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1.
Med J Aust ; 213(2): 79-85, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To prepare more accurate population-based Australian birthweight centile charts by using the most recent population data available and by excluding pre-term deliveries by obstetric intervention of small for gestational age babies. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study. SETTING: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal Data Collection. PARTICIPANTS: All singleton births in Australia of 23-42 completed weeks' gestation and with spontaneous onset of labour, 2004-2013. Births initiated by obstetric intervention were excluded to minimise the influence of decisions to deliver small for gestational age babies before term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Birthweight centile curves, by gestational age and sex. RESULTS: Gestational age, birthweight, sex, and labour onset data were available for 2 807 051 singleton live births; onset of labour was spontaneous for 1 582 137 births (56.4%). At pre-term gestational ages, the 10th centile was higher than the corresponding centile in previous Australian birthweight charts based upon all births. CONCLUSION: Current birthweight centile charts probably underestimate the incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction because obstetric interventions for delivering pre-term small for gestational age babies depress the curves at earlier gestational ages. Our curves circumvent this problem by excluding intervention-initiated births; they also incorporate more recent population data. These updated centile curves could facilitate more accurate diagnosis of small for gestational age babies in Australia.

2.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594793

RESUMO

Introduction: The fetus that fails to meet its ideal growth trajectory has increased risks of poor health outcomes throughout life. "Gold standard" methods of anthropometric assessment such as measurement of percentage body fat can be difficult to apply across populations and other biomarkers such as serum concentration of umbilical cord blood leptin may be more effective for screening. This study reports cord blood leptin levels in a large prospective consecutive birth cohort and assesses the relationship between leptin and neonatal and maternal factors.Methods: Venous umbilical cord blood samples were collected from a prospective consecutive cohort of pregnancies at the time of delivery. Maternal and neonatal characteristics and details of delivery were collated. Serum leptin levels were measured, associations with demographic features were identified, and a normal range was established. The association between cord leptin level and neonatal outcome was tested.Results: Umbilical cord leptin and maternal and neonatal characteristics were collected at 1275 births. The median leptin value was 10.8 ng/ml (IQR: 6.4, 17.8 ng/ml). Log10 leptin was significantly associated with gestation at delivery, birthweight (BWt), infant sex, plurality, and maternal body mass index (BMI) (p < .001). Observed leptin values were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM). The mean leptin MoM was significantly lower in infants admitted to NICU following delivery (0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-0.91 versus 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06 (controls), p < .001). There was no significant association between leptin MoM values and 5-min Apgar scores.Conclusions: Neonatal cord leptin levels are influenced by a number of maternal and fetal characteristics. Absolute levels can be adjusted to account for normal population variation. Infants requiring admission to NICU have lower mean leptin MoM levels. Further studies are needed to see whether the identification of fetuses with polarized leptin levels (<5th or >95th centile) will benefit from further surveillance or intervention in infancy.

3.
Enferm Clin ; 30 Suppl 4: 66-70, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review addressed recent knowledge about the association of the infant gut microbiome with postnatal growth. METHODS: This was a narrative review using sources from Medline and Scopus databases. The key terms such as microbiome ((infant gut microbiome OR gut microbiota OR intestinal microbiome OR intestinal microbiota) AND growth (stunting OR growth faltering OR growth impairment OR malnutrition OR malnourished)) were used. From 51 studies identified in the search stage, 13 studies are eligible for inclusion in this review. RESULTS: The included studies demonstrate the potential pathways of the gut microbiome in relation to growth. Microbiota in neonate's gut may have the ability to regulate somatotropic axis activity that can maintain growth, inducing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production. Besides, the gut microbiota is the key to increasing nutrients absorption that is essential to support tissue formations. Microbes in the intestine can also interact with the host's immune system protecting the barrier system to defend against the invasion of the pathogenic bacteria from the outside environment. CONCLUSIONS: Microbes-host interactions may have a potential association with postnatal growth, although studies showing the causality are limited. Further studies observing the effect of the gut microbial colonization on infant growth is necessary.

