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1.
Surg Neurol Int ; 10: 136, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528471

RESUMO

Background: The role of tractography in gamma ventral capsulotomy (GVC) planning is still unclear. This paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral OFC fibers passing through the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) and analyze quantitative tractography parameters that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) individuals from other neurosurgery functional patients (morbid obesity and Parkinson's disease [PD]). Methods: Twenty patients undergoing functional stereotactic procedures, between 2013 and 2016, were included in this study. OCD patients underwent GVC (single shot 150 Gy and 4-mm collimators). PD and morbid obesity patients were submitted to deep brain stimulation implants. Diffusion tensor image tractography was reconstructed using Brainlab Elements software (Brainlab AG, Munich, Germany). Results: Nine PD, six morbid obesity, and five OCD patients were included with a mean age of 65.4 ± 9.1, 41.0 ± 8.2, and 31.2 ± 5.5, respectively, which are statistically different from each other (P < 0.001). Fourteen patients (70%) were men. A total of 40 cerebral hemispheres were analyzed. Medial OFC fibers are localized more inferior in the ALIC than the lateral OFC fibers in all hemispheres, but the level of intersection and exact topography of fiber bundles are variable among individuals. Both medial and lateral OFC fiber tracts of PD and morbid obesity patients have lower volume than, respectively, medial and lateral counterparts of OCD patients (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Medial and lateral OFC tract fibers have a general standard distribution in the anterior internal capsule (lateral OFC higher than medial OFC fibers). There are differences between obesity, Parkinson, and OCD patients regarding fiber tract statistics.

2.
Cureus ; 11(5): e4777, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367495

RESUMO

Background Immediate relief following radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been observed in a minority of cases. Objective Our goals were to determine the occurrence of immediate pain relief as real vs. placebo effect and to search for factors associated with this desirable outcome. Methods Between January 2003 and June 2008, 150 patients were treated with radiosurgery for classical or symptomatic TN. A commercially available linear accelerator (Novalis®, BrainLab) device was used to deliver 90 Gy to the root-entry zone with a 4- or 5-mm collimator. Pain outcomes were graded using a four-point scale. Complications were recorded through standardized follow-up evaluations. Treatment plans were retrieved and brainstem/trigeminal nerves were retrospectively re-contoured using standard anatomical landmarks. Dose-volume histograms were used to calculate the volume of brainstem/trigeminal nerve receiving 20%, 30%, and 50% of the prescribed radiation doses. Results Twenty-five (19.84%) patients presented with immediate pain relief, defined as pain cessation within 48 hours post-radiosurgery. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that good/excellent pain outcomes were sustained and significantly better in the immediate pain relief group (p = 0.006) compared to non-immediate relief. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses failed to show the correlation between brainstem/trigeminal nerve volumes, trigeminal nerve-pontine angle, prior surgical procedures, TN etiology, age, gender, and immediate pain relief. Neither post-radiosurgery complications nor recurrence rates were different between groups. Conclusion Immediate pain relief leads to sustained relief and patients present significantly better pain outcomes in comparison to those without immediate relief. The mechanism triggering immediate relief is still unknown and did not correlate with the volume of brainstem/trigeminal nerve receiving pre-specified doses of radiation.

