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1.
Acta Biomed ; 90(3): 394-397, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: An increase of vaccine hesitancy has spread worldwide and lead to reduction in coverage rates. The trivalent Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine has been one of the most targeted leading due to possible (but never proven) adverse effects. This resulted in an increase of measles cases. The aim of the study is to analyze the 24-months coverage rates for the MMR vaccine in Emilia-Romagna Region (RER) between 2007 and 2018 and to correlate any significant changes to index events. METHODS: Official aggregate data on vaccination coverage at 24-month provided by the RER and the Italian Ministry of health were analyzed and discussed. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2015 a significant reduction in vaccination rates has been registered. In the following years an increase was recorded temporarily related to national and regional laws. CONCLUSION: The mandatory vaccination strategies seem to be in the short period effective in RER to counteract the growing population neegative attitudes towards vaccination and mitigate vaccine hesitancy.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052443

RESUMO

The traditional Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of many diseases in adults and children. Pregnancy is a critical period of plasticity during which foetal development may be significantly influenced by different environmental factors, including maternal nutrition. In this context, several studies have examined the potential benefits of adherence to a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy on birth outcomes, considering the Mediterranean diet as a whole rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. In this review, we systematically summarized and discussed results of studies investigating the protective role of Mediterranean diet against foetal growth, prematurity, neural tube defects and other congenital pathologies, asthma and allergy, body weight and metabolic markers. Although current data are insufficient and randomized control trials are needed, growing evidence suggests the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy on children's health. In this sense, strategies aiming to promote adherence to this dietary pattern might be of considerable importance to public health.

3.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diffuse cardiac amyloidosis is a significant diagnosis with a poor prognosis. Isolated atrial amyloidosis (IAA) is the most common form of cardiac amyloidosis caused by accumulation of alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide. IAA has been associated with dysrhythmia, but otherwise remains a poorly characterized condition. The impact of incidental IAA on postoperative outcome following cardiac surgery has not previously been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of isolated atrial amyloid on patient outcomes following cardiac surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients having excision of the left atrial appendage during cardiac surgery at our centre over a 5-year period. Patients with histological evidence of IAA were compared to patients without this diagnosis. IAA was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry for atrial natriuretic peptide. RESULTS: A total of 167 patients underwent left atrial appendage excision and of these 26 (15.6%) were found to have IAA. Preoperative characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. A significantly greater proportion of patients with IAA experienced dysrhythmia requiring implantation of a permanent pacemaker (23.1% vs 7.8%, P = 0.03). There was also a significantly elevated incidence of perioperative death in the IAA group (11.5% vs 1.4%, P = 0.03) and inferior 1-year survival (84.6% vs 96.5%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of IAA may be associated with inferior outcomes following cardiac surgery, with increased morbidity in the early postoperative period and inferior long-term survival. Knowledge of the diagnosis preoperatively may facilitate management of patients.

5.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
6.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351340

RESUMO

International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) project. The harmonization process followed six steps: organization of the harmonization panel; identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable to its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classifications of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and data preparation and delivery through a knowledge management portal. We agreed on 137 reference definitions. The inferential equivalence of 3,551 cohort variables to their corresponding reference definition was classified as complete, partial and impossible for 70%, 15% and 15% of the variables, respectively. A harmonized database was delivered. In birth cohorts of asthma and allergies, the harmonization of data for pooled analyses is feasible and may achieve high inferential comparability. The MeDALL harmonization approach can be used in other collaborative projects.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The shift toward value-based care in the United States emphasizes the role of quality measures in payment models. Many diseases, such as prostate cancer, have a proliferation of quality measures, resulting in resource burden and physician burnout. This study aimed to identify and summarize proposed prostate cancer quality measures and describe their frequency and use in peer-reviewed literature. METHODS: The PubMed database was used to identify quality measures relevant to prostate cancer care, and included articles in English through April 2018. A gray literature search for other documents was also conducted. After the selection process of the pertinent articles, measure characteristics were abstracted, and uses were summarized for the 10 most frequently utilized measures in the literature. RESULTS: A total of 26 articles were identified for review. Of the 71 proposed prostate cancer quality measures, only 47 were used, and less than 10% of these were endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Process measures were most frequently reported (84.5%). Only 6 outcome measures (8.5%) were proposed-none of which were among the most frequently utilized. CONCLUSION: Although a high number of proposed prostate cancer quality measures are reported in the literature, few were assessed, and the majority of these were non-endorsed process measures. Process measures were most commonly assessed; outcome measures were rarely evaluated. In a step to close the quality chasm, a "top 5" core set of quality measures for prostate cancer care, including structure, process, and outcomes measures, is suggested. Future studies should consider this comprehensive set of quality measures.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209194