4.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(6): 444-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very low birthweight or preterm infants are at increased risk of adverse outcomes including sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis, and death. We assessed whether supplementing the enteral diet of very low-birthweight infants with lactoferrin, an antimicrobial protein, reduces all-cause mortality or major morbidity. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, pragmatic, randomised superiority trial in 14 Australian and two New Zealand neonatal intensive care units. Infants born weighing less than 1500 g and aged less than 8 days, were eligible and randomly assigned (1:1) using minimising web-based randomisation to receive once daily 200 mg/kg pasteurised bovine lactoferrin supplements or no lactoferrin supplement added to breast or formula milk until 34 weeks' post-menstrual age (or for 2 weeks, if longer), or until discharge from the study hospital if that occurred first. Designated nurses preparing the daily feeds were not masked to group assignment, but other nurses, doctors, parents, caregivers, and investigators were unaware. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge or major morbidity (defined as brain injury, necrotising enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis at 36 weeks' post-menstrual age, or retinopathy treated before discharge) assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were by treatment received. We also did a prespecified, PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis, which included this study and other relevant randomised controlled trials, to estimate more precisely the effects of lactoferrin supplementation on late-onset sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis, and survival. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000247976. FINDINGS: Between June 27, 2014, and Sept 1, 2017, we recruited 1542 infants; 771 were assigned to the intervention group and 771 to the control group. One infant who had consent withdrawn before beginning lactoferrin treatment was excluded from analysis. In-hospital death or major morbidity occurred in 162 (21%) of 770 infants in the intervention group and in 170 (22%) of 771 infants in the control group (relative risk [RR] 0·95, 95% CI 0·79-1·14; p=0·60). Three suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions occurred; two in the lactoferrin group, namely unexplained late jaundice and inspissated milk syndrome, but were not attributed to the intervention and one in the control group had fatal inspissated milk syndrome. Our meta-analysis identified 13 trials completed before Feb 18, 2020, including this Article, in 5609 preterm infants. Lactoferrin supplements significantly reduced late-onset sepsis (RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·71-0·88; p<0·0001; I2=58%), but not necrotising enterocolitis or all-cause mortality. INTERPRETATION: Lactoferrin supplementation did not improve death or major morbidity in this trial, but might reduce late-onset sepsis, as found in our meta-analysis of over 5000 infants. Future collaborative studies should use products with demonstrated biological activity, be large enough to detect moderate and clinically important effects reliably, and assess greater doses of lactoferrin in infants at increased risk, such as those not exclusively receiving breastmilk or infants of extremely low birthweight. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

6.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birthweight is the most commonly used proxy marker but does not adequately define true nutritional status. Modalities like DXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and TOtal Body Electric Conductivity (TOBEC) have been validated to assess body composition but their accuracy in neonates has not been established. The PEAPOD (COSMED, Rome Italy) has been validated as an accurate tool for measuring percentage body fat (%BF) in newborns. The study aim was to determine the gender-specific %BF percentiles at different gestations (35-41 weeks) for a healthy population of newborn infants. A secondary aim was to determine whether there is any relationship between %BF and neonatal condition at birth (cord gas measurement). METHODS: %BF was measured using air displacement plethysmography (PEAPOD) within 6 h of birth. RESULTS: There is an increase in the mean %BF with increasing gestation for female and males from 36 weeks' gestation in the 7667 infants who underwent assessment. Females have a higher %BF than their male equivalents. There was no correlation between %BF and cord pH. CONCLUSION: Gender and gestation are both important in determining the quantiles and mean %BF at birth. There was no correlation between low cord pH and %BF. IMPACT: Measuring the percentage body fat (PEAPOD) at birth is a useful marker of an infant's nutritional status.This is the largest hospital-based cohort of gestational age and gender-specific %BF in healthy newborns.The normative graphs from this study will help to accurately determine high-risk infants with low %BF so they can be monitored appropriately.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) affects up to one third of women during late pregnancy and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including hypertension, diabetes, impaired fetal growth, and preterm birth. However, it is unclear if SDB is associated with late stillbirth (≥28 weeks' gestation). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of SDB and late stillbirth. METHODS: Data were obtained from five case-control studies (cases 851, controls 2257) from New Zealand (2 studies), Australia, the United Kingdom, and an international study. This was a secondary analysis of an individual participant data meta-analysis that investigated maternal going-to-sleep position and late stillbirth, with a one-stage approach stratified by study and site. Inclusion criteria: singleton, non-anomalous pregnancy, ≥28 weeks' gestation. Sleep data ('any' snoring, habitual snoring ≥3 nights per week, the Berlin Questionnaire [BQ], sleep quality, sleep duration, restless sleep, daytime sleepiness, and daytime naps) were collected by self-report for the month before stillbirth. Multivariable analysis adjusted for known major risk factors for stillbirth, including maternal age, body mass index (BMI kg/m2), ethnicity, parity, education, marital status, pre-existing hypertension and diabetes, smoking, recreational drug use, baby birthweight centile, fetal movement, supine going-to-sleep position, getting up to use the toilet, measures of SDB and maternal sleep patterns significant in univariable analysis (habitual snoring, the BQ, sleep duration, restless sleep, and daytime naps). Registration number: PROSPERO, CRD42017047703. RESULTS: In the last month, a positive BQ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.04), sleep duration >9 hours (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90), daily daytime naps (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.28) and restless sleep greater than average (aOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88) were independently related to the odds of late stillbirth. 'Any' snoring, habitual snoring, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and a positive BQ excluding the BMI criterion, were not associated. CONCLUSION: A positive BQ, long sleep duration >9 hours, and daily daytime naps last month were associated with increased odds of late stillbirth, while sleep that is more restless than average was associated with reduced odds. Pregnant women may be reassured that the commonly reported restless sleep of late pregnancy may be physiological and associated with a reduced risk of late stillbirth.