3.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058947

RESUMO

Importance: Translating evidence into clinical practice in the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is challenging, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: To assess the effect of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention on adherence to evidence-based therapies for care of patients with AIS and TIA. Design, Setting and Participants: This 2-arm cluster-randomized clinical trial assessed 45 hospitals and 2336 patients with AIS and TIA for eligibility before randomization. Eligible hospitals were able to provide care for patients with AIS and TIA in Brazil, Argentina, and Peru. Recruitment started September 12, 2016, and ended February 26, 2018; follow-up ended June 29, 2018. Data were analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle. Interventions: The multifaceted quality improvement intervention included case management, reminders, a roadmap and checklist for the therapeutic plan, educational materials, and periodic audit and feedback reports to each intervention cluster. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite adherence score for AIS and TIA performance measures. Secondary outcomes included an all-or-none composite end point of performance measures, the individual process measure components of the composite end points, and clinical outcomes at 90 days after admission (stroke recurrence, death, and disability measured by the modified Rankin scale). Results: A total of 36 hospitals and 1624 patients underwent randomization. Nineteen hospitals were randomized to the quality improvement intervention and 17 to routine care. The overall mean (SD) age of patients enrolled in the study was 69.4 (13.5) years, and 913 (56.2%) were men. Overall mean (SD) composite adherence score for the 10 performance measures in the intervention group hospitals compared with control group hospitals was 85.3% (20.1%) vs 77.8% (18.4%) (mean difference, 4.2%; 95% CI, -3.8% to 12.2%). As a secondary end point, 402 of 817 patients (49.2%) at intervention hospitals received all the therapies that they were eligible for vs 203 of 807 (25.2%) in the control hospitals (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.22-5.53; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: A multifaceted quality improvement intervention did not result in a significant increase in composite adherence score for evidence-based therapies in patients with AIS or TIA. However, when using an all-or-none approach, the intervention resulted in improved adherence to evidence-based therapies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02223273.

4.
Am Heart J ; 207: 49-57, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translating evidence into clinical practice in the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is challenging especially in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention on adherence to evidence-based therapies for AIS and TIA patients care. DESIGN: We designed a pragmatic, 2-arm cluster-randomized trial involving 36 clusters and 1624 patients from Brazil, Argentina, and Peru. Hospitals are randomized to receive a multifaceted quality improvement intervention (intervention group) or to routine care (control group). The BRIDGE Stroke multifaceted quality improvement intervention includes case management, reminders, health care providers' educational materials (including treatment algorithms), interactive workshops, and audit and feedback reports. Primary outcome is a composite adherence score to AIS and TIA performance measures. Secondary outcomes include an "all or none" composite end point to performance measures, the individual components of the composite end points, and clinical outcomes at 90 days following admission (stroke recurrence, death, and disability measured by the modified Rankin scale). SUMMARY: The BRIDGE Stroke Trial is an international pragmatic evaluation of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention. If effective, this intervention could be potentially extended widely to improve the quality of care and outcomes of patients with AIS or TIA.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Doença Aguda , Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Algoritmos , Argentina , Brasil , Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Auditoria Clínica , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Retroalimentação , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Hospitais , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação , Peru , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistemas de Alerta , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(2): 218-240, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743581

RESUMO

For more than half a century, stereotactic neurosurgical procedures have been available to treat patients with severe, debilitating symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have proven refractory to extensive, appropriate pharmacological, and psychological treatment. Although reliable predictors of outcome remain elusive, the establishment of narrower selection criteria for neurosurgical candidacy, together with a better understanding of the functional neuroanatomy implicated in OCD, has resulted in improved clinical efficacy for an array of ablative and non-ablative intervention techniques targeting the cingulum, internal capsule, and other limbic regions. It was against this backdrop that gamma knife capsulotomy (GKC) for OCD was developed. In this paper, we review the history of this stereotactic radiosurgical procedure, from its inception to recent advances. We perform a systematic review of the existing literature and also provide a narrative account of the evolution of the procedure, detailing how the procedure has changed over time, and has been shaped by forces of evidence and innovation. As the procedure has evolved and adverse events have decreased considerably, favorable response rates have remained attainable for approximately one-half to two-thirds of individuals treated at experienced centers. A reduction in obsessive-compulsive symptom severity may result not only from direct modulation of OCD neural pathways but also from enhanced efficacy of pharmacological and psychological therapies working in a synergistic fashion with GKC. Possible complications include frontal lobe edema and even the rare formation of delayed radionecrotic cysts. These adverse events have become much less common with new radiation dose and targeting strategies. Detailed neuropsychological assessments from recent studies suggest that cognitive function is not impaired, and in some domains may even improve following treatment. We conclude this review with discussions covering topics essential for further progress of this therapy, including suggestions for future trial design given the unique features of GKC therapy, considerations for optimizing stereotactic targeting and dose planning using biophysical models, and the use of advanced imaging techniques to understand circuitry and predict response. GKC, and in particular its modern variant, gamma ventral capsulotomy, continues to be a reliable treatment option for selected cases of otherwise highly refractory OCD.