RESUMO

The parallel epidemics of childhood asthma and obesity over the past few decades have spurred research into obesity as a risk factor for asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of asthma in obesity incidence. We examined whether early-onset asthma and related phenotypes are associated with the risk of developing obesity in childhood.This study includes 21 130 children born from 1990 to 2008 in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We followed non-obese children at 3-4 years of age for incident obesity up to 8 years of age. Physician-diagnosed asthma, wheezing and allergic rhinitis were assessed up to 3-4 years of age.Children with physician-diagnosed asthma had a higher risk for incident obesity than those without asthma (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.18-2.33). Children with active asthma (wheeze in the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed asthma) exhibited a higher risk for obesity (aHR 1.98, 95% CI 1.31-3.00) than those without wheeze and asthma. Persistent wheezing was associated with increased risk for incident obesity compared to never wheezers (aHR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.09).Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity in later childhood.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 241: 367-370, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: About 30% of patients with bipolar disorders (BD) exhibit a continuous cycling course (CCC). These patients significantly differ from those with non-continuous cycling course (NCCC) on clinical presentation and have a poorer short-term response to antidepressant treatment. Our aim is to conduct a meta-analysis of the studies comparing long-term treatment response in CCC and NCCC bipolar patients. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of studies on patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder with CCC. Our primary outcome measure was the response to treatment at the last follow-up visit. The data analysis was based on the success rate difference as the effect size measure. To account for heterogeneity of primary studies, aggregation of results was based on a random-effects model. RESULTS: We included six observational studies comprising a total of 671 patients (CCC 29.4%, NCCC 70.6%). Overall, the response rate was 34.0% in the CCC and 49.3% in the NCCC arm. The meta-analysis shows a significant association between cycle pattern and response (success rate difference: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.25, -0.09; p < 0.0001), with low heterogeneity (χ2 (5 )= 5.16; I2 = 3%). CONCLUSION: In bipolar disorders, patients with CCC have a poorer response to prophylactic treatment compared with patients with NCCC.

12.
World J Surg ; 42(1): 73-81, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the number of people aged 80 years or over, the "oldest old," is the fastest growing population group. Because of the strong association between age and gallstone disease, both prevalence and incidence of this disease are increasing. The feasibility of the cholecystectomy in octogenarians has been evaluated in several studies that confirmed the safety of the operation. However, the safety of this procedure in nonagenarians is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of cholecystectomies in nonagenarians and identify related predictors for postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS) and in-hospital mortality up to 30 days postoperatively. METHODS: More than 500 cholecystectomies, both open and laparoscopic, were performed between January 2000 and September 2015 at our institution in patients 80 years and older. These statistics include both elective and emergent admissions. A retrospective review of charts over the last 15 years was conducted to compare mortality and length of postoperative stay among two patient groups: 319 octogenarians and 36 nonagenarians. Parameters evaluated include demographics, surgical presentation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, main diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery performed, LOS and in-hospital mortality. All data were analyzed with STATA (v.13) software, using a multivariate logistic regression after determining the statistically significant variables through a stepwise regression. CONCLUSIONS: We found out that being nonagenarian, compared to octogenarian, is not a significant risk factor in terms of LOS and in-hospital mortality within 30 days postoperatively. Despite that, the mortality rate among nonagenarians is still remarkably high as almost every patient was admitted in an emergent setting. The most remarkable predictor for mortality among the two groups was an "afternoon/night emergency" surgical presentation (OR 25.5, CI 1.53-42.35, p = 0.02). Thus, the surgical emergency management for gallbladder disease at our institution should be critically reevaluated. Performing the procedure in laparoscopy predicted a significant reduction (-5 days, CI -8.5 to -1.4, p = 0.006) of LOS, while presenting with "gallbladder and bile duct stones" (+6.3 days, CI 1.5-11.1, p = 0.01) or "acalculous cholecystitis" (+4.7 days, CI 0.4-9.2, p = 0.03) had the opposite effect. Despite the remarkable mortality rate of our series, being nonagenarian should not be considered as a reason to avoid gallbladder surgery in case of need. Our study suggests that nonagenarians are more suitable surgical candidates than may have previously expected.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia/efeitos adversos , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colecistectomia/métodos , Colecistectomia/mortalidade , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/mortalidade , Colelitíase/mortalidade , Colelitíase/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Emergências , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
JAMA Surg ; 152(10): e172872, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813550

