patients monthly. Most low-volume prescribers (n = 31,470; 83.7% of all prescribers) initially treated 1-2 patients for several months, followed by no subsequent prescribing. CONCLUSION: Almost three-quarters of buprenorphine prescribers treated no more than a few patients for several months before ceasing buprenorphine prescribing; only 10% of prescribers averaged more than 10 patients per month over the next 6 years. Efforts are needed to identify factors contributing to prescribers being willing to continue prescribing buprenorphine over time and to prescribe to more patients in order to increase access to buprenorphine treatment.

2.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 55, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving access to medication treatment of opioid use disorder (MOUD) is a national priority, yet common modifiable barriers (e.g., limited provider knowledge, negative beliefs about MOUD) often challenge implementation of MOUD delivery. To address these barriers, the VA launched a multifaceted implementation intervention focused on planning and educational strategies to increase MOUD delivery in 18 medical facilities. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a multifaceted intervention approach to increase MOUD delivery changed providers' perceptions about MOUD over the first year of implementation. METHODS: Cross-disciplinary teams of clinic providers and leadership from primary care, pain, and mental health clinics at 18 VA medical facilities received invitations to complete an anonymous, electronic survey prior to intervention launch (baseline) and at 12- month follow-up. Responses were summarized using descriptive statistics, and changes over time were compared using regression models adjusted for gender and prescriber status, and clustered on facility. Responses to open-ended questions were thematically analyzed using a template analysis approach. RESULTS: Survey response rates at baseline and follow-up were 57.1% (56/98) and 50.4% (61/121), respectively. At both time points, most respondents agreed that MOUD delivery is important (94.7 vs. 86.9%), lifesaving (92.8 vs. 88.5%) and evidence-based (85.2 vs. 89.5%). Over one-third (37.5%) viewed MOUD delivery as time-consuming, and only 53.7% affirmed that clinic providers wanted to prescribe MOUD at baseline; similar responses were seen at follow-up (34.5 and 52.4%, respectively). Respondents rated their knowledge about OUD, comfort discussing opioid use with patients, job satisfaction, ability to help patients with OUD, and support from colleagues favorably at both time points. Respondents' ratings of MOUD delivery filling a gap in care were high but declined significantly from baseline to follow-up (85.7 vs. 73.7%, p < 0.04). Open-ended responses identified implementation barriers including lack of support to diagnose and treat OUD and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: Although perceptions about MOUD generally were positive, targeted education and planning strategies did not improve providers' and clinical leaders' perceptions of MOUD over time. Strategies that improve leaders' prioritization and support of MOUD and address time constraints related to delivering MOUD may increase access to MOUD in non-substance use treatment clinics.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 108923, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of research has examined adjunctive interventions supportive of engagement and retention in treatment among patients receiving buprenorphine for opioid use disorder (OUD). We conducted a systematic review of the literature addressing the effect on key outcomes of adjunctive interventions provided alongside standard medical management of buprenorphine in outpatient settings. METHODS: We included prospective studies examining adults receiving buprenorphine paired with an adjunctive intervention for the treatment of OUD in an outpatient setting. Data sources included Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and PsycINFO from inception through January 2020. Two raters independently reviewed full-text articles, abstracted data and appraised risk of bias. Outcomes examined included abstinence, retention in treatment and non-addiction-related health outcomes. RESULTS: The final review includes 20 manuscripts, 11 randomized control trials (RCTs), three secondary analyses of RCTs and six observational studies. Most studies examined psychosocial interventions (n = 14). Few examined complementary therapies (e.g., yoga; n = 2) or technological interventions (e.g., electronic pill dispensation; n = 3); one study examined an intervention addressing structural barriers to care (patient navigators; n = 1). Low risk of bias RCTs found no evidence that adding psychosocial interventions to buprenorphine treatment improves substance use outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Research is needed to identify adjunctive interventions with potential to support medication adherence and addiction-related outcomes for patients engaged in buprenorphine treatment. Data from clinical trials suggest that lack of ready access to psychosocial treatments should not discourage clinicians from prescribing buprenorphine.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542779

