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1.
Tumori ; : 3008916221096183, 2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603579

RESUMO

There is an increasing trend towards using oral antitumoral agents in oncological patients. Compared to parenteral therapy, oral treatment offers convenience for both the patient and the healthcare system, with similar efficacy. However, the benefit deriving from oral drugs will be obtained only if patients adhere strictly to the treatment. Medical oncologists must therefore seek to optimize patient adherence. Breast cancer patients, particularly, are often treated with oral hormonal anticancer agents. In this review, we summarized evidence about adherence of breast cancer patients to oral hormonal anticancer agents and the consequences of poor compliance, the barriers to oral treatment and strategies to overcome them.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 167: 81-91, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed a cohort of patients with cancer and Sars-Cov-2 infection from the Veneto Oncology Network registry across two pandemic time periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 761 patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. RESULTS: 198 patients were diagnosed during the first pandemic time period (TP1; February 2020 September 2020), 494 during TP2 before the vaccination campaign (TP2/pre-vaccination; September 2020-21 February 2021) and 69 in TP2/post-vaccination (22 February 2021-15 May 2021). TP2 vs TP1 patients were younger (p = 0.004), showed more frequently a good performance status (p < 0.001) and <2 comorbidities (p = 0.002), were more likely to be on active anticancer therapy (p = 0.006). Significantly fewer patients in TP2 (3-4%) vs TP1 (22%) had an in-hospital potential source of infection (p < 0.001). TP2 patients were more frequently asymptomatic (p = 0.003). Significantly fewer patients from TP2 were hospitalized (p < 0.001) or admitted to intensive care unit (p = 0.006). All-cause mortality decreased from 30.3% in TP1, to 8.9% and 8.7% in the two TP2 periods (p < 0.001), reflected by a significant reduction in Sars-Cov-2-related mortality (15.2%, 7.5% and 5.8% in the three consecutive time periods, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in clinical characteristics and features of Sars-Cov-2 infection between TP1 and TP2 reflect the effects of protective measures and increased testing capacity. The lower mortality in TP2 is in line with a less frail population. However, the vast majority of death events in TP2 were related to COVID-19, reinforcing the priority to protect cancer patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(12): 2555-2566, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows considerable promise in improving clinical outcomes. HepaVac-101 represents a single-arm, first-in-human phase I/II multicenter cancer vaccine trial for HCC (NCT03203005). It combines multipeptide antigens (IMA970A) with the TLR7/8/RIG I agonist CV8102. IMA970A includes 5 HLA-A*24 and 7 HLA-A*02 as well as 4 HLA-DR restricted peptides selected after mass spectrometric identification in human HCC tissues or cell lines. CV8102 is an RNA-based immunostimulator inducing a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 82 patients with very early- to intermediate-stage HCCs were enrolled and screened for suitable HLA haplotypes and 22 put on study treatment. This consisted in a single infusion of low-dose cyclophosphamide followed by nine intradermal coadministrations of IMA970A and CV8102. Only patients with no disease relapse after standard-of-care treatments were vaccinated. The primary endpoints of the HepaVac-101 clinical trial were safety, tolerability, and antigen-specific T-cell responses. Secondary or exploratory endpoints included additional immunologic parameters and survival endpoints. RESULTS: The vaccination showed a good safety profile. Transient mild-to-moderate injection-site reactions were the most frequent IMA970A/CV8102-related side effects. Immune responses against ≥1 vaccinated HLA class I tumor-associated peptide (TAA) and ≥1 vaccinated HLA class II TAA were respectively induced in 37% and 53% of the vaccinees. CONCLUSIONS: Immunotherapy may provide a great improvement in treatment options for HCC. HepaVac-101 is a first-in-human clinical vaccine trial with multiple novel HLA class I- and class II-restricted TAAs against HCC. The results are initial evidence for the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. Further clinical evaluations are warranted.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos HLA-A , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos
4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(4): 286-294, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343480

