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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 129, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection has become a chronic disease and well-being of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is now of particular concern. The objectives of this paper were to describe self-rated health among PLHIV, on ART and on ART virally suppressed and to analyse its determinants. METHODS: Data were obtained from a second-generation surveillance system based on a cross-sectional one-day survey in public hospitals. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected among HIV-infected inpatients and outpatients receiving HIV-related care the day of the survey in 86 hospitals in 2019. Self-rated health was measured using a question included in the National Health Survey: "In the last 12 months, how would you rate your health status?" an ordinal variable with five categories (very good, good, moderate, bad and very bad). For the analysis, these responses were dichotomized into two categories: 1 = very good/good and 0 = moderate, bad or very bad health status. Factors associated with very good/good self-rated health were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 800 PLHIV, 67.5% perceived their health as very good/good, 68.4% among PLHIV on ART and 71.7% of those virally suppressed. Having university education (adjusted odds ratio (aOR):2.1), being unemployed (aOR:0.3) or retired (aOR:0.2), ever being diagnosed of AIDS (aOR:0.6), comorbidities (aOR:0.3), less than 2 year since HIV diagnosis (aOR:0.3) and not receiving ART (aOR:0.3) were associated with good self-rated health. Moreover, among PLHIV on ART, viral load less than 200 copies (aOR:3.2) were related to better perceived health. Bad adherence was inversely associated with good self-rated health among PLHIV on ART (aOR:0.5) and of those virally suppressed (aOR:0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly seven in 10 PLHIV in Spain considered their health status as very good/good, being higher among virally suppressed PLHIV. Both demographic and clinical determinants affect quality of life.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
2.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 605-614, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163021

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the study was to compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of tuberculosis (TB), including HIV status, in women and men in southern rural Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted a register-based retrospective cohort study covering the period from September 1998 to August 2015. Result: We included records of 2252 registered TB patients: 1080 (48%) women and 1172 (52%) men. Median age was similar for women and men: 27.5 years and 25.0 years, respectively. Median weight in women was 43.0 kg (interquartile range IQR: 38.0, 49.0), significantly lower than in men (50.0 kg, IQR 44.0, 55.0; p = 0.01). Extrapulmonary TB was significantly more common in women than in men (34.1% versus 28.7%; p=0.006). Treatment outcomes were similar in both sexes: in 70.3% of women and 68.9% of men, TB mortality was slightly lower in women than men (4.7% vs. 6.5%; p=0.08). In patients with TB, female sex was independently associated with low weight (adjusted aOR: 0.91; 95% CI 0.90, 0.92), less mortality (aOR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.36, 0.81), and lymph node TB (aOR: 1.57; 95% CI 1.13, 2.19). Conclusion: Lymph node TB was more common in women. Treatment outcomes were similar in both sexes, but women had a lower mortality rate.

3.
AIDS ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The source of residual HIV viremia is highly debated and its potential relationship with the HIV reservoir has not been clarified. Herein, we analyzed the cell-associated HIV-DNA content in two important cell compartments of the HIV reservoir, resting CD4+ T memory (Trm) and peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cells, and the association with the residual HIV viremia in individuals with spontaneous HIV replication control (elite controllers, EC group) and in subjects with ART-mediated HIV replication control (cART group). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Seventeen chronically HIV-infected patients with suppressed HIV replication were included. Cell-associated HIV-DNA was measured by ultrasensitive digital-droplet-PCR in purified Trm and pTfh cells. Residual HIV plasma viremia was quantified using a single-copy assay with a sensitivity of 0.3 HIV-RNA copies/mL. RESULTS: A significant and positive correlation was demonstrated between HIV-DNA levels in pTfh cells and residual plasma viral load (rpVL) (rho=0.928, p = 0.008) in HIV+ elite controllers, but not in HIV+ treated patients, despite the lower levels of cell-associated HIV-DNA found in EC compared to cART patients in pTfh cells (176[77-882] vs. 608[361-860] copies/million cells respectively; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This association suggests that pTfh cells could have an important contribution to persistent viremia in elite controllers. This could be the consequence of a more limited control of HIV replication in EC individuals with higher transcriptional activity of HIV in pTfh cells of EC compared to that in cART patients.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 310-315, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Information on how COVID-19 affects people living with HIV (PLHIV) remains scarce. METHODS: An observational study was conducted in four public hospitals in Madrid. All HIV patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were included and compared with COVID-19 patients without HIV infection. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with HIV infection and confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were analyzed. The median age was 46 years (IQR: 37-56 years), and 88.9% were men. The median duration of HIV infection was 10.8 years (IQR: 6.5-16.8 years), and 96.8% were on antiretroviral therapy. 84.1% had previous comorbidities. The most common symptoms were fever (66.1%), cough (66.1%) and dyspnea (46.8%). Pneumonia was found in 47.5%, 28.6% of patients had severe disease, and 32.3% were admitted to hospital. The ICU admission rate and the mortality rate were both 3.17%. A significant association was observed between age, arterial hypertension, overweight, and diabetes mellitus and the severity of COVID-19. No association was observed between HIV-related factors and the severity of COVID-19. The rate of COVID-19 in HIV-patients was 1.68%. Similar hospitalization (31.74% vs 32.57%) and ICU admission (3.17% vs 2%) rates were observed with non-HIV infected patients. A lower mortality rate during hospitalization (10% vs 21.37%) and a lower global mortality rate (3.17% vs 6.96%) were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Established poor prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients, such as age and comorbidities, remain the main determinants for PLHIV. Neither the HIV severity nor the type of ARV treatment seem to influence the outcome of COVID-19. Large prospective cohorts are needed in order to establish the differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.