RESUMO

The timeline followback (TLFB) takes more resources to collect than the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C). We assessed agreement of TLFB and AUDIT-C with the biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and compared changes in TLFB and PEth among persons with HIV (PWH) using secondary data from randomized trials. We calculated operating characteristics and agreement between TLFB (> 1 and > 2 average drinks/day), AUDIT-C ≥ 4 and PEth ≥ 20 among 275 men with HIV. Median age was 57 years, 80% were African-American; and 17% white. Sixty-eight percent had PEth ≥ 20, 46% reported > 2 average drinks/day on TLFB, 61% reported > 1 average drinks/day on TLFB, and 72% had an AUDIT-C ≥ 4. Relative to PEth, sensitivity for AUDIT-C ≥ 4 was 84% (kappa = 0.36), and for TLFB > 1 average drink/day was 76% (kappa = 0.44). Change in alcohol use appeared greater using TLFB measures than PEth. Strategies to robustly assess alcohol use in PWH may require both self-report and biomarkers.

5.
Subst Abus ; 42(3): 255-260, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524070

RESUMO

The U.S. opioid crisis necessitates that health care providers of all types work collaboratively to manage patients taking prescription opioid medications and manage those who may be misusing prescription opioids. Musculoskeletal conditions are the most common diagnoses associated with an opioid prescription. Physical therapists commonly manage patients with musculoskeletal conditions and chronic pain. Some patients who attend physical therapy for pain management take prescription opioid medications for pain and some of these patients may be misusing prescription opioids. Physical therapists who manage patients with musculoskeletal conditions are well-positioned to help address the opioid crisis. Historically, physical therapists have not been adequately engaged in efforts to manage persons with co-occurring musculoskeletal pain and opioid misuse or OUD. The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has emphasized physical therapy over the use of prescription opioids for the management of painful conditions. The APTA, however, does not highlight the important role that physical therapists could play in monitoring opioid use among patients receiving treatment for pain, nor the role that physical therapists should play in screening for opioid misuse. Such screening could facilitate referral of patients suspected misuse to an appropriate provider for formal assessment and treatment. This commentary presents simulated musculoskeletal patient presentations depicting 2 common opioid use states; chronic opioid use and opioid misuse. The cases highlight and interactions that physical therapists could have with these patients and actions that the physical therapist could take when working inter-disciplinarily. Recommendations are provided that aim to increase physical therapists' knowledge and skills related to managing patients taking prescription opioid medications for pain.

6.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495424

RESUMO

Although opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is associated with positive health outcomes, including improved HIV management, long-term retention in OAT remains low among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). Using data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), we identify variables independently associated with OAT retention overall and by HIV status. Among 7,334 patients with OUD, 13.7% initiated OAT, and 27.8% were retained 12-months later. Likelihood of initiation and retention did not vary by HIV status. Variables associated with improved likelihood of retention included receiving buprenorphine (relative to methadone), receiving both buprenorphine and methadone at some point over the 12-month period, or diagnosis of HCV. History of homelessness was associated with a lower likelihood of retention. Predictors of retention were largely distinct between patients with HIV and patients without HIV. Findings highlight the need for clinical, systems, and research initiatives to better understand and improve OAT retention.