Assuntos
Mães , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Sono , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos
8.
Women Birth ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low health literacy has been associated with worse health outcomes, but little is known about the effectiveness of health literacy interventions developed for pregnant women. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of health literacy interventions on pregnancy outcomes through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Randomised controlled trials that assessed health literacy interventions designed to improve pregnancy outcomes were included. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018094958). FINDINGS: Of the 1512 records initially identified, 13 studies were included. Three reported on decision-aid interventions, six on face-to-face interventions and four on written interventions (including computer-based interventions or information leaflets). The primary outcomes of interest for this systematic review were knowledge (10/13 studies) and health literacy (2/13 studies) with one study not reporting either primary outcome. A significant improvement in knowledge was found across the 10 studies, however the two studies which measured health literacy only assessed health literacy at a single time-point. Secondary outcomes including health behaviours, fetal outcomes and health-service utilisation were reported in 11 studies, with inconsistent results. DISCUSSION: Few health literacy interventions have been developed specifically for pregnant women. Although health literacy interventions have the potential to improve knowledge and pregnancy outcomes, current evidence is limited by inconsistent outcomes and measurement, and limited use of health literacy theory to inform intervention design and content. Few studies directly measured health literacy. CONCLUSION: More research is needed to properly assess the effect of health literacy interventions on pregnancy outcomes. This research should include consideration of health literacy theory in the development of the interventions.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 555-561, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic aging is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality and may be a mechanistic link between early-life exposures, such as maternal dietary characteristics during pregnancy, and risk of adult disease. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the early-life risk factors for newborn epigenetic aging, specifically maternal dietary macronutrient intake, and whether epigenetic aging is associated with cardiovascular health markers in the newborn. METHODS: Epigenetic age acceleration of 169 newborns was measured from saliva using the Horvath age calculator. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: Newborns with positive age acceleration were more likely to be female and have greater body fatness. Maternal intakes of saturated fat [6.2 wk epigenetic age acceleration (95% CI: 1.0, 11.3) per 5% of energy; P = 0.02] and monounsaturated fat [12.4 wk (95% CI: 4.2, 20.5) per 5% of energy; P = 0.003] were associated with higher epigenetic age acceleration in the newborn. The strongest association of individual fatty acids were for palmitoleic acid (25.3 wk; 95% CI: 11.4, 39.2; P = 0.0004), oleic acid (2.2 wk; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.6; P = 0.002), and palmitic acid (2.9 wk; 95% CI: 1.0, 4.9; P = 0.004) per 1% of energy intake. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with lower epigenetic age acceleration (-8.1 wk; 95% CI: -14.5, -1.7; P = 0.01). Epigenetic age acceleration was associated with aortic intima-media thickness in preterm infants [1.0 µm (95% CI: 0.2, 1.8) per week of epigenetic age acceleration; P = 0.01], but not among those born at term (P = 0.78). Epigenetic age acceleration was not associated with heart rate variability in either preterm or term born infants (both P > 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of maternal dietary characteristics that are associated with epigenetic aging in the offspring. Prospective intervention studies are required to determine whether such associations are causal.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez/metabolismo , Adulto , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Ingestão de Energia , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 56(2): 224-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392795