RESUMO

Hormone therapy with anti-estrogenic purposes is a cornerstone in breast cancer therapy that expresses estrogen receptors, the most frequent immunohistotype among invasive breast cancer. Hormone therapy is administered for a long time and affects the cardio-metabolic profile with possible interactions with the woman's intrinsic cardiovascular risk and the cardiotoxic effects of other treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, target therapy). In this review, we analyze the pathophysiological implications and cardiovascular effects of hormone therapy providing useful elements for the creation of a personalized management program based on the "stepwise approach" as recommended by the 2021 cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and on the possible use of new antidiabetic drugs potentially useful for the management of the metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Metaboloma
5.
Radiol Med ; 127(5): 534-542, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303246

RESUMO

The increasing number of examinations and interventional radiological procedures that require the administration of contrast medium (CM) in patients at risk for advanced age and/or comorbidities highlights the problem of CM-induced renal toxicity. A multidisciplinary group consisting of specialists of different disciplines-radiologists, nephrologists and oncologists, members of the respective Italian Scientific Societies-agreed to draw up this position paper, to assist clinicians increasingly facing the challenges posed by CM-related renal dysfunction in their daily clinical practice.The major risk factor for acute renal failure following CM administration (post-CM AKI) is the preexistence of renal failure, particularly when associated with diabetes, heart failure or cancer.In accordance with the recent guidelines ESUR, the present document reaffirms the importance of renal risk assessment through the evaluation of the renal function (eGFR) measured on serum creatinine and defines the renal risk cutoff when the eGFR is < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 for procedures with intravenous (i.v.) or intra-arterial (i.a.) administration of CM with renal contact at the second passage (i.e., after CM dilution with the passage into the pulmonary circulation).The cutoff of renal risk is considered an eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 in patients undergoing i.a. administration with first-pass renal contact (CM injected directly into the renal arteries or in the arterial district upstream of the renal circulation) or in particularly unstable patients such as those admitted to the ICU.Intravenous hydration using either saline or Na bicarbonate solution before and after CM administration represents the most effective preventive measure in patients at risk of post-CM AKI. In the case of urgency, the infusion of 1.4% sodium bicarbonate pre- and post-CM may be more appropriate than the administration of saline.In cancer patients undergoing computed tomography, pre- and post-CM hydration should be performed when the eGFR is < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 and it is also advisable to maintain a 5 to 7 days interval with respect to the administration of cisplatin and to wait 14 days before administering zoledronic acid.In patients with more severe renal risk (i.e., with eGFR < 20 ml/min/1.73 m2), particularly if undergoing cardiological interventional procedures, the prevention of post-CM AKI should be implemented through an internal protocol shared between the specialists who treat the patient.In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium CM, there is a lower risk of AKI than with iodinated CM, particularly if doses < 0.1 mmol/kg body weight are used and in patients with eGFR > 30 ml/min/1.73 m2. Dialysis after MRI is indicated only in patients already undergoing chronic dialysis treatment to reduce the potential risk of systemic nephrogenic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Nefrologia , Radiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Oncologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 9, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062993