RESUMO

Importance: There is increased interest in nonpharmacological treatments to reduce pain after total knee arthroplasty. Yet, little consensus supports the effectiveness of these interventions. Objective: To systematically review and meta-analyze evidence of nonpharmacological interventions for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty. Data Sources: Database searches of MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science (ISI database), Physiotherapy Evidence (PEDRO) database, and ClinicalTrials.gov for the period between January 1946 and April 2016. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials comparing nonpharmacological interventions with other interventions in combination with standard care were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted the data from selected articles using a standardized form and assessed the risk of bias. A random-effects model was used for the analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Postoperative pain and consumption of opioids and analgesics. Results: Of 5509 studies, 39 randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis (2391 patients). The most commonly performed interventions included continuous passive motion, preoperative exercise, cryotherapy, electrotherapy, and acupuncture. Moderate-certainty evidence showed that electrotherapy reduced the use of opioids (mean difference, -3.50; 95% CI, -5.90 to -1.10 morphine equivalents in milligrams per kilogram per 48 hours; P = .004; I2 = 17%) and that acupuncture delayed opioid use (mean difference, 46.17; 95% CI, 20.84 to 71.50 minutes to the first patient-controlled analgesia; P < .001; I2 = 19%). There was low-certainty evidence that acupuncture improved pain (mean difference, -1.14; 95% CI, -1.90 to -0.38 on a visual analog scale at 2 days; P = .003; I2 = 0%). Very low-certainty evidence showed that cryotherapy was associated with a reduction in opioid consumption (mean difference, -0.13; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.01 morphine equivalents in milligrams per kilogram per 48 hours; P = .03; I2 = 86%) and in pain improvement (mean difference, -0.51; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.02 on the visual analog scale; P < .05; I2 = 62%). Low-certainty or very low-certainty evidence showed that continuous passive motion and preoperative exercise had no pain improvement and reduction in opioid consumption: for continuous passive motion, the mean differences were -0.05 (95% CI, -0.35 to 0.25) on the visual analog scale (P = .74; I2 = 52%) and 6.58 (95% CI, -6.33 to 19.49) opioid consumption at 1 and 2 weeks (P = .32, I2 = 87%), and for preoperative exercise, the mean difference was -0.14 (95% CI, -1.11 to 0.84) on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index Scale (P = .78, I2 = 65%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, electrotherapy and acupuncture after total knee arthroplasty were associated with reduced and delayed opioid consumption.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Humanos
14.
Nutrients ; 9(8)2017 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829405

RESUMO

Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.88), p < 0.0001). According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86), p < 0.0001). Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57-0.80) p < 0.00001). The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Peso ao Nascer , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
ERJ Open Res ; 3(3)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845428

RESUMO

While there is evidence for variations in prevalence rates of childhood wheeze and asthma between countries, longitudinal, individual-level data are needed to understand these differences. The aim of this study was to examine variations in prevalence rates of childhood asthma, wheeze and wheeze with asthma in Europe. We analysed datasets from 10 MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy) cohorts in eight countries, representing 26 663 children, to calculate prevalence rates of wheeze and asthma by child age and wheeze with asthma at age 4 years. Harmonised variables included outcomes parent-reported wheeze and parent-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma, and covariates maternal education, parental smoking, pets, parental asthma, doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, doctor-diagnosed eczema and wheeze severity. At age 4 years, asthma prevalence varied from 1.72% in Germany to 13.48% in England and the prevalence of wheeze varied from 9.82% in Greece to 55.37% in Spain. Adjusted estimates of the proportion of 4-year-old children with wheeze diagnosed with asthma remained highest in England (38.14%, 95% CI 31.38-44.90%) and lowest in Spain (15.94%, 95% CI 6.16-25.71%). The large differences in prevalence rates of asthma, wheeze and wheeze with asthma at age 4 years between European cohorts may indicate that childhood asthma is more readily diagnosed in some countries while going unrecognised elsewhere.