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of this study was to assess whether maternal characteristics, placental size or histological chorioamnionitis was associated with newborn body composition. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether placental weight may mediate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and age with newborn body composition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. This study included 136 healthy, singleton, term-born newborns. Recruitment was stratified by newborn body fat percentiles (gender and gestational adjusted). Body fat was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Placental examination was conducted by an anatomical pathologist. Maternal (chorioamnionitis) and fetal (chorionic and umbilical vasculitis, funisitis) inflammatory responses were classified according to Redline criteria. RESULTS: Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, parity, labour, placental weight and surface area were associated with newborn fat mass and fat-free mass. Gestational diabetes and maternal age were associated with newborn fat mass but not fat-free mass. There was no association between histological chorioamnionitis and newborn body composition; however, spontaneous onset of labour was strongly associated with the presence of histological chorioamnionitis. Only 25-31% of the association of maternal weight and age with newborn fat mass was mediated via the placenta. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal factors associated with newborn fat mass and fat-free mass differed, indicating that different mechanisms control fat mass and fat-free mass. Our mediation analysis suggests that placental weight partly mediates the association of maternal factors with newborn body composition. Histological chorioamnionitis was not associated with newborn body composition.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912614, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577362

RESUMO

Importance: Supine maternal position in the third trimester is associated with reduced uterine blood flow and increased risk of late stillbirth. As reduced uterine blood flow is also associated with fetal growth restriction, this study explored the association between the position in which pregnant women went to sleep and infant birth weight. Objective: To examine the association between supine position when going to sleep in women after 28 weeks of pregnancy and lower birth weight and birth weight centiles. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prespecified subgroup analysis using data from controls in an individual participant data meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies investigating sleep and stillbirth in New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Participants were women with ongoing pregnancies at 28 weeks' gestation or more at interview. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was adjusted mean difference (aMD) in birth weight. Secondary outcomes were birth weight centiles (INTERGROWTH-21st and customized) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for birth weight less than 50th and less than 10th centile (small for gestational age) for supine vs nonsupine going-to-sleep position in the last 1 to 4 weeks, adjusted for variables known to be associated with birth size. Results: Of 1760 women (mean [SD] age, 30.25 [5.46] years), 57 (3.2%) reported they usually went to sleep supine during the previous 1 to 4 weeks. Adjusted mean (SE) birth weight was 3410 (112) g among women who reported supine position and 3554 (98) g among women who reported nonsupine position (aMD, 144 g; 95% CI, -253 to -36 g; P = .009), representing an approximate 10-percentile reduction in adjusted mean INTERGROWTH-21st (48.5 vs 58.6; aMD, -10.1; 95% CI, -17.1 to -3.1) and customized (40.7 vs 49.7; aMD, -9.0; 95% CI, -16.6 to -1.4) centiles. There was a nonsignificant increase in birth weight at less than the 50th INTERGROWTH-21st centile (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.83-4.34) and a 2-fold increase in birth weight at less than the 50th customized centile (aOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.20-3.76). Going to sleep supine was associated with a 3-fold increase in small for gestational age birth weight by INTERGROWTH-21st standards (aOR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.37-7.59) and a nonsignificant increase in small for gestational age birth weight customized standards (aOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.77-3.44). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that going to sleep in a supine position in late pregnancy was independently associated with reduced birth weight and birth weight centile. This novel association is biologically plausible and likely modifiable. Public health campaigns that encourage women in the third trimester of pregnancy to settle to sleep on their side have potential to optimize birth weight.