7.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(3): 357-368, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unsheltered homelessness is a strongly debated public issue. The study objective is to identify personal and community characteristics associated with unsheltered homelessness in veterans and to test for interactions between these characteristics. METHODS: In a 2018 national survey of U.S. veterans with homeless experiences; investigators assessed unsheltered time; psychosocial characteristics; and community measures of shelter access, weather, and rental affordability. Associations between these characteristics and unsheltered status were tested in July-August 2020. This study also tested whether the count of personal risk factors interacted with community characteristics in predicting unsheltered status. RESULTS: Among 5,406 veterans, 481 (8.9%) reported ≥7 nights unsheltered over 6 months. This group was more likely to report criminal justice history, poor social support, medical and drug problems, financial hardship, and being unmarried. Their communities had poorer shelter access and warmer temperatures. The likelihood of unsheltered experience rose with risk factor count from 2.0% (0-1) to 8.4% (2-3) and to 24.2% (4-11). Interaction tests showed that the increase was greater for communities with warmer weather and higher rents (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among veterans experiencing homelessness, unsheltered experiences correlate with individual and community risk factors. Communities wishing to address unsheltered homelessness will need to consider action at both levels.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Veteranos , Habitação , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social
8.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 51, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is invested in expanding access to medication treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD) to save lives. Access varies across VHA facilities and, thus, requires implementation strategies to promote system-wide adoption of MOUD. We conducted a 12-month study employing external facilitation that targeted MOUD treatment among low-adopting VHA facilities. In this study, we sought to evaluate the patterns of perceived barriers over 1 year of external implementation facilitation using the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework. METHODS: We randomly selected eight VHA facilities from the bottom quartile of the proportion of Veterans with an OUD diagnosis receiving MOUD (< 21%). The 1-year external implementation intervention included developmental evaluation to tailor the facilitation, an on-site visit, and monthly facilitation calls. Facilitators recorded detailed notes for each call on a structured template. Qualitative data was analyzed by coding and mapping barriers to the constructs in the i-PARIHS framework (Innovation, Recipients, Context). We identified emerging themes within each construct by month. RESULTS: Barriers related to the Innovation, such as provider perception of the need for MOUD in their setting, were minimal throughout the 12-month study. Barriers related to Recipients were predominant and fluctuated over time. Recipient barriers were common during the initial months when providers did not have the training and waivers necessary to prescribe MOUD. Once additional providers (Recipients) were trained and waivered to prescribe MOUD, Recipient barriers dropped and then resurfaced as the facilities worked to expand MOUD prescribing to other clinics. Context barriers, such as restrictions on which clinics could prescribe MOUD and fragmented communication across clinics regarding the management of patients receiving MOUD, emerged more prominently in the middle of the study. CONCLUSIONS: VHA facilities participating in 12-month external facilitation interventions experienced fluctuations in barriers to MOUD prescribing with contextual barriers emerging after a facilitated reduction in recipient- level barriers. Adoption of MOUD prescribing in low-adopting VHA facilities requires continual reassessment, monitoring, and readjustment of implementation strategies over time to meet challenges. Although i-PARIHS was useful in categorizing most barriers, the lack of conceptual clarity was a concern for some constructs.

9.
Subst Abus ; : 1-9, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the US, prescription opioid medication misuse (POMM) necessitates engagement of physical therapists (PTs). We (1) evaluated the attitudes of (PT) related to their management of patients with POMM and (2) examined the association between these attitudes and PTs confidence in POMM-related management abilities and the frequency with which they engaged in POMM-related management practices. Methods: We conducted a national survey of PTs that included a modified Drug and Drug Problems Perception Questionnaire (DDPPQ). Confidence in POMM-related abilities and the frequency of engaging in POMM-related management practices were measured. Logistic regression evaluated the association between the DDPPQ subscales (role adequacy, role legitimacy, role self-esteem, role support, job satisfaction) and confidence and frequency outcomes. Results: The analysis included 402 respondents. Role adequacy and legitimacy subscales were associated with confidence and frequency outcomes (p<.05), indicating that more favorable role adequacy and legitimacy attitudes are associated with greater odds of having more confidence in POMM-related management abilities and of engaging in more frequent POMM-related management practices. Conclusions: PTs with a greater sense of preparedness to engage in POMM-related management were more likely to report greater confidence in POMM-related management abilities and engage in POMM-related management practices with greater frequency.

10.
J Addict Med ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282083

RESUMO

The opioid epidemic continues to affect pregnant women with opioid use disorder adversely in unique and enduring ways. The onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the necessary public health measures implemented to slow the transmission have increased barriers to care for these same women. This commentary explores the implications of these measures and discusses strategies we have developed to manage these challenges based on our work in a clinical trial providing patient navigation to pregnant mothers with OUD. We believe these solutions can be applied in medical, behavioral health, and research settings through the pandemic and beyond to increase the quality of care and resources to this vulnerable population.

