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1.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061633

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction (EnD) is a hallmark feature of coronary artery disease (CAD), representing the key early step of atherosclerotic plaque development and progression. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is performed daily worldwide to treat symptomatic CAD, however a consistent proportion of patients remain symptomatic for angina despite otherwise successful revascularization. EnD plays a central role in the mechanisms of post-PCI angina, as it is strictly associated with both structural and functional abnormalities in the coronary arteries that may persist, or even accentuate, following PCI. The assessment of endothelial function in patients undergoing PCI might help to identify those patients at higher risk of future cardiovascular events and recurrent/persistent angina who might therefore benefit more from an intensive treatment. In this review, we address the role of EnD in determining angina after PCI, discussing its pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic approaches and therapeutic perspectives.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922930

RESUMO

Exposure to traffic noise is associated with stress and sleep disturbances. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently concluded that road traffic noise increases the risk for ischemic heart disease and potentially other cardiometabolic diseases, including stroke, obesity, and diabetes. The WHO report focused on whole-day noise exposure, but new epidemiological and translational field noise studies indicate that nighttime noise, in particular, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) through increased levels of stress hormones and vascular oxidative stress, leading to endothelial dysfunction and subsequent development of various CVDs. Novel experimental studies found noise to be associated with oxidative stress-induced vascular and brain damage, mediated by activation of the NADPH oxidase, uncoupling of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and vascular/brain infiltration with inflammatory cells. Noise-induced pathophysiology was more pronounced in response to nighttime as compared with daytime noise. This review focuses on the consequences of nighttime noise. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 41 is April 1, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899473

RESUMO

AIMS: In a randomized, parallel, blinded study, we investigate the impact of clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor on peripheral endothelial function in patients undergoing stenting for an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The primary endpoint of the study was the change in endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following stenting. A total of 90 patients (age 62 ± 9 years, 81 males, 22 diabetics, 49 non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions) were enrolled. There were no significant differences among groups in any clinical parameter. Acutely before stenting, all three drugs improved FMD without differences between groups (P = 0.73). Stenting blunted FMD in the clopidogrel and ticagrelor group (both P < 0.01), but not in the prasugrel group. During follow-up, prasugrel was superior to clopidogrel [mean difference 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-3.58; P = 0.0047] and ticagrelor (mean difference 1.57, 95% CI 0.31-2.83; P = 0.0155), but this difference was limited to patients who received the study therapy 2 h before stenting. Ticagrelor was not significantly superior to clopidogrel (mean difference 0.55, 95% CI -0.73 to 1.82; P = 0.39). No significant differences were seen among groups for low-flow-mediated dilation. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively) and platelet aggregation reactivity in response to adenosine diphosphate (P = 0.002 and P = 0.035) were lower in the prasugrel compared to clopidogrel and ticagrelor group. CONCLUSION: As compared to ticagrelor and clopidogrel, therapy with prasugrel in patients undergoing stenting for an acute coronary syndrome is associated with improved endothelial function, stronger platelet inhibition, and reduced IL-6 levels, all of which may have prognostic implications. This effect was lost in patients who received the study medication immediately after stenting. EUDRACT-NO: 2011-005305-73.

4.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired renal function (IRF) is associated with increased risks of both ischemic and bleeding events. Ticagrelor has been shown to provide greater absolute reduction in ischemic risk following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in those with versus without IRF. METHODS: A pre-specified sub-analysis of the randomized GLOBAL LEADERS trial (n = 15,991) comparing the experimental strategy of 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy (after 1-month ticagrelor and aspirin dual anti-platelet therapy [DAPT]) with 12-month DAPT followed by 12-month aspirin after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ACS and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients stratified according to IRF (glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). RESULTS: At 2 years, patients with IRF (n = 2171) had a higher rate of the primary endpoint (all-cause mortality or centrally adjudicated, new Q-wave myocardial infarction [MI](hazard ratio [HR] 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.98, padj = 0.001), all-cause death, site-reported MI, all revascularization and BARC 3 or 5 type bleeding, compared with patients without IRF. Among patients with IRF, there were similar rates of the primary endpoint (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61-1.11, p = 0.192, pint = 0.680) and BARC 3 or 5 type bleeding (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.71-1.71, p = 0.656, pint = 0.506) in the experimental versus the reference group. No significant interactions were seen between IRF and treatment effect for any of the secondary outcome variables. Among ACS patients with IRF, there were no between-group differences in the rates of the primary endpoint or BARC 3 or 5 type bleeding; however, the rates of the patient-oriented composite endpoint (POCE) of all-cause death, any stroke, MI, or revascularization (pint = 0.028) and net adverse clinical events (POCE and BARC 3 or 5 type bleeding) (pint = 0.045), were lower in the experimental versus the reference group. No treatment effects were found in stable CAD patients categorized according to presence of IRF. CONCLUSIONS: IRF negatively impacted long-term prognosis after PCI. There were no differential treatment effects found with regard to all-cause death or new Q-wave MI after PCI in patients with IRF treated with ticagrelor monotherapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01813435.