14.
Physiol Rep ; 7(17): e14227, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515958

RESUMO

Maternal obesity during pregnancy has a detrimental impact on offspring renal development and function. This is pertinent to Indigenous Australians as they are twice as likely as non-Indigenous Australians to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an association between maternal adiposity and fetal kidney growth in late gestation (>28 weeks) and kidney function in infants, <2.5 years of age, from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was recorded at the first prenatal visit and maternal adiposity indicators (percent body fat and visceral fat area) measured at >28 weeks gestation by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal kidney structure was assessed by ultrasound. Renal function indicators (urinary albumin:creatinine and protein:creatinine) were measured in infants from a spot urine collection from nappies. Multiple linear regression and multi-level mixed effects linear regression models with clustering were used to account for repeated measures of urine. 147 mother-child pairs were examined. Estimated fetal weight (EFW), but not fetal kidney size, was positively associated with maternal adiposity and pre-pregnancy BMI. When adjusted for smoking, combined kidney volume relative to EFW was negatively associated with maternal percentage body fat. Infant kidney function was not influenced by maternal adiposity and pre-pregnancy BMI (n = 84 observations). Current findings show that Indigenous babies born to obese mothers have reduced kidney size relative to EFW. We suggest that these babies are experiencing a degree of glomerular hyperfiltration in utero, and therefore are at risk of developing CKD in later life, especially if their propensity for obesity is maintained. Although no impact on renal function was observed at <2.5 years of age, long-term follow-up of offspring is required to evaluate potential later life impacts.

15.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 33(6): 421-432, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternity populations are becoming increasingly multiethnic. Conflicting findings exist regarding the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among immigrant mothers from different world regions and which growth charts are most appropriate for identifying the risk of adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether infant mortality and morbidity, and the categorisation of infants as small for gestational age or large for gestational age (SGA or LGA) vary by maternal country of birth, and to assess whether the choice of growth chart alters the risk of adverse outcomes in infants categorised as SGA and LGA. METHODS: A population cohort of 601 299 singleton infants born in Australia to immigrant mothers was compared with 1.7 million infants born to Australian-born mothers, 2004-2013. Infants were categorised as SGA and LGA according to a descriptive Australian population-based birthweight chart (Australia-2012 reference) and the prescriptive INTERGROWTH-21st growth standard. Propensity score reweighting was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Compared to Australian-born infants, infants of mothers from Africa, Philippines, India, other Asia countries, and the Middle East had between 15.4% and 48.1% elevated risk for stillbirth, preterm delivery, or low Apgar score. The association between SGA and LGA and perinatal mortality varied markedly by growth chart and country of birth. Notably, SGA infants from African-born mothers had a relative risk of perinatal mortality of 6.1 (95% CI 4.3, 6.7) and 17.3 (95% CI 12.0, 25.0) by the descriptive and prescriptive charts, respectively. LGA infants born to Australian-born mothers were associated with a 10% elevated risk of perinatal mortality by the descriptive chart compared to a 15% risk reduction by the prescriptive chart. CONCLUSIONS: Country-of-birth-specific variations are becoming increasingly important for providing ethnically appropriate and safe maternity care. Our findings highlight significant variations in risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in immigrant subgroups, and demonstrate how the choice of growth chart alters the quantification of risk associated with being born SGA or LGA.