11.
JAMA ; 326(2): 154-164, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255008

RESUMO

Importance: There is limited information about trends in the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) among Medicaid enrollees. Objective: To examine the use of medications for OUD and potential indicators of quality of care in multiple states. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory serial cross-sectional study of 1 024 301 Medicaid enrollees in 11 states aged 12 through 64 years (not eligible for Medicare) with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 or ICD-10) codes for OUD from 2014 through 2018. Each state used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between enrollee characteristics and outcome measure prevalence, subsequently pooled to generate global estimates using random effects meta-analyses. Exposures: Calendar year, demographic characteristics, eligibility groups, and comorbidities. Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of medications for OUD (buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone); potential indicators of good quality (OUD medication continuity for 180 days, behavioral health counseling, urine drug tests); potential indicators of poor quality (prescribing of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines). Results: In 2018, 41.7% of Medicaid enrollees with OUD were aged 21 through 34 years, 51.2% were female, 76.1% were non-Hispanic White, 50.7% were eligible through Medicaid expansion, and 50.6% had other substance use disorders. Prevalence of OUD increased in these 11 states from 3.3% (290 628 of 8 737 082) in 2014 to 5.0% (527 983 of 10 585 790) in 2018. The pooled prevalence of enrollees with OUD receiving medication treatment increased from 47.8% in 2014 (range across states, 35.3% to 74.5%) to 57.1% in 2018 (range, 45.7% to 71.7%). The overall prevalence of enrollees receiving 180 days of continuous medications for OUD did not significantly change from the 2014-2015 to 2017-2018 periods (-0.01 prevalence difference, 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.02) with state variability in trend (90% prediction interval, -0.08 to 0.06). Non-Hispanic Black enrollees had lower OUD medication use than White enrollees (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.81; P < .001; 90% prediction interval, 0.52 to 1.00). Pregnant women had higher use of OUD medications (PR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25; P < .001; 90% prediction interval, 1.01-1.38) and medication continuity (PR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.17, P < .001; 90% prediction interval, 1.06-1.22) than did other eligibility groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among US Medicaid enrollees in 11 states, the prevalence of medication use for treatment of opioid use disorder increased from 2014 through 2018. The pattern in other states requires further research.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 132: 108509, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons with HIV (PWH) and opioid use disorder (OUD) can have poor health outcomes. We assessed whether intensity of behavioral treatment for OUD (BOUD) with and without medication for OUD (MOUD) is associated with improved HIV clinical outcomes. METHODS: We used Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) data from 2008 to 2017 to identify PWH and OUD with ≥1 BOUD episode. We assessed BOUD intensity and ≥6 months of MOUD (methadone or buprenorphine) receipt during the 12 months after BOUD initiation. Linear regression models assessed the association of BOUD intensity and MOUD receipt with pre-post changes in log viral load (VL), CD4 cell count, VACS Index 2.0, antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, and ART adherence. RESULTS: Among 2419 PWH who initiated BOUD, we identified five distinct BOUD intensity trajectories: single visit (39% of sample); low-intensity, not sustained (37%); high-intensity, not sustained (9%); low-intensity, sustained (11%); and high-intensity, sustained (5%). MOUD receipt was low (17%). Among 709 PWH not on ART at the start of BOUD, ART initiation increased with increased BOUD intensity (p < 0.01). Among 1401 PWH on ART at the start of BOUD, ART adherence improved more in higher-intensity BOUD groups (p < 0.01). VL, CD4 count and VACS Index 2.0 did not differ by BOUD or ≥6 months of MOUD treatment. CONCLUSION: Among PWH and OUD who initiated BOUD, higher intensity BOUD was associated with improved ART initiation and adherence, but neither BOUD alone nor BOUD plus ≥6 months MOUD was associated with improvements in VL, CD4 count or VACS Index 2.0.

14.
J Addict Med ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited information is available regarding provider- and patient panel-level factors associated with primary care provider (PCP) adoption/prescribing of medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD). METHODS: We assessed a retrospective cohort from 2015 to 2018 within the Pennsylvania Medicaid Program. Participants included PCPs who were Medicaid providers, with no history of MOUD provision, and who treated ≥10 Medicaid enrollees annually. We assessed initial MOUD adoption, defined as an index buprenorphine/buprenorphine-naloxone or oral/extended release naltrexone fill and sustained prescribing, defined as ≥1 MOUD prescription(s) for 3 consecutive quarters from the PCP. Independent variables included provider- and patient panel-level characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 113 rural and 782 urban PCPs who engaged in initial adoption and 36 rural and 288 urban PCPs who engaged in sustained prescribing. Rural/urban PCPs who issued increasingly larger numbers of antidepressant and antipsychotic medication prescriptions had greater odds of initial adoption and sustained prescribing (P < 0.05) compared to those that did not prescribe these medications. Further, each additional patient out of 100 with opioid use disorder diagnosed before MOUD adoption increased the adjusted odds for initial adoption 2% to 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.08) and sustained prescribing by 4% to 7% (95% CI = 1.01-1.08). New Medicaid providers in rural areas were 2.52 (95% CI = 1.04-6.11) and in urban areas were 2.66 (95% CI = 1.94, 3.64) more likely to engage in initial MOUD adoption compared to established PCPs. CONCLUSIONS: MOUD prescribing adoption was concentrated among PCPs prescribing mental health medications, caring for those with OUD, and new Medicaid providers. These results should be leveraged to test/implement interventions targeting MOUD adoption among PCPs.