6.
Neurosurgery ; 85(5): 717-728, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 30% of major depressive disorder patients fail to respond to adequate trials of medications and psychotherapy. While modern neuromodulation approaches (ie, vagal nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation) are yet to prove their efficacy for such cases in large randomized controlled trials, trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) has emerged as an alternative with promising effects on mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To assess efficacy, safety, tolerability, and placebo effect duration of continuous subcutaneous TNS (sTNS) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: The TREND study is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial. Twenty unipolar TRD patients will receive V1 sTNS as adjuvant to medical therapy and randomized to active vs sham stimulation throughout a 24-wk period. An additional 24-wk open-label phase will follow. Data concerning efficacy, placebo response, relapse, and side effects related to surgery or electrical stimulation will be recorded. We will use the HDRS-17, BDI-SR, IDS_SR30, and UKU scales. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main outcome measure is improvement in depression scores using HAM-17 under continuous sTNS as adjuvant to antidepressants. Active stimulation is expected to significantly impact response and remission rates. Minor side effects are expected due to the surgical procedure and electrical stimulation. The open-label phase should further confirm efficacy and tolerability. DISCUSSION: This study protocol is designed to define efficacy of a novel adjuvant therapy for TRD. We must strive to develop safe, reproducible, predictable, and well-tolerated neuromodulation approaches for TRD patients impaired to manage their lives and contribute with society.

7.
Neurosurgery ; 83(4): 800-809, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human morbid obesity is increasing worldwide in an alarming way. The hypothalamus is known to mediate its mechanisms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may be an alternative to treat patients refractory to standard medical and surgical therapies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, identify possible side effects, and to optimize stimulation parameters of continuous VMH-DBS. Additionally, this study aims to determine if continuous VMH-DBS will lead to weight loss by causing changes in body composition, basal metabolism, or food intake control. METHODS: The BLESS study is a feasibility study, single-center open-label trial. Six patients (body mass index > 40) will undergo low-frequency VMH-DBS. Data concerning timing, duration, frequency, severity, causal relationships, and associated electrical stimulation patterns regarding side effects or weight changes will be recorded. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: We expect to demonstrate the safety, identify possible side effects, and to optimize electrophysiological parameters related to VMH-DBS. No clinical or behavioral adverse changes are expected. Weight loss ≥ 3% of the basal weight after 3 mo of electrical stimulation will be considered adequate. Changes in body composition and increase in basal metabolism are expected. The amount of food intake is likely to remain unchanged. DISCUSSION: The design of this study protocol is to define the safety of the procedure, the surgical parameters important for target localization, and additionally the safety of long-term stimulation of the VMH in morbidly obese patients. Novel neurosurgical approaches to treat metabolic and autonomic diseases can be developed based on the data made available by this investigation.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Mórbida/terapia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Surg Neurol Int ; 8: 261, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184712

RESUMO

Whereas hemispheric dominance is well-established for appendicular motor control in humans, the evidence for dominance in axial motor control is still scarce. In Parkinson's disease (PD), unilateral (UL) onset of appendicular motor symptoms corresponds with asymmetric neurodegeneration predominantly affecting contralateral nigrostriatal circuits. Disease progression yields bilateral and axial motor symptoms but the initial appendicular asymmetry usually persists. Furthermore, there is evidence for hemispheric dominance for axial motor dysfunction in some of these patients. Dopaminergic medications improve appendicular symptoms but can also produce motor complications over time. Once these complications develop, bilateral (BL) deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) can significantly improve appendicular symptoms while reducing medication doses and motor complications. Conversely, axial motor symptoms remain a significant source of disability, morbidity, and mortality for patients with PD. These axial symptoms do not necessarily improve with dopaminergic therapy, might not respond, and could even worsen after BL-DBS. In contrast to medications, DBS provides the opportunity to modify stimulation parameters for each cerebral hemisphere. Identical, BL-DBS of motor circuits with hemispheric dominance in PD might produce overstimulation on one side and/or understimulation on the other side, which could contribute to motor dysfunction. Several studies based on asymmetry of appendicular motor symptoms already support an initial UL rather than BL approach to DBS in some patients. The response of axial motor symptoms to UL versus BL-DBS remains unclear. Nonetheless, UL-DBS, staged BL-DBS, or asymmetric programming of BL-DBS could also be considered in patients with PD.