5.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(1): 21-27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Elderly patients with atrial fibrillation are at greater risk of both cardioembolic events and major bleeding than younger patients. Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) could be an attractive alternative for these patients, but there are limited data on outcomes with LAAO in patients ≥ 85 years old. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of LAAO in patients ≥ 85 years old. METHODS: A total of 1025 patients included in the EWOLUTION registry who underwent LAAO were analyzed and 84 patients ≥ 85 years old were identified and compared with the younger cohort. RESULTS: Patients ≥ 85 years old had higher estimated stroke and hemorrhagic risks than younger patients (CHA2DS2-VASc: 5.2±1.2 vs 4.4±1.6, P <.0001; HAS-BLED: 2.7±1.1 vs 2.3±1.2; P=.003; ≥ 85 years vs <85 years). Procedural success was high and similar in both groups (98.8% vs 98.5%; P=.99). There were no differences in 7-day device- or procedure-related adverse event rates (2.6% in ≥ 85 years vs 3.1% in <85 years; P=.80). Despite the higher baseline stroke risk, there was no difference at follow-up between the groups in the annualized stroke rate (0.8/100 patient-years in ≥ 85 years vs 1.3/100 patient-years in <85 years; P=.649). CONCLUSIONS: LAAO in patients ≥ 85 years is safe and effective even though these patients are at high risk for embolic and hemorrhagic events. LAAO may be a reasonable alternative to oral anticoagulation in these patients.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
JAMA ; 322(23): 2292-2302, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846016

RESUMO

Importance: Short-term infusions of single vasodilators, usually given in a fixed dose, have not improved outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Objective: To evaluate the effect of a strategy that emphasized early intensive and sustained vasodilation using individualized up-titrated doses of established vasodilators in patients with AHF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, open-label blinded-end-point trial enrolling 788 patients hospitalized for AHF with dyspnea, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, systolic blood pressure of at least 100 mm Hg, and plan for treatment in a general ward in 10 tertiary and secondary hospitals in Switzerland, Bulgaria, Germany, Brazil, and Spain. Enrollment began in December 2007 and follow-up was completed in February 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to a strategy of early intensive and sustained vasodilation throughout the hospitalization (n = 386) or usual care (n = 402). Early intensive and sustained vasodilation was a comprehensive pragmatic approach of maximal and sustained vasodilation combining individualized doses of sublingual and transdermal nitrates, low-dose oral hydralazine for 48 hours, and rapid up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or sacubitril-valsartan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for AHF at 180 days. Results: Among 788 patients randomized, 781 (99.1%; median age, 78 years; 36.9% women) completed the trial and were eligible for primary end point analysis. Follow-up at 180 days was completed for 779 patients (99.7%). The primary end point, a composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for AHF at 180 days, occurred in 117 patients (30.6%) in the intervention group (including 55 deaths [14.4%]) and in 111 patients (27.8%) in the usual care group (including 61 deaths [15.3%]) (absolute difference for the primary end point, 2.8% [95% CI, -3.7% to 9.3%]; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.83-1.39]; P = .59). The most common clinically significant adverse events with early intensive and sustained vasodilation vs usual care were hypokalemia (23% vs 25%), worsening renal function (21% vs 20%), headache (26% vs 10%), dizziness (15% vs 10%), and hypotension (8% vs 2%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AHF, a strategy of early intensive and sustained vasodilation, compared with usual care, did not significantly improve a composite outcome of all-cause mortality and AHF rehospitalization at 180 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00512759.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
8.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845896