5.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute hepatitis C virus (AHC) infection is increasingly common among HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). Until 2017, the guidelines recommended therapy with pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin with a mild sustained virological response (SVR). This prompted many patients to reject that treatment, at that time, waiting to be treated with better and safer options with new Direct-Acting-Antivirals (DAA). OBJECTIVES: Assess the efficacy and safety of Elbasvir/Grazoprevir to treat recent chronic hepatitis C infection, genotype 1 or 4, in HIV+ MSM patients. METHODS: Prospective, open-labeled, two center, pilot study. SVR is analyzed for treatment with Elbasvir/Grazoprevir (8 weeks in GT1b or 12 in GT1a or GT4) in patients with a recent chronic HCV infection, defined as HCV infection lasting less than 4 years and mild liver fibrosis (liver stiffness <8kPa). RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were included (May 2017-March 2018): 2 GT1b, 24 GT1a and 22 GT4. HCV-RNA>800000UI in 63% and medium liver stiffness 4.9kPa. The SVR was 98%, one patient failed due to poor adherence. 67% of patients had adverse effects, but only 16% treatment related. The most frequent side effects were gastrointestinal (19%), related with the central nervous system (18%), respiratory (16%) and systemic symptoms (15%). During one year of follow-up post-therapy, 4 AHC and 18 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with Elbasvir/Grazoprevir in this scenario is highly effective and safe. Patients with risky sexual practices must remain linked to the medical care system to detect new STD and HCV reinfection.

6.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942736

RESUMO

(1) Background: The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on the T-cell homeostasis disturbances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients as well as its reversion after HCV eradication with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy has not been yet clarified. We extensively analyzed the effect of HCV co-infection on immune parameters of HIV pathogenesis and its evolution after HCV eradication with DAAs. (2) Methods: Seventy individuals were included in the study-25 HIV-monoinfected patients, 25 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients and 20 HIV and HCV seronegative subjects. All patients were on antiretroviral therapy and undetectable HIV-viremia. Immune parameters, such as maturation, activation, apoptosis, senescence and exhaustion of T-cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (comparing pre- and post-DAAs data in HIV/HCV coinfected patients) analyses were performed. Univariate and multivariate (general linear model and canonical discriminant analysis -CDA-) analyses were used to assess differences between groups. (3) Results-The CDA was able to clearly separate HIV/HCV coinfected from HIV-monoinfected patients, showing a more disturbed T-cells homeostasis in HIV/HCV patients, especially activation and exhaustion of T-cells. Interestingly, those perturbations were more marked in HIV/HCV patients with increased liver stiffness. Eradication of HCV with DAAs restored some but not all the T-cells homeostasis disturbances, with activation and exhaustion of effector CD8 T-cells remaining significantly increased three months after HCV eradication. (4) Conclusions-HCV co-infection significantly impacts on several immune markers of HIV pathogenesis, especially in patients with increased liver stiffness. Eradication of HCV with DAAs ameliorates but does not completely normalize these alterations. It is of utmost relevance to explore other mechanisms underlying the immune damage observed in HIV/HCV coinfected patients with control of both HIV and HCV replication.