RESUMO

Family history of cancer (FHC) is a hallmark of cancer risk and an independent predictor of outcome, albeit with uncertain biologic foundations. We previously showed that FHC-high patients experienced prolonged overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) following PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. To validate our findings in patients with NSCLC, we evaluated two multicenter cohorts of patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving either first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy. From each cohort, 607 patients were randomly case-control matched accounting for FHC, age, performance status, and disease burden. Compared to FHC-low/negative, FHC-high patients experienced longer OS (HR 0.67 [95% CI 0.46-0.95], p = 0.0281), PFS (HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.48-0.89]; p = 0.0074) and higher disease control rates (DCR, 86.4% vs 67.5%, p = 0.0096), within the pembrolizumab cohort. No significant associations were found between FHC and OS/PFS/DCR within the chemotherapy cohort. We explored the association between FHC and somatic DNA damage response (DDR) gene alterations as underlying mechanism to our findings in a parallel cohort of 118 NSCLC, 16.9% of whom were FHC-high. The prevalence of ≥ 1 somatic DDR gene mutation was 20% and 24.5% (p = 0.6684) in FHC-high vs. FHC-low/negative, with no differences in tumor mutational burden (6.0 vs. 7.6 Mut/Mb, p = 0.6018) and tumor cell PD-L1 expression. FHC-high status identifies NSCLC patients with improved outcomes from pembrolizumab but not chemotherapy, independent of somatic DDR gene status. Prospective studies evaluating FHC alongside germline genetic testing are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(3): 483-488, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) ≥50% metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) and ECOG performance status (PS) of 2 treated with first-line immunotherapy have heterogeneous clinical assessment and outcomes. METHODS: To explore the role of immune-inflammatory surrogates by the validated lung immuno-oncology prognostic score (LIPS) score, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the pretreatment use of steroids, alongside other prognostic variables. A retrospective analysis of 128 patients with PS2 and PD-L1 ≥50% mNSCLC treated between April 2018 and September 2019 with first-line pembrolizumab in a real-world setting was performed. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 15.3 months, the 1-year overall survival (OS) and median progression-free survival (PFS) were 32.3% (95% CI: 30.9-33.9) and 3.3 months (95% CI: 1.8-4.7), respectively. The NLR, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pretreatment steroids results were the only significant prognostic factors on the univariate analysis and independent prognostic factors by the multivariate analysis on both OS and PFS. The LIPS score, including the NLR and pretreatment steroids, identified 29 (23%) favourable-risk patients, with 0 factors, 1-year OS of 67.6% and median PFS of 8.2 months; 57 (45%) intermediate-risk patients, with 1 factor, 1-year OS 32.1% and median PFS 2.7 months; 42 (33%) poor-risk patients, with both factors, 1-year OS of 10.7% and median PFS of 1.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of pre-existing imbalance of the host immune response by combined blood and clinical immune-inflammatory markers may represent a way to unravel the heterogeneous outcome and assessment of patients with mNSCLC and poor PS in the immune-oncology setting.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896250

RESUMO

The development of innovative technologies and the advances in the genetics and genomics, have offered new opportunities for personalized treatment in oncology. Although the selection of the patient based on the molecular characteristics of the neoplasm has the potential to revolutionize the therapeutic scenario of oncology, this approach is extremely challenging. The access, homogeneity, and economic sustainability of the required genomic tests should be warranted in the clinical practice, as well as the specific scientific and clinical expertise for the choice of medical therapies. All these elements make essential the collaboration of different specialists within the Molecular Tumor Boards (MTBs). In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC/IAP-SIBioC-SIC-SIF-SIGU-SIRM Italian Scientific Societies critically discuss the available molecular profiling technologies, the proposed criteria for the selection of patients candidate for evaluation by the MTB, the criteria for the selection and analysis of biological samples, and the regulatory and pharmaco-economic issues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Genômica , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética
11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103572, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954047

RESUMO

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies derived from neuroendocrine cells that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. GEP-NETs incidence has been steadily increasing over the past decades, in parallel with the increasing incidence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is not yet fully known whether the MetS components (such as obesity, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes) could be involved in the etiology of GEP-NETs or could influence their outcomes. In this review, a panel of experts of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM), Italian Association of Medical Diabetologists (AMD), Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), and Italian Society of Pharmacology (SIF) provides a critical view of the experimental and clinical evidence about the association of GEP-NETs risk, outcomes, and therapies with the metabolic disorders typical of MetS. The potential therapeutic strategies for an optimal management of patients with both GEP-NETs and MetS are also discussed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias Intestinais , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Consenso , Humanos , Oncologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia
12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 705927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804915