15.
J Addict Med ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Buprenorphine is a gold standard treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Some US states have passed laws regulating office-based buprenorphine treatment (OBBT) for OUD, with requirements beyond those required in federal law. We sought to identify themes in state OBBT laws. METHODS: Using search terms related to medications for OUD, we searched Westlaw software for state regulations and statutes in 51 US jurisdictions from 2005 to 2019. We identified and inductively analyzed OBBT laws for themes. RESULTS: Since 2005, 10 states have passed a total of 181 OBBT laws. We identified the following themes: (1) provider credentials: state licensure for OBBT providers and continuing medical education requirements; (2) new patients: objective symptoms patients must have before receiving OBBT and exceptions for special populations; (3) educating patients: general informed consent requirements, and specific information to provide; (4) counseling: minimum counselor credentials, minimum counseling frequency, counseling alternatives; (5) patient monitoring: required prescription drug monitoring checks, frequency of drug screening, and responses to lost/stolen medications; (6) enhanced clinician monitoring: evidence-based treatment protocols, minimum clinician-patient contact frequency, health assessment requirements, and individualized treatment planning; and (7) patient safety: reconciling prescriptions, dosage limitations, naloxone coprescribing, tapering, and office closures. CONCLUSIONS: Some laws codify practices for which scientific consensus is lacking. Additionally, some OBBT laws resemble opioid treatment programs and pain management regulations. Results could serve as the basis for a typology of office-based treatment laws, which could facilitate empirical examination of policy impacts on treatment access and quality.

16.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 47(4): 486-496, 2021 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909518

RESUMO

Background: Limited research has examined how states have changed policies for treatment of substance use disorder (SUD) during the COVID-19 pandemic.Objectives: We aimed to identify themes in state policy responses to the pandemic in the context of SUD treatment. Identifying themes in policy responses provides a framework for subsequent evaluations of the relationship between state policies and health service utilization.Methods: Between May and June 2020, we searched all Single State Agencies for Substance Abuse Services (SSA) websites for statements of SUD treatment policy responses to the pandemic. We conducted Iterative Categorization of policies for outpatient programs, opioid treatment programs, and other treatment settings to identify themes in policy responses.Results: We collected 220 documents from SSA websites from 45 states and Washington D.C. Eight specific themes emerged from our content analysis: delivery of pharmacological and non-pharmacological services, obtaining informed consent and documentation for remote services, conducting health assessments, facility operating procedures and staffing requirements, and permissible telehealth technology and billing protocols. Policy changes often mirrored federal guidance, for instance, by expanding methadone take-home options for opioid treatment programs. The extent and nature of policy changes varied across jurisdictions, including telehealth technology requirements and staffing flexibility.Conclusion: States have made significant policy changes to SUD treatment policies during COVID-19, particularly regarding telehealth and facilitation of remote care. Understanding these changes could help policymakers prioritize guidance during the pandemic and for future health crises. Impacts of policies on disparate treatment populations, including those with limited technological access, should be considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Política de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Governo Estadual , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Governo Federal , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina
17.
Subst Abus ; 42(2): 153-157, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798034

RESUMO

Buprenorphine is one of the gold standard medication treatments for opioid use disorder (OUD), with proven effectiveness in preventing overdose, increasing abstinence, and improving quality of life. In the United States, buprenorphine can be legally prescribed and administered in office-based settings from clinicians who are specially credentialed to provide that care under the X-waiver. We believe the X-waiver will ultimately be repealed, but there is a need for a variety of strategies to create a new treatment system after the X-waiver. Building a new tier of treatment capacity will require educational outreach, systems strategies, and enhanced payments.