7.
Mod Pathol ; 33(11): 2139-2146, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620916

RESUMO

The spectrum of COVID-19 infection includes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), although the histological basis for these disorders has not been thoroughly explored. Post-mortem pulmonary and bone marrow biopsies were performed in 33 patients. Samples were studied with a combination of morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. Bone marrow studies were also performed in three living patients. Bone marrow post-mortem studies showed striking lesions of histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis (HHH) in most (16/17) cases. This was also observed in three alive patients, where it mimicked the changes observed in hemophagocytic histiocytosis. Pulmonary changes included a combination of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrinous microthrombi predominantly involving small vessels, in particular the alveolar capillary. These findings were associated with the analytical and clinical symptoms, which helps us understand the respiratory insufficiency and reveal the histological substrate for the macrophage activation syndrome-like exhibited by these patients. Our results confirm that COVID-19 infection triggers a systemic immune-inflammatory disease and allow specific therapies to be proposed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Histiócitos/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , /virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/patologia , Hiperplasia/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
8.
AIDS Res Ther ; 17(1): 45, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of the combination elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine plus darunavir (EVG/COB/TFV/FTC + DRV) in treatment-experienced patients from the cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS). METHODS: Treatment-experienced patients starting treatment with EVG/COB/TFV/FTC + DRV during the years 2014-2018 and with more than 24 weeks of follow-up were included. TFV could be administered either as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir alafenamide. We evaluated virological response, defined as viral load (VL) < 50 copies/ml and < 200 copies/ml at 24 and 48 weeks after starting this regimen, stratified by baseline VL (< 50 or ≥ 50 copies/ml at the start of the regimen). RESULTS: We included 39 patients (12.8% women). At baseline, 10 (25.6%) patients had VL < 50 copies/ml and 29 (74.4%) had ≥ 50 copies/ml. Among patients with baseline VL < 50 copies/ml, 85.7% and 80.0% had VL < 50 copies/ml at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively, and 100% had VL < 200 copies/ml at 24 and 48 weeks. Among patients with baseline VL ≥ 50 copies/ml, 42.3% and 40.9% had VL < 50 copies/ml and 69.2% and 68.2% had VL < 200 copies/ml at 24 and 48 weeks. During the first 48 weeks, no patients changed their treatment due to toxicity, and 4 patients (all with baseline VL ≥ 50 copies/ml) changed due to virological failure. CONCLUSIONS: EVG/COB/TFV/FTC + DRV was well tolerated and effective in treatment-experienced patients with undetectable viral load as a simplification strategy, allowing once-daily, two-pill regimen with three antiretroviral drug classes. Effectiveness was low in patients with detectable viral loads.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575428

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy are of high clinical relevance in the management of people living with HIV (PLWH), and even more in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been suggested a significant impact of HCV coinfection on these conditions. However, HCV can be eradicated in most patients with the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy. We have analyzed the effect of HCV on systemic inflammation, endothelial activation and coagulopathy in PLWH and its evolution after HCV eradication with DAAs. Twenty-five HIV/HCV coinfected (HIV/HCV group), 25 HIV monoinfected (HIV group) and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. All patients were on ART and HIV suppressed. Levels of fourteen markers of systemic inflammation, endothelial activation and coagulopathy (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-8, TNFα, D-dimer, Eotaxin, IL-18, IP-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)) were measured on plasma at baseline and after DAAs-mediated HCV eradication. Non-parametric tests were used to establish inter/intra-group differences. At baseline, the HIV/HCV group showed increased levels of IL-18 (p = 0.028), IP-10 (p < 0.0001), VCAM-1 (p < 0.0001) and ICAM-1 (p = 0.045), compared to the HC and HIV groups, with the highest levels for IL18 and IP10 observed in HIV/HCV patients with increased liver stiffness (≥7.1 KPa). Eradication of HCV with DAAs-based therapy restored some but not all the evaluated parameters. VCAM-1 remained significantly increased compared to HC (p = 0.001), regardless of the level of basal liver stiffness in the HIV/HCV group, and IP-10 remained significantly increased only in the HIV/HCV group, with increased level of basal liver stiffness compared to the HC and to the HIV groups (p = 0.006 and p = 0.049, respectively). These data indicate that DAAs therapy in HIV/HCV co-infected patients and HCV eradication does not always lead to the normalization of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction conditions, especially in cases with increased liver stiffness.