RESUMO

The role of a healthy diet in cancer prevention is well recognized. Recent data indicate that following the same advices can also improve cancer survivors' quality of life. Breast cancer (BC) patients are commonly concerned about diet and nutrition and frequently express the need to obtain health-related information and the will to change their diet and lifestyle. Hence, be aware of survivors' dietary changes and information needs is crucial for healthcare professionals to guide them toward optimal lifestyle choices. In order to investigate eating habits changes in a BC survivors' population, we conceived the cross-sectional multicentric study ECHO (Eating habits CHanges in Oncologic patients) Survey. Data were collected from 684 patients, diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, in order to investigate their changes in food consumption, use of supplements, or the beginning of a specific diet, after BC diagnosis. We also examined the sources of information used and if any modification in their diets was reported to the oncologist. We primarily observed that patients increased their consumption of vegetables, pulses, nuts, fruits, wholemeal bread/pasta, grains and fish; while decreasing red and processed meat, refined bread/pasta, baked good and animal fat consumption. Survivors also reported the use of dietary supplements, mainly vitamins, aimed at counteracting therapies' side effects. Changes in nutritional habits were often adopted without asking or informing the oncologist. Despite BC survivors made some positive changes in their nutritional habits, those modifications were mostly pursued by less than half of them, while the majority of patients consumed nutritional supplements after diagnosis. These results, as well as the failure to communicate with the physicians, reinforce the need to both improve the patient-healthcare professional relationship and to develop tailored nutrition counselling and intervention programs for cancer survivors.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128667, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648011

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with cancer who would benefit from psychosocial care do not receive it. Implementation strategies may favor the integration of psychosocial care into practice and improve patient outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Humanization in Cancer Care (HuCare) Quality Improvement Strategy vs standard care as improvement of at least 1 of 2 domains (emotional or social function) of patient health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months. A key secondary aim included investigation of the long-term effect. Design, Setting, and Participants: HuCare2 was a multicenter, incomplete, stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial, conducted from May 30, 2016, to August 28, 2019, in three 5-center clusters of cancer centers representative of hospital size and geographic location in Italy. The study was divided into 5 equally spaced epochs. Implementation sequence was defined by a blinded statistician; the nature of the intervention precluded blinding for clinical staff. Participants included consecutive adult outpatients with newly diagnosed cancer of any type and stage starting medical cancer treatment. Interventions: The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy comprised (1) clinician communication training, (2) on-site visits for context analysis and problem-solving, and (3) implementation of 6 evidence-based recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the difference between the means of changes of individual scores in emotional or social functions of health-related quality of life detected at baseline and 3-month follow-up (within each group) and during the postintervention epoch compared with control periods (between groups). Long-term effect of the intervention (at 12 months) was assessed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results: A total of 762 patients (475 [62.3%] women) were enrolled (400 HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy and 362 usual care); mean (SD) age was 61.4 (13.1) years. The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved emotional function during treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = .008) but not social function (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09; P = .80). Effect on emotional function persisted at 12 months (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, the HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved the emotional function aspect of health-related quality of life during cancer treatment and at 12 months, indicating a change in clinician behavior and in ward organization. These findings support the need for strategies to introduce psychosocial care; however, more research is needed on factors that may maximize the effects. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03008993.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1458-1467, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of extending aromatase inhibitor therapy beyond 5 years in the context of previous aromatase inhibitors remains controversial. We aimed to compare extended therapy with letrozole for 5 years versus the standard duration of 2-3 years of letrozole in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who have already received 2-3 years of tamoxifen. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial was done at 69 hospitals in Italy. Women were eligible if they were postmenopausal at the time of study entry, had stage I-III histologically proven and operable invasive hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, had received adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for at least 2 years but no longer than 3 years and 3 months, had no signs of disease recurrence, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 2-3 years (control group) or 5 years (extended group) of letrozole (2·5 mg orally once a day). Randomisation, with stratification by centre, with permuted blocks of size 12, was done with a centralised, interactive, internet-based system that randomly generated the treatment allocation. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was invasive disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analysis was done for patients who received at least 1 month of study treatment. This trial was registered with EudraCT, 2005-001212-44, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01064635. FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2005, and Oct 24, 2010, 2056 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive letrozole for 2-3 years (n=1030; control group) or for 5 years (n=1026; extended group). After a median follow-up of 11·7 years (IQR 9·5-13·1), disease-free survival events occurred in 262 (25·4%) of 1030 patients in the control group and 212 (20·7%) of 1026 in the extended group. 12-year disease-free survival was 62% (95% CI 57-66) in the control group and 67% (62-71) in the extended group (hazard ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·65-0·93; p=0·0064). The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were arthralgia (22 [2·2%] of 983 patients in the control group vs 29 [3·0%] of 977 in the extended group) and myalgia (seven [0·7%] vs nine [0·9%]). There were three (0·3%) serious treatment-related adverse events in the control group and eight (0·8%) in the extended group. No deaths related to toxic effects were observed. INTERPRETATION: In postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who received 2-3 years of tamoxifen, extended treatment with 5 years of letrozole resulted in a significant improvement in disease-free survival compared with the standard 2-3 years of letrozole. Sequential endocrine therapy with tamoxifen for 2-3 years followed by letrozole for 5 years should be considered as one of the optimal standard endocrine treatments for postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. FUNDING: Novartis and the Italian Ministry of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Mastectomia , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103434, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) rechallenge in cancer patients is not defined. When ICIs are discontinued due to treatment completion or toxicity, another course of ICIs is feasible in clinical practice, but the amount of data is still quite limited to draw definitive conclusions. Here we report the results of a meta-analysis evaluating efficacy and safety of ICI rechallenge. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were searched for studies reporting efficacy and safety of ICI rechallenge. Pooled analysis of response rate (ORR), median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 49 studies were included in qualitative and quantitative pooled analysis Overall response rate, mPFS and mOS were 21.8 % (range 0-70 %), 4.9 months (range 0-19.1 months) and 15.6 months (range 5.1-39 months), respectively. Incidence of any grade and grade 3-4 adverse events were 52.2 % (range 4-100 %) and 21.5 % (range 0-97.8 %), respectively. In the subgroup of patients who had previously discontinued ICI because of disease progression ORR, mPFS and mOS were 15.2 %, 2.9 and 7.9 months. Patients who had previously discontinued ICI because of toxicity achieved an ORR of 44 % and a mPFS of 13.2 months with the rechallenge. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rechallenge ICI is an active and feasible strategy, and it could be considered on an individual basis. However, this analysis is based on non-randomized studies. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of rechallenge after disease progression or adverse events.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Tomography ; 7(3): 387-396, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449751