RESUMO

AIMS: to compare 5-year clinical outcomes between everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) vs. everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) in STEMI patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This observational and retrospective study included 235 consecutive STEMI patients treated by BRS, compared with 235 STEMI patients treated with EES from the EXAMINATION trial, by applying propensity score matching. Primary endpoint was a device-oriented endpoint (DOCE), including cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization at 5-year follow-up.Device thrombosis, according to the ARC criteria, was also evaluated.Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis was also performed at 5-year in event-free BRS patients. The cumulative incidence of 5-year DOCE was higher in BRS as compared to EES group (13.2% vs. 7.6%, HR [95%CI] 1.87 [0.94 - 3.44], p=0.071), mainly driven by higher rate of TLR (7.6% vs. 1.7%, HR [95%CI] 1.15 [0.44 - 2.30], p=0.004). Five-year definite BRS thrombosis rate was also higher as compared to EES (4.2% vs. 1.2%, HR [95%CI] 3.49 [0.95 - 12.82], p=0.054. Optical coherence tomography analysis showed high incidence of neo-atherosclerosis in BRS group. CONCLUSIONS: Five-year event risk was higher with BRS vs EES in STEMI. This suggests that the probability of obtaining favorable results at very long-term follow-up is low. Whether better results will be obtained with new generation BVS remains to be determined.

9.
Am. j. cardiol ; 124(12): 1833-1840, dez., 2019. tab., graf.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1050065

RESUMO

Abstract: Q-wave myocardial infarction (QWMI) comprises 2 entities. First, a clinically evident MI, which can occur spontaneously or be related to a coronary procedure. Second, silent MI which is incidentally detected on serial electrocardiographic (ECG) assessment. The prevalence of silent MI after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent era has not been fully investigated. The GLOBAL LEADERS is an all-comers multicenter trial which randomized 15,991 patients who underwent PCI to 2 antiplatelet treatment strategies. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause death or nonfatal new QWMI at 2-years follow-up. ECGs were collected at discharge, 3-month and 2-year visits, and analyzed by an independent ECG core laboratory following the Minnesota code. All new QWMI were further reviewed by a blinded independent cardiologist to identify a potential clinical correlate by reviewing clinical information. Of 15,968 participants, ECG information was complete in 14,829 (92.9%) at 2 years. A new QWMI was confirmed in 186 (1.16%) patients. Transient new Q-waves were observed in 28.5% (53 of 186) of them during the follow-up. The majority of new QWMI (78%, 146 of 186) were classified as silent MI due to the absence of a clinical correlate. Silent MI accounted for 22.1% (146 of 660) of all MI events. The prevalence of silent MI did not differ significantly between treatment strategies (experimental vs reference: 0.88% vs 0.98%, p = 0.5027). In conclusion, we document the prevalence of silent MI in an all-comers population undergoing PCI in this large-scale randomized trial. (AU)


Assuntos
Stents , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio
10.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715629

RESUMO

AIMS: Electronic (e)-cigarettes have been marketed as a 'healthy' alternative to traditional combustible cigarettes and as an effective method of smoking cessation. There are, however, a paucity of data to support these claims. In fact, e-cigarettes are implicated in endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the vasculature and the lungs. The mechanisms underlying these side effects remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of e-cigarette vapour on vascular function in smokers and experimental animals to determine the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acute e-cigarette smoking produced a marked impairment of endothelial function in chronic smokers determined by flow-mediated dilation. In mice, e-cigarette vapour without nicotine had more detrimental effects on endothelial function, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation than vapour containing nicotine. These effects of e-cigarette vapour were largely absent in mice lacking phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) or upon treatment with the endothelin receptor blocker macitentan or the FOXO3 activator bepridil. We also established that the e-cigarette product acrolein, a reactive aldehyde, recapitulated many of the NOX-2-dependent effects of e-cigarette vapour using in vitro blood vessel incubation. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette vapour exposure increases vascular, cerebral, and pulmonary oxidative stress via a NOX-2-dependent mechanism. Our study identifies the toxic aldehyde acrolein as a key mediator of the observed adverse vascular consequences. Thus, e-cigarettes have the potential to induce marked adverse cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular consequences. Since e-cigarette use is increasing, particularly amongst youth, our data suggest that aggressive steps are warranted to limit their health risks.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(12): 1833-1840, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648781