10.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(8): 1093-1105, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556382

RESUMO

The HIV reservoir is the main barrier to eradicating HIV infection, and resting memory CD4 T (Trm) cells are one of the most relevant cellular component harboring latent proviruses. This is the first study analyzing the transcriptional profile of Trm cells, in two well-characterized groups of HIV patients with distinct mechanisms of viral replication control (spontaneous versus treatment-induced). We use a systems biology approach to unravel subtle but important differences in the molecular mechanisms operating at the cellular level that could be associated with the host's ability to control virus replication and persistence. Despite the absence of significant differences in the transcriptome of Trm cells between Elite Controllers (ECs) and cART-treated (TX) patients at the single gene level, we found 353 gene ontology (GO) categories upregulated in EC compared with TX. Our results suggest the existence of mechanisms at two different levels: first boosting both adaptive and innate immune responses, and second promoting active viral replication and halting HIV latency in the Trm cell compartment of ECs as compared with TX patients. These differences in the transcriptional profile of Trm cells could be involved in the lower HIV reservoir observed in ECs compared with TX individuals, although mechanistic studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Combining transcriptome analysis and systems biology methods is likely to provide important findings to help us in the design of therapeutic strategies aimed at purging the HIV reservoir. KEY MESSAGES: HIV-elite controllers have the lowest HIV-DNA content in resting memory CD4 T cells. HIV-ECs show a particular transcriptional profile in resting memory CD4 T cells. Molecular mechanisms of enhanced adaptative and innate immune response in HIV-ECs. High viral replication and low viral latency establishment associate to the EC status.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438744

RESUMO

Plasma levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme that deaminates adenosine to inosine, are increased during inflammation. An increase in ADA activity occurs with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load and higher CD4+ T cell counts. We aimed to investigate the role of plasma ADA as a biomarker of inflammation in treatment-naïve HIV patients who received tenofovir or another nucleoside analog for comparison. Ninety-two treatment-naïve patients were included in the study and grouped by treatment, i.e., tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or Triumeq. ADA activity was measured in plasma and cytokines were analyzed by MILLIPLEX® MAP-Luminex® Technology. Plasma concentration of monocytes and neutrophils was measured at 0, 3, and 12 months post-treatment. Treatment-naïve HIV patients had increased ADA concentrations (over 15 U/L) that decreased after treatment with TAF and Triumeq, though this did not occur in TDF-treated patients. However, all groups exhibited a pro-inflammatory systemic profile at 12 months of treatment. Plasma GM-CSF levels decreased after 12 months of treatment in the TDF group, with a concomitant decrease in blood monocyte count, and a negative correlation with ADA values was found. In conclusion, ADA levels may be modulated by antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients, possibly affecting inflammatory status.