16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012544, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common medical condition that complicates pregnancy and causes adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. At present, most treatment strategies focus on normalisation of maternal blood glucose values with use of diet, lifestyle modification, exercise, oral anti-hyperglycaemics and insulin. This has been shown to reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes, such as birth trauma and macrosomia. However, this involves intensive monitoring and treatment of all women with GDM. We propose that using medical imaging to identify pregnancies displaying signs of being affected by GDM could help to target management, allowing low-risk women to be spared excessive intervention, and facilitating better resource allocation. OBJECTIVES: We wanted to address the following question: in women with gestational diabetes, does the use of fetal imaging plus maternal blood glucose concentration to indicate the need for medical management compared with glucose concentration alone reduce the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes? SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (29 January 2019), ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (both on 29 January 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, including those published in abstract form only. Studies using a cluster-randomised design and quasi-randomised controlled trials were both eligible for inclusion, but we didn't identify any. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion in our review.We included women carrying singleton pregnancies who were diagnosed with GDM, as defined by the trials' authors. The intervention of interest was the use of fetal biometry on imaging methods in addition to maternal glycaemic values for indicating the use of medical therapy for GDM. The control group was the use of maternal glycaemic values alone for indicating the use of such therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: Three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for our systematic review - the studies randomised a total of 524 women.We assessed the three included studies as being at a low to moderate risk of bias; the nature of the intervention made it difficult to achieve blinding of participants and personnel and none of the trial reports contained information about methods of allocation concealment (and were therefore assessed as being at an unclear risk of selection bias).In all studies, the intervention was the use of fetal biometry on ultrasound to identify fetuses displaying signs of fetal macrosomia, and the use of this information to indicate the use of medical anti-hyperglycaemic treatments. Those pregnancies were subject to more stringent blood glucose targets than those without signs of fetal macrosomia.Maternal outcomesThe use of fetal biometry in addition to maternal blood glucose concentration (compared with maternal blood glucose concentration alone) may make little or no difference to the incidence of caesarean delivery (risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.10; 2 trials, 428 women; low-certainty evidence). We are unclear about the results for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.89; 2 trials, 325 women) due to very low-certainty evidence. The included trials did not report on development of type 2 diabetes in the mother or maternal hypoglycaemia.Fetal and neonatal outcomesThe use of fetal biometry may make little or no difference to the incidence of neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.42; 3 trials, 524 women; low-certainty evidence). Very low-certainty evidence means that we are unclear about the results for large-for-gestational age (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.74; 3 trials, 524 women); shoulder dystocia (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.98; 1 trial, 96 women); a composite measure of perinatal morbidity or mortality (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.21 to 4.71; 1 study, 96 women); or perinatal mortality (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.98; 1 trial, 96 women). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review is based on evidence from three trials involving 524 women. The trials did not report some important outcomes of interest to this review, and the majority of our secondary outcomes were also unreported. The available evidence ranged from low- to very low-certainty, with downgrading decisions based on limitations in study design, imprecision and inconsistency.There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the use of fetal biometry (in addition to maternal blood glucose concentration values) to assist in guiding the medical management of GDM, on either maternal or perinatal health outcomes, or the associated costs.More research is required, ideally larger randomised studies which report the maternal and infant short- and long-term outcomes listed in this review, as well as those outcomes relating to financial and resource implications.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Macrossomia Fetal/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 59(6): 791-798, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induction of labour is associated with a reduction in caesarean delivery, but the mechanism of action and which groups of women might benefit remain unknown. AIMS: To assess the association between induction of labour at 38-39 weeks pregnancy, and caesarean delivery: (i) overall; (ii) for slow progress in labour; and (iii) for suspected fetal compromise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study in two Sydney hospitals from 2009 to 2016, among nulliparous women with induction of labour at 38 or 39 completed weeks pregnancy and a singleton, cephalic presenting fetus. The comparator was all planned vaginal births beyond 39(+1/7) weeks, whether or not labour was induced. Binary and multinomial multiple logistic regressions adjusting for multiple confounders were performed. RESULTS: There were 2388 and 15 259 women in the study and comparison groups respectively. Induction of labour was associated with caesarean delivery overall only for women <25 years of age (adjusted odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.17-2.27) and was not associated with caesarean delivery for slow progress. Induction of labour was positively associated with increased caesarean delivery for suspected fetal compromise among young women (<30 years), with the association weakening as maternal age increased. The association between induction of labour and caesarean delivery was different for slow progress compared with suspected compromise (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Induction of labour has different effects on the likelihood of caesarean delivery for slow progress and for suspected fetal compromise. Women <30 years of age are at higher risk of caesarean delivery for suspected fetal compromise, potentially due to uterine hyperstimulation.

18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 10: 49-57, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193832