18.
Med Care ; 59(6): 495-503, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 1 million Americans receive primary care from federal homeless health care programs yearly. Vulnerabilities that can make care challenging include pain, addiction, psychological distress, and a lack of shelter. Research on the effectiveness of tailoring services for this population is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine whether homeless-tailored primary care programs offer a superior patient experience compared with nontailored ("mainstream") programs overall, and for highly vulnerable patients. RESEARCH DESIGN: National patient survey comparing 26 US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers' homeless-tailored primary care ("H-PACT"s) to mainstream primary care ("mainstream PACT"s) at the same locations. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5766 homeless-experienced veterans. MEASURES: Primary care experience on 4 scales: Patient-Clinician Relationship, Cooperation, Accessibility/Coordination, and Homeless-Specific Needs. Mean scores (range: 1-4) were calculated and dichotomized as unfavorable versus not. We counted key vulnerabilities (chronic pain, unsheltered homelessness, severe psychological distress, and history of overdose, 0-4), and categorized homeless-experienced veterans as having fewer (≤1) and more (≥2) vulnerabilities. RESULTS: H-PACTs outscored mainstream PACTs on all scales (all P<0.001). Unfavorable care experiences were more common in mainstream PACTs compared with H-PACTs, with adjusted risk differences of 11.9% (95% CI=6.3-17.4), 12.6% (6.2-19.1), 11.7% (6.0-17.3), and 12.6% (6.2-19.1) for Relationship, Cooperation, Access/Coordination, and Homeless-Specific Needs, respectively. For the Relationship and Cooperation scales, H-PACTs were associated with a greater reduction in unfavorable experience for patients with ≥2 vulnerabilities versus ≤1 (interaction P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Organizations that offer primary care for persons experiencing homelessness can improve the primary care experience by tailoring the design and delivery of services.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Crônica , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , Veteranos/psicologia
19.
Med Care ; 59(6): 504-512, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiatives to expand Veterans' access to purchased health care outside Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities ("community care") present care coordination challenges for Veterans experiencing homelessness. OBJECTIVE: Among Veterans with homeless experiences, to evaluate community care use and satisfaction, and compare perceptions of care coordination among Veterans using VHA services and community care to those using VHA services without community care. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of responses to a 2018 mailed survey. SUBJECTS: VHA outpatients with homeless experiences. MEASURES: Self-reported use of community care, Likert-style ratings of satisfaction with that care, and Access/Coordination experiences from the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) survey. RESULTS: Of 4777 respondents, 1325 (26.7%) reported using community care; most of this subsample affirmed satisfaction with the community care they received (83%) and its timeliness (75%). After covariate adjustment, Veteran characteristics associated with greater community care use included female sex, being of retirement age and nonmarried, and having higher education, more financial hardship, ≥3 chronic conditions, psychological distress, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Satisfaction with community care was lower among patients with travel barriers, psychological distress, and less social support. Compared with those using the VHA without community care, Veterans using VHA services and community care were more likely to report unfavorable access/coordination experiences [odds ratio (OR)=1.34, confidence interval (CI)=1.15-1.57]. This included hassles following referral (OR=1.37, CI=1.14-1.65) and perceived delays in receiving health care (OR=1.38, CI=1.19-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: Veterans with homeless experiences value community care options. Potential access benefits are balanced with risks of unfavorable coordination experiences for vulnerable Veterans with limited resources.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108633, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many persons with opioid use disorder (OUD) initiate medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) with one clinic and switch to another clinic during their course of treatment. These switches may occur for referrals or for unplanned reasons. It is unknown, however, what effect switching MOUD clinics has on continuity of MOUD treatment or on overdoses. OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of switching MOUD clinics and its association with the proportion of days covered (PDC) by MOUD, and opioid-related overdose. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective analysis of Pennsylvania Medicaid claims data. MAIN MEASURES: MOUD clinic switches (i.e., filling a MOUD prescription from a prescriber located in a different clinic than the previous prescriber), PDC, and opioid-related overdose. RESULTS: Among 14,107 enrollees, 43.2 % switched clinics for MOUD at least once during the 270 day period. In multivariate regression results, enrollees who were Non-Hispanic black (IRR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.65; p < 0.001), had previous methadone use (IRR = 1.32; 95 % CI = 1.13-1.55; p < 0.001), and a higher total number of office visits (IRR = 1.01; CI = 1.01-1.01; p < 0.001) had more switches. The number of clinic switches was positively associated with PDC (OR = 1.12; 95 % CI = 1.10-1.13). In secondary analyses, we found that switches for only one MOUD fill were associated with lower PDC (OR = 0.97; 95 % CI = 0.95-0.99), while switches for more than one MOUD fill were associated with higher PDC (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI = 1.36-1.44). We did not observe a relationship between opioid-related overdose and clinic switches. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of prescriber continuity for receiving MOUD may not be problematic as it is for other conditions, insofar as it is related to overdose and PDC.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Overdose de Opiáceos/epidemiologia , Overdose de Opiáceos/etiologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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