12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 37: 101690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spain is the European country with the highest number of Trypanosoma cruzi infected patients. Due to the cardiac complications that these patients can develop, it is of paramount importance to evaluate the value of the different heart diagnostic tools. METHOD: In this observational study, we describe the main characteristics and data from electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 141 patients with Chagas' disease attended in a tertiary university hospital in Madrid from 2009 to 2018. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients (35.4%) had at least one abnormal cardiac test: 34.2% altered electrocardiogram (40/117), 24.5% altered echocardiogram (27/110) and 9.2% abnormal cardiac MRI (13/41). Of those 13 with a pathological MRI, 53.8% had normal results for any other test. The most frequent alterations observed were hypokinesia with decreased LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction), dilatation of cavities and cardiac fibrosis. Two thirds of patients with abnormal cardiac test were asymptomatic. Altered echocardiogram was found in 43.8% of patients ≥50 years compared to 16.6% under 50 years (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: A transthoracic echocardiogram and a MRI of the heart added a 23.8% increment in diagnosing cardiac pathological findings.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is impaired in HIV-infected individuals. We explored maternal factors associated with EBV acquisition in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants and the relationship between EBV infection and serious adverse events (SAE) during the first year of life. METHODS: Two hundred and one HEU infants from Uganda enrolled in the ANRS12174 trial were tested for anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) antibodies at week 50 of life. The date of infection was estimated by testing of EBV DNA at weeks 1, 6, 14, 26, 38 and 50 postpartum on dried blood spot (DBS). RESULTS: Eighty-seven (43%) infants were tested positive for anti-VCA IgG at week 50. Among the 59 infants positive for EBV DNA, 25% were infected within the first 26 weeks. Almost half of them (12%) were infected before week 14. Shedding of EBV in breast milk was associated with EBV DNA in maternal plasma (P=.009), HIV RNA detection (P=.039), lower CD4 count (P=.001) and was correlated with plasma EBV DNA levels (P=.002). EBV infant infection at week 50 was associated with shedding of EBV in breast milk (P=.009) and young maternal age (P=.029). Occurrence of a clinical SAE, including malaria and pneumonia, was associated with higher levels of EBV DNA in infants (P=.010). CONCLUSIONS: By assessing EBV infection in HEU infants we observed that infection during the first year of life is determined by HIV and EBV maternal factors and that EBV DNA levels was higher among infants with clinical SAE.

14.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(1): 10-14, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408412

RESUMO

Bacterial arthropod-borne pathogens can often cause fever in Africa, but rural laboratories in these settings are usually too basic to provide a precise picture of their epidemiological impact. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of bacterial pathogens in fleas and lice in a rural area of southeast Ethiopia. Between July and November 2013, we extracted DNA from 91 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis [n = 50; 54.9%], Pulex irritans [n = 37; 40.1%], and C. canis [n = 4; 4.4%] and 30 lice (Pediculus humanus capitis [n = 16; 53.3%] and Pediculus humanus humanus [n = 14; 46.7%]), using two quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to look for bacteria from the genera: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia. Of the 91 fleas analyzed, pathogens were present in 79 (86.8%), including Rickettsia felis (n = 41; 45%), Anaplasma platys (n = 40; 44.0%), Rickettsia monacensis (n = 2; 2.2%), Ehrlichia muris-like agent (n = 1; 1.1%), and Bartonella clarridgeiae (n = 1; 1.1%). P. irritans was the flea species most frequently infected with A. platys (67.7%), followed by C. felis (30.7%) (p < 0.001). Of the 30 lice identified, pathogens were present in 7 (23.3%): Bartonella quintana (n = 4; 16.7%), E. muris (n = 2, 6.7%), and Borrelia recurrentis (n = 1, 3.3%). Thus, in this rural area of Africa, fleas and lice can transmit parasitic pathogens to humans, causing febrile symptoms.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221598, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the most frequently prescribed initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in recent years in HIV-positive persons in the Cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) and to investigate factors associated with the choice of each regimen. METHODS: We analyzed initial ART regimens prescribed in adults participating in CoRIS from 2014 to 2017. Only regimens prescribed in >5% of patients were considered. We used multivariable multinomial regression to estimate Relative Risk Ratios (RRRs) for the association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and the choice of the initial regimen. RESULTS: Among 2874 participants, abacavir(ABC)/lamivudine(3TC)/dolutegavir(DTG) was the most frequently prescribed regimen (32.1%), followed by tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/elvitegravir(EVG)/cobicistat(COBI) (14.9%), TDF/FTC/rilpivirine (RPV) (14.0%), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC/EVG/COBI (13.7%), TDF/FTC+DTG (10.0%), TDF/FTC+darunavir/ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat (bDRV) (9.8%) and TDF/FTC+raltegravir (RAL) (5.6%). Compared with ABC/3TC/DTG, starting TDF/FTC/RPV was less likely in patients with CD4<200 cells/µL and HIV-RNA>100.000 copies/mL. TDF/FTC+DTG was more frequent in those with CD4<200 cells/µL and HIV-RNA>100.000 copies/mL. TDF/FTC+RAL and TDF/FTC+bDRV were also more frequent among patients with CD4<200 cells//µL and with transmission categories other than men who have sex with men. Compared with ABC/3TC/DTG, the prescription of other initial ART regimens decreased from 2014-2015 to 2016-2017 with the exception of TDF/FTC+DTG. Differences in the choice of the initial ART regimen were observed by hospitals' location. CONCLUSIONS: The choice of initial ART regimens is consistent with Spanish guidelines' recommendations, but is also clearly influenced by physician's perception based on patient's clinical and sociodemographic variables and by the prescribing hospital location.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances
16.
Antiviral Res ; 170: 104577, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386862