9.
Neurosurg Focus ; 43(3): E15, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859567

RESUMO

The neurosurgical endeavor to treat psychiatric patients may have been part of human history since its beginning. The modern era of psychosurgery can be traced to the heroic attempts of Gottlieb Burckhardt and Egas Moniz to alleviate mental symptoms through the ablation of restricted areas of the frontal lobes in patients with disabling psychiatric illnesses. Thanks to the adaptation of the stereotactic frame to human patients, the ablation of large volumes of brain tissue has been practically abandoned in favor of controlled interventions with discrete targets. Consonant with the role of the hypothalamus in the mediation of the most fundamental approach-avoidance behaviors, some hypothalamic nuclei and regions, in particular, have been selected as targets for the treatment of aggressiveness (posterior hypothalamus), pathological obesity (lateral or ventromedial nuclei), sexual deviations (ventromedial nucleus), and drug dependence (ventromedial nucleus). Some recent improvements in outcomes may have been due to the use of stereotactically guided deep brain stimulation and the change of therapeutic focus from categorical diagnoses (such as schizophrenia) to dimensional symptoms (such as aggressiveness), which are nonspecific in terms of formal diagnosis. However, agreement has never been reached on 2 related issues: 1) the choice of target, based on individual diagnoses; and 2) reliable prediction of outcomes related to individual targets. Despite the lingering controversies on such critical aspects, the experience of the past decades should pave the way for advances in the field. The current failure of pharmacological treatments in a considerable proportion of patients with chronic disabling mental disorders is reminiscent of the state of affairs that prevailed in the years before the early psychosurgical attempts. This article reviews the functional organization of the hypothalamus, the effects of ablation and stimulation of discrete hypothalamic regions, and the stereotactic targets that have most often been used in the treatment of psychopathological and behavioral symptoms; finally, the implications of current and past experience are presented from the perspective of how this fund of knowledge may usefully contribute to the future of hypothalamic psychosurgery.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipotálamo/cirurgia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
10.
J Neurosurg ; 125(Suppl 1): 129-138, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE The role of tractography in Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GK-T) planning is still unclear. Pyramidal tractography might reduce the risk of radiation injury to the pyramidal tract and reduce motor complications. METHODS In this study, the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) targets of 20 patients were bilaterally defined using Iplannet Stereotaxy Software, according to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line and considering the localization of the pyramidal tract. The 40 targets and tractography were transferred as objects to the GammaPlan Treatment Planning System (GP-TPS). New targets were defined, according to the AC-PC line in the functional targets section of the GP-TPS. The target offsets required to maintain the internal capsule (IC) constraint of < 15 Gy were evaluated. In addition, the strategies available in GP-TPS to maintain the minimum conventional VIM target dose at > 100 Gy were determined. RESULTS A difference was observed between the positions of both targets and the doses to the IC. The lateral (x) and the vertical (z) coordinates were adjusted 1.9 mm medially and 1.3 mm cranially, respectively. The targets defined considering the position of the pyramidal tract were more medial and superior, based on the constraint of 15 Gy touching the object representing the IC in the GP-TPS. The best strategy to meet the set constraints was 90° Gamma angle (GA) with automatic shaping of dose distribution; this was followed by 110° GA. The worst GA was 70°. Treatment time was substantially increased by the shaping strategy, approximately doubling delivery time. CONCLUSIONS Routine use of DTI pyramidal tractography might be important to fine-tune GK-T planning. DTI tractography, as well as anisotropy showing the VIM, promises to improve Gamma Knife functional procedures. They allow for a more objective definition of dose constraints to the IC and targeting. DTI pyramidal tractography introduced into the treatment planning may reduce the incidence of motor complications and improve efficacy. This needs to be validated in a large clinical series.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/radioterapia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Adulto Jovem
11.
World J Radiol ; 8(3): 226-39, 2016 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27029029