RESUMO

Q-wave myocardial infarction (QWMI) comprises 2 entities. First, a clinically evident MI, which can occur spontaneously or be related to a coronary procedure. Second, silent MI which is incidentally detected on serial electrocardiographic (ECG) assessment. The prevalence of silent MI after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent era has not been fully investigated. The GLOBAL LEADERS is an all-comers multicenter trial which randomized 15,991 patients who underwent PCI to 2 antiplatelet treatment strategies. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause death or nonfatal new QWMI at 2-years follow-up. ECGs were collected at discharge, 3-month and 2-year visits, and analyzed by an independent ECG core laboratory following the Minnesota code. All new QWMI were further reviewed by a blinded independent cardiologist to identify a potential clinical correlate by reviewing clinical information. Of 15,968 participants, ECG information was complete in 14,829 (92.9%) at 2 years. A new QWMI was confirmed in 186 (1.16%) patients. Transient new Q-waves were observed in 28.5% (53 of 186) of them during the follow-up. The majority of new QWMI (78%, 146 of 186) were classified as silent MI due to the absence of a clinical correlate. Silent MI accounted for 22.1% (146 of 660) of all MI events. The prevalence of silent MI did not differ significantly between treatment strategies (experimental vs reference: 0.88% vs 0.98%, p = 0.5027). In conclusion, we document the prevalence of silent MI in an all-comers population undergoing PCI in this large-scale randomized trial.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e012509, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583936

RESUMO

Background Endothelial dysfunction is a consequence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it is unclear whether endothelial dysfunction of conductance versus resistance vessels may also precede type 2 diabetes mellitus development. Methods and Results In a population-based cohort of 15 010 individuals from the GHS (Gutenberg Health Study) (aged 35-74 years at enrollment in 2007-2012), we identified 1610 cases of incident pre-diabetes mellitus and 386 cases of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and/or medical history between 2012 and 2017. Endothelial function of conductance and resistance vessels was measured by flow-mediated dilation and digital volume plethysmography-derived reactive hyperemia index, respectively. Multivariable regression modeling was used to estimate ß coefficients of HbA1c levels at follow-up and relative risks of incident (pre-)diabetes mellitus. Reactive hyperemia index was independently associated with HbA1c after multivariable adjustment for baseline HbA1c, sex, age, socioeconomic status, arterial hypertension, waist/height ratio, pack-years of smoking, non-high-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio, physical activity, family history of myocardial infarction/stroke, prevalent cardiovascular disease, medication use, and C-reactive protein (ß=-0.020; P=0.0029). The adjusted relative risk per SD decline in reactive hyperemia index was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02-1.15; P=0.012) for incident pre-diabetes mellitus and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.01-1.34; P=0.041) for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Flow-mediated dilation independently increased the relative risk for developing pre-diabetes mellitus by 8% (95% CI, 1.02-1.14; P=0.012), but it was not independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (relative risk, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.86-1.19; P=0.92) and with HbA1c (ß=-0.003; P=0.59). Conclusions Endothelial dysfunction of resistance rather than conductance vessels may precede the development of (pre-)diabetes mellitus. Assessment of endothelial function by digital volume plethysmography may help to identify subjects at risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

14.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 73(1): 29-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561342

RESUMO

Percutaneous coronary intervention is the most often used method for coronary revascularization. Stenting restores blood perfusion to ischemic areas, but it also causes mechanical disruption of the atheromatous plaque and the nearby endothelium, stimulating the activation of platelets. In a similar way, platelets are activated by thrombin exposure in the setting of plaque rupture. The interaction between platelets, oxidative stress and inflammation is an important factor determining the extent and severity of vascular dysfunction observed in these settings. Platelets activated by the vessel trauma release inflammatory and mitogenic mediators into the vascular microenvironment, activating leukocyte chemotaxis and switching the endothelial phenotypefrom a quiescent to an activate one. The increased bioavailability of reactive oxygen species from the vessel wall, from leukocytes and from platelets, and the subsequent decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide, further stimulates platelets, which are otherwise inhibited by this endothelial mediator. Thus, inflammation