RESUMO

Not all HIV-infected patients receiving cART are able to recover optimal CD4-T cell levels despite achieving undetectable viremia. We evaluated the potential association between polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokines involved in immune response (IL15, IFNγ and IL19) and the failure to achieve optimal CD4 T-cells restoration after cART. For this, we carried out a retrospective study in 412 HIV-infected patients starting cART with CD4<200 cells/µL. These patients were classified as immunological non-responders (INR) if having a CD4 increase (ΔCD4) below 200 cells/µL after two years on successful cART. IL15, IFNγ and IL19 polymorphisms were genotyped using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform. We found 134 INR patients with a median [IQR] ΔCD4 = 133[73-174] cells/µL. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, infection route, ethnic origin, hepatitis co-infection and HIV infection length, the AA genotype of the SNP rs2430561 in IFNγ (OR:2.01[1.13-3.56], p = 0.017) and the TT genotype of polymorphism rs2243191 in IL19 (OR:2.58 [1.17-5.68], p = 0.019) showed significant association with the INR status. Our results show that polymorphisms in IFNγ and IL19 genes significantly impacts in the probability of not achieving an optimal immune recovery in HIV-patients starting cART with CD4 T-cells <200 cells/µL. Thus, these SNPs could represent potential predictive markers of the immunodiscordant response.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-15/genética , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 856, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few data available about childhood tuberculosis (TB) in rural hospitals in low-income countries. We assessed differences in epidemiological characteristics and treatment outcomes in children with TB aged 0-4 versus 5-14 years in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: For this retrospective cross-sectional study, we analyzed childhood TB registers from a rural Ethiopian hospital. We collected data on the number of cases, type of TB, and treatment outcomes using standard definitions. By means of binary and logistic regression analyses, data were compared from 1998 to 2015 in children aged under 5 versus those aged 5-14 years. RESULTS: We included 1282 TB patients: 583 (45.5%) were under 5 years old, and 699 (54.5%) were aged 5-14 years. More than half (67.2%, n = 862) had pulmonary TB (PTB), which was more common in younger children (82.5%, 481/583) than in older ones (54.5%, 381/699; p < 0.001). Most cases of PTB (87.5%, 754/862) were smear negative, including virtually all (99.6%, 479/481) younger children and most older ones (72.2%, n = 275/381; p < 0.001). The most common types of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) were TB adenitis (54.5%, 229/420) and bone TB (20%, 84/420). Children under five showed a lower prevalence of adenitis TB (9.9% [58/583] versus 24.5% [171/699], p < 0.001), bone TB (2.9% [17/583] versus 9.6% [69/699], p < 0.001), and abdominal TB (0.9% [5/583] versus 6.3% [44/699], p < 0.001). Most diagnoses were new cases of TB (98.2%, 1259/1282). Overall, 63.5% (n = 814) of the children successfully completed treatment (< 5 years: 56.6%, 330/583; 5-14 years: 69.2%, 489/699; p < 0.001). In total, 16.3% (n = 209) transferred to another center (< 5 years: 19.4%, 113/583; 5-14 years: 13.7%, 96/699; p = 0.006). Thirteen percent of patients (n = 167) were lost to follow-up (< 5 years: 16.0%, 93/583; 5-14 years: 10.4%, 74/699; p = 0.004). Fifty-two (4.1%) children died (no age differences). Being aged 5-14 years was independently associated with successful treatment outcomes (adjusted odds ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.94, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a very low diagnostic yield for spontaneous sputum smear in children with TB. In this rural setting in Ethiopia, very young children tend to present with new cases of smear-negative PTB. They have less EPTB than older children but more TB meningitis and show lower rates of treatment success.