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington's disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette's syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal-to-rostral direction. Uptake declines prior to symptom presentation and progresses from contralateral to the most symptomatic side to bilateral, correlating with symptom severity. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), striatal activity is symmetrically and diffusely decreased. The caudal-to-rostral pattern is lost in PSP, but could be present in MSA. In corticobasal degeneration (CBD), there is asymmetric, diffuse reduction of striatal activity, contralateral to the most symptomatic side. Additionally, there is hypometabolism in contralateral parieto-occipital and frontal cortices in PD; bilateral putamen and cerebellum in MSA; caudate, thalamus, midbrain, mesial frontal and prefrontal cortices in PSP; and contralateral cortices in CBD. Finally, cardiac sympathetic SPECT signal is decreased in PD. The capacity of molecular imaging to provide in vivo time courses of gene expression, protein synthesis, receptor and transporter binding, could facilitate the development and evaluation of novel medical, surgical and genetic therapies in movement disorders.

12.
Surg Neurol Int ; 5(Suppl 8): S385-90, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25289167

RESUMO

Dementia, most commonly caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), affects approximately 35 million people worldwide, with the incidence expected to increase as the population ages. After decades of investigation, AD is now understood to be a complex disease that affects behavior and cognition through several mechanisms: Disrupted neuronal communication, abnormal regional tissue metabolism, and impaired cellular repair. Existing therapies have demonstrated limited efficacy, which has spurred the search for specific disease markers and predictors as well as innovative therapeutic options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the memory circuits is one such option, with early studies suggesting that modulation of neural activity in these networks may improve cognitive function. Encapsulated cell biodelivery (ECB) is a device that delivers nerve growth factor to the cholinergic basal forebrain to potentially improve cognitive decline in AD patients. This review discusses the pathogenesis of AD, novel neuroimaging and biochemical markers, and the emerging role for neurosurgical applications such as DBS and ECB.

13.
J Clin Neurosci ; 21(9): 1652-3, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24726237

RESUMO

We report a patient with eyelid apraxia following deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal gray area. Based on the position of our electrode, we argue that the phenomenon is linked to inhibition of the nearby central caudal nucleus of the oculomotor nucleus by high frequency stimulation.


Assuntos
Apraxias/etiologia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Doenças Palpebrais/etiologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiopatologia , Apraxias/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Doenças Palpebrais/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Pós-Laminectomia/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Clin Neurosci ; 21(4): 676-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24210802

RESUMO

We report an unusual finding of bilateral facial and corporeal diaphoresis and sensation of heat during deep brain stimulation in two patients. Stimulation of the hypothalamospinal tract located medial to the subthalamic nucleus is likely to be responsible for this side effect.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Hiperidrose/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Hiperidrose/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
15.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 25(1): 147-57, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24262906

RESUMO

Extremes of eating disorders (ED) have become prevalent in both developed and developing countries. Available therapies, though largely effective, fail in a substantial number of patients and carry considerable side effects. Morbid obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) represent important causes of morbidity and mortality among young adults. Morbid obesity affects disproportionate numbers of children. AN is also important for its high mortality in young adults. The challenges of effectively treating AN are well recognized. In this article, important aspects of ED are reviewed in detail and novel approaches to the treatment of ED are proposed.


Assuntos
Anorexia/terapia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Obesidade/terapia , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiologia
16.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 24(4): 491-8, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24093567

RESUMO

Stereotactic radiosurgery was conceptualized to treat functional diseases of the brain. The need for devices capable of molding the radiation dose to the nuances of intracranial lesions and yet preserve brain function became a challenge. Several devices capable of performing radiosurgery of high quality became commercially available, each with advantages and disadvantages. Speed of radiosurgery delivery for cost effectiveness and comfort for the patient are currently the main developments in the field. Nuances of these devices, procedural steps of radiosurgery, and the team approach of radiosurgery are discussed in this article.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Radiocirurgia/história , Radiocirurgia/tendências , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
18.
Surg Neurol Int ; 4(Suppl 6): S460-1, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24605251
19.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 85(2): 341-7, 2013 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22713832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. METHODS AND MATERIALS: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an α/ß = 2 Gy (units = Gy(2/2)). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. RESULTS: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. CONCLUSION: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.


Assuntos
Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Medula Espinal/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Radiocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/secundário , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
20.
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