RESUMO

Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an imaging technique widely used in traumatic settings to diagnose bone marrow oedema (BME). This paper describes the role of DECT in diagnosing BME in non-traumatic settings by evaluating its reliability in analyzing some of the most common painful syndromes. In particular, with an illustrative approach, the paper describes the possible use of DECT for the evaluation of osteochondral lesions of the knee and of the ankle, avascular necrosis of the hip, non-traumatic stress fractures, and other inflammatory and infectious disorders of the bones.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Edema , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema/etiologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103436, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371157

RESUMO

The personalized medicine is in a rapidly evolving scenario. The identification of actionable mutations is revolutionizing the therapeutic landscape of tumors. The morphological and histological tumor features are enriched by the extensive genomic profiling, and the first tumor-agnostic drugs have been approved regardless of tumor histology, guided by predictive and druggable genetic alterations. This new paradigm of "mutational oncology", presents a great potential to change the oncologic therapeutic scenario, but also some critical aspects need to be underlined. A process governance is mandatory to ensure the genomic testing accuracy and homogeneity, the economic sustainability, and the regulatory issues, ultimately granting the possibility of translating this model in the "real world". In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC-IAP-SIBIOC-SIF Italian Scientific Societies revised the new agnostic biomarkers, the diagnostic technologies available, the current availability of agnostic drugs and their present indication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão
18.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 21-29, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite endocrine therapy being the mainstay of treatment for hormone receptor positive (HR+)/HER2- metastatic breast cancer, patients at risk of visceral crisis or doubt for endocrine sensitivity are still offered first-line chemotherapy. Maintenance hormonal therapy is generally offered at the discontinuation of chemotherapy. The MAINtenance Afinitor study is a randomised, phase III trial comparing maintenance everolimus combined with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) versus AI monotherapy in patients with disease control after first-line chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with stable disease, partial response or complete response after first-line chemotherapy were randomised to everolimus plus AIs (exemestane or letrozole or anastrozole) or to AIs alone. Primary aim was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary aims included response rate, safety and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: In total, 110 patients were randomised to everolimus + AIs (n = 52) or to AIs (n = 58). Median PFS was 11.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-13.8) in the everolimus + AI arm and 7.2 months (95% CI 4.7-10.9) in the AI monotherapy arm (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71, 95% CI 0.47-1.06). Objective response rate was 22.4% in everolimus + AI arm and 19.2% in AI monotherapy arm. A higher proportion of disease progression as best response was reported in the AI monotherapy arm (28.8% versus 14.3%). Median OS was 35.7 months (95% CI 26.0-47.8) in the combination arm versus 33.5 (95% CI 26.4-42.7) in the AI alone arm (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.61-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: EVE + AIs did not significantly impact on the outcome of metastatic breast cancer patients deemed suitable for first-line chemotherapy. Also taking into account treatment tolerability, maintenance endocrine therapy remains the standard. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT: 2013-004153-24.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Immunotherapy ; 13(13): 1093-1103, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190578