RESUMO

Background: Maternal supine going-to-sleep position has been associated with increased risk of late stillbirth (≥ 28 weeks), but it is unknown if the risk differs between right and left side, and if some pregnancies are more vulnerable. Methods: Systematic searches were undertaken for an individual-level participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of case-control studies, prospective cohort studies and randomised trials undertaken up until 26 Jan, 2018, that reported data on maternal going-to-sleep position and stillbirth. Participant inclusion criteria included gestation ≥ 28 weeks', non-anomalous, singleton pregnancies. The primary outcome was stillbirth. A one-stage approach stratified by study and site was used for the meta-analysis. The interaction between supine going-to-sleep position and fetal vulnerability was assessed by bi-variable regression. The multivariable model was adjusted for a priori confounders. Registration number: PROSPERO, CRD42017047703. Findings: Six case-control studies were identified, with data obtained from five (cases, n = 851; controls, n = 2257). No data was provided by a sixth study (cases, n = 100; controls, n = 200). Supine going-to-sleep position was associated with increased odds of late stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.63, 95% CI 1.72-4.04, p < 0.0001) compared with left side. Right side had similar odds to left (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.83-1.31, p = 0.75). There were no significant interactions between supine going-to-sleep position and assessed indicators of fetal vulnerability, including small-for-gestational-age infants (p = 0.32), maternal obesity (p = 0.08), and smoking (p = 0.86). The population attributable risk for supine going-to-sleep position was 5.8% (3.2-9.2). Interpretation: This IPD meta-analysis confirms that supine going-to-sleep position is independently associated with late stillbirth. Going-to-sleep on left or right side appears equally safe. No significant interactions with our assessed indicators of fetal vulnerability were identified, therefore, supine going-to-sleep position can be considered a contributing factor for late stillbirth in all pregnancies. This finding could reduce late stillbirth by 5.8% if every pregnant woman ≥ 28 weeks' gestation settled to sleep on her side.

19.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 55(12): 1424-1428, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977155

RESUMO

AIM: Low body fat percentage (BF%) has been shown to predict morbidity and possible hypoglycaemia in newborns. Hypoglycaemia in neonates is associated with significant neonatal morbidity. Early detection and prevention are critical. To identify if low BF% (>1 standard deviation below the mean) in non-small-for-gestational-age neonates (>5th percentile body weight) increases the risk of short-term morbidity, with specific attention to hypoglycaemia. METHODS: All term neonates who had their BF% measured as part of the Newborn Early Assessment Programme between 28 January 2014 and 9 August 2016 were included in the study. Neonates whose weight was below the 5th percentile and neonates of diabetic mothers were excluded as blood sugar level monitoring is routinely performed on these babies. Neonatal morbidity and blood sugar levels were obtained from electronic records, and the individual patient's paper records were reviewed. A composite score for neonatal morbidity (poor feeding AND hypothermia AND prolonged length of stay) was calculated. Statistics were analysed using SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 247 neonates met the inclusion criteria (3.3% of total births). Hypoglycaemia was found in 8.5% of the study population. The risk of hypoglycaemia did not change significantly in neonates with birthweight of the 5th-10th percentile and >10th percentile (8 vs. 8.8%); 4.9% of babies met the combined morbidity criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Non-small-for-gestational-age babies (>5th percentile) with low BF% are at risk of hypoglycaemia and short-term morbidity. These infants will not be identified by current hypoglycaemia screening methods in centres that do not measure BF%.

20.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 86, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many of the adverse outcomes experienced by mothers and babies are directly related to the health of the woman prior to pregnancy. This preconception period is a unique window of opportunity when women are often more motivated to optimise health and change their lifestyle in preparation for pregnancy. Several risk factors in the preconception period can contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes. These risk factors can be divided into three broad areas: biomedical, social and environmental. Mobile phone applications as a behaviour change intervention have the potential to address these risks through supporting the provision of information, healthier lifestyles and informed decision-making. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of mobile phone applications in promoting behaviour change and improving long-term outcomes for mother and babies, in women of reproductive age. METHODS: This review will include trials that assess any mobile phone application (app) that assist women of reproductive age to optimise health behaviours. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials and cluster-randomised trials will be included. The search strategy will use both MeSH and keyword combinations to search databases including the WHO Global Health Library, CINHAL, The Cochrane Library, Embase and MEDLINE for relevant studies. Retrieved citations will be screened independently by two authors to assess eligibility. Studies will be selected only if the intervention was commenced prior to pregnancy. Comparisons will be made including mobile phone applications versus text messaging-based communications or paper-based, face-to-face or telephone conversations and standard care or no specific intervention. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions will be utilised to assess the quality of included randomised studies. Primary and secondary outcomes will be compared and analysed. Results of the review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. DISCUSSION: This systematic review is the first to assess the effects of preconception mobile phone app behaviour change and educational interventions in improving future pregnancy and maternal and child outcomes, in women of reproductive age. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017065903 .


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
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