16.
Front Horm Res ; 48: 133-146, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28245458

RESUMO

Since the mid 1900s, a significant increase of infectious, hematological, and autoimmune diseases has been reported in patients with Down's syndrome (DS), independent of sex, age, family history, and exposure to other risk factors, suggesting an intrinsic alteration of the immune system. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated alterations of both cellular and humoral immunological response mainly, although not exclusively, secondary to alterations of the expression of autoimmune regulator gene (located on chromosome 21), leading to thymic structural and functional impairments. Autoimmune thyroid disorders (i.e. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease) and type 1 diabetes mellitus are the most common autoimmune endocrine disorders associated with DS, and present with some peculiar features. The underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms and clinical significance of some mild laboratory alterations are still poorly understood. For these aspects, together with the associated multiple comorbidities and intellectual impairment - that make DS patients dependent on care givers - and in the absence of definite guidelines, disease management is very challenging and should be patient-tailored.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Síndrome de Down , Tireoidite Autoimune , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Síndrome de Down/imunologia , Síndrome de Down/metabolismo , Humanos , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/metabolismo
17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1465-1477, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338907

RESUMO

Background: It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. Methods: We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs participating in 18 European and US birth cohort studies. Information on wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence was collected using validated questionnaires. The time periods of interest were: infancy (0-2 years), preschool age (3-4 years), and school age (5-8 years). We used multivariable generalized models to assess associations of fish and seafood (other than fish) consumption during pregnancy with child respiratory outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Results: The median fish consumption during pregnancy ranged from 0.44 times/week in The Netherlands to 4.46 times/week in Spain. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring wheeze symptoms in any age group nor with the risk of child asthma [adjusted meta-analysis relative risk (RR) per 1-time/week = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05)] and allergic rhinitis at school age (RR = 1.01, 0.99-1.03). These results were consistently found in further analyses by type of fish and seafood consumption and in sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: We found no evidence supporting a protective association of fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy with offspring symptoms of wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis from infancy to mid childhood.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Sons Respiratórios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Acta Radiol ; 58(8): 964-970, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856801

RESUMO

Background Ultrasound-guided percutaneous irrigation of calcific tendinopathy (US-PICT) with intrabursal steroid injection is an elective treatment for painful rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy. Purpose To compare the efficacy of post-US-PICT intrabursal 40 mg injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) versus methylprednisolone acetate (MA). Material and Methods Forty patients (22 women; mean age 48.7 ± 7.2 years) with painful shoulder calcific tendinopathy, treated with TA or MA injected intrabursally after US-PICT, were included in this randomized controlled trial. At baseline and after 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, and 180 days, patients underwent US and clinical examination, using Constant (CS) and VAS (VS) scores. Complications and analgesic use were also recorded. Results Compared to baseline, at the 45-day follow-up, TA and MA group showed a similar improvement (Δ) in CS (42 ± 10 versus 36 ± 9 points) and VS (-4.4 ± 1.3 versus -3.6 ± 1.3 points). At the 180-day follow-up, the improvement was higher in TA versus MA (ΔCS: 53 ± 7 versus 44 ± 7 points; ΔVS: -4.9 ± 1.1 versus -3.9 ± 1 points). Multivariate analysis showed a mean CS higher ( P = 0.02) in TA versus MA group, while VS was similar. TA had a 5 × higher ( P = 0.007) chance of reaching complete remission (CS = 100 points) than MA group. A progressive decrease in analgesic use, concomitant to a significant and similar reduction of bursitis and calcifications, was observed in both groups. No major complications occurred. Conclusion Two-needle US-PICT with intrabursal steroid injection is safe and effective. The chance of reaching better scores and, even more important for a clinical perspective, of functional recovery, is higher in patients treated with TA than MA.


Assuntos
Calcinose/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/análogos & derivados , Dor de Ombro/tratamento farmacológico , Tendinopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Triancinolona/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Acetato de Metilprednilosona , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor de Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Triancinolona/administração & dosagem
19.
BMJ Open ; 6(12): e013092, 2016 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. METHODS: We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one 'more specific', one 'more sensitive'). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. RESULTS: The 'more specific' filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The 'more sensitive' filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the 'more specific' filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the 'more sensitive' one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the 'more specific' filter and 3.3 for the 'more sensitive' one. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , PubMed , Pesquisa , Ferramenta de Busca/métodos , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Medical Subject Headings
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