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the role of pretreatment lung immune prognostic index (LIPI) as biomarker in PD-L1 ≥50% non-small-cell lung cancer patients receiving pembrolizumab. Patients & methods: We retrospectively identified 117 patients, divided into three prognostic groups according to LIPI score. For each patient, we evaluated 1-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival rate. C-statistic and survival receiver operating characteristic curves were used to study discrimination of LIPI. Results: After a median follow-up of 11.7 months, 1-year OS rate was 60.1%, 35.3% and 28.6%, while 1-year progression-free survival rate was 39.1%, 20.6% and 14.3% in good, intermediate and poor LIPI groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The c-statistic and area under the curve of LIPI were 0.63 and 0.662 for OS and 1-year OS, respectively. Conclusions: Higher LIPI score is related to worse survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with first-line pembrolizumab. However, based on c-statistic and area under the curve, LIPI does not represent a good prognostic survival model.


Lay abstract In recent years, immunotherapy has become a milestone in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, but clinicians need clinical and/or laboratory factors able to predict the benefit of immunotherapy. Therefore, we investigated the role of pretreatment lung immune prognostic index (LIPI) as biomarker in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with high PD-L1 expression levels and receiving pembrolizumab as first line. We retrospectively identified 117 patients divided into three prognostic groups (good, intermediate and poor) according to LIPI score. We found that patients belonging to good prognostic group (LIPI score 0) lived longer and responded better than those of intermediate and poor prognostic groups (LIPI score 1 or 2), confirming the correlation between LIPI score and survival and response outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 270, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The favourable safety profile and the increasing confidence with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) might have boosted their prescription in frail patients with short life expectancies, who usually are not treated with standard chemotherapy. METHODS: The present analysis aims to describe clinicians' attitudes towards ICIs administration during late stages of life within a multicenter cohort of advanced cancer patients treated with single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in Italy. RESULTS: Overall, 1149 patients with advanced cancer who received single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors were screened. The final study population consisted of 567 deceased patients. 166 patients (29.3%) had received ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (28.3% vs 11.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (69.3% vs 59.4%, p = 0.0266). In total, 35 patients (6.2%) started ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (45.7% vs 14.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (82.9% vs 60.9%, p = 0.0266). Primary tumors were significantly different across subgroups (p = 0.0172), with a higher prevalence of NSCLC patients (80% vs 60.9%) among those who started ICIs within 30 days of death. Lastly, 123 patients (21.7%) started ICIs within 3 months of death. Similarly, within this subgroup there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (29.3% vs 12.8%, p < 0.0001), with a higher burden of disease (74.0% vs 59.0%, p = 0.0025) and with NSCLC (74.0% vs 58.8%, p = 0.0236). CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a trend toward an increasing ICIs prescription in frail patients, during the late stages of life. Caution should be exercised when evaluating an ICI treatment for patients with a poor PS and a high burden of disease.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
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