Assuntos
Hospitais Rurais , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/terapia , Tuberculose Osteoarticular/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Osteoarticular/terapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
18.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(11): 815-820, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184993

RESUMO

Bacterial arthropod-borne pathogens are a common cause of fever in Africa, but their precise impact is unknown and usually underdiagnosed in the basic rural laboratories of low-resourced African countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of arthropod-borne bacterial diseases causing fever among malaria smear-negative patients in a rural hospital located in Ethiopia. The study population included patients aged 2 years or older; referred to Gambo Rural General Hospital (West Arsi, Ethiopia), between July and November 2013, for fever or report of fever in the previous 48 h; attending the outpatient department; and testing negative for malaria by Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. We extracted DNA from 394 whole blood samples, using reverse line blot assays of amplicons to look for bacteria from the genera: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia. Thirteen patients showed presence of DNA for these pathogens: three each by Borrelia spp., the Francisella group (F. tularensis tularensis, F. tularensis holartica, and F. novicia), Rickettsia bellii, and Rickettsia Felis, and one by Bartonella rochalimae. Thus, in this rural area of Africa, febrile symptoms could be due to bacteria transmitted by arthropods. Further studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenic role of R. bellii.


Assuntos
Febre/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , População Rural
19.
Biomolecules ; 9(6)2019 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208153

RESUMO

Interleukin-7 receptor subunit alpha (IL7RA) rs6897932 polymorphism is related to CD4+ recovery after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but no studies so far have analyzed its potential impact in patients with very low CD4+ T-cells count. We aimed to analyze the association between IL7RA rs6897932 polymorphism and CD4+ T-cells count restoration in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with CD4+ T-cells count <200 cells/mm3. We performed a retrospective study in 411 patients followed for 24 months with a DNA sample available for genotyping. The change in CD4+ T-cells count during the follow-up was considered as the primary outcome. The rs6897932 polymorphism had a minimum allele frequency (MAF) >20% and was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p = 0.550). Of 411 patients, 256 carried the CC genotype, while 155 had the CT/TT genotype. The CT/TT genotype was associated with a higher slope of CD4+ T-cells recovery (arithmetic mean ratio; AMR = 1.16; p = 0.016), higher CD4+ T-cells increase (AMR = 1.19; p = 0.004), and higher CD4+ T-cells count at the end of follow-up (AMR = 1.13; p = 0.006). Besides, rs6897932 CT/TT was related to a higher odds of having a value of CD4+ T-cells at the end of follow-up ≥500 CD4+ cells/mm3 (OR = 2.44; p = 0.006). After multiple testing correction (Benjamini-Hochberg), only the increase of ≥ 400 CD4+ cells/mm3 lost statistical significance (p = 0.052). IL7RA rs6897932 CT/TT genotype was related to a better CD4+ T-cells recovery and it could be used to improve the management of HIV-infected patients starting cART with CD4+ T-cells count <200 cells/mm3.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Interleucina-7/genética , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
New Microbiol ; 41(4): 81-87, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994177

RESUMO

The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) in adults has changed significantly in the past several years. Despite substantial improvement in patient care, CABM remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus, new prognostic factors could help improve patient stratification. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to determine the clinical pattern of CABM in an urban area of Western Europe and to identify potential predictors of unfavorable prognosis and complicated course. Over a period of 6-8 years, 79 adult CABM cases were treated at three tertiary hospitals. A Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of ≤4 was defined as unfavorable outcome. Predictors of unfavorable prognosis or complicated course were identified through logistic-regression analysis. S. pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen (34%). 82% of patients exhibited at least two of five signs, including fever, neck stiffness, altered mental status, headache and nausea. Almost 50% presented focal neurological deficits; the overall mortality rate was 15%. In the multivariate analysis, risk factors for an unfavorable outcome included a GCS score of ≤13, female sex, and etiology by L. monocytogenes and gram-negative bacilli. However, risk factors for systemic complications were a GCS score of ≤13 and reduced platelet count, whereas C-Reactive Protein (CRP) increase was associated with a higher rate of neurological complications. Patients with non-pneumococcal CABM were more prone to an unfavorable outcome, probably because of underutilization of empiric ampicillin in patients at risk of listeriosis and because the suspicion of pneumococcal infection was facilitated by the existence of otitis and the higher yield of Gram's stain. Patients presenting a GCS of ≤13, thrombocytopenia and/or increased CRP, may benefit from more aggressive care to avoid in-hospital complications and neurological sequelae.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Meningites Bacterianas , Adulto , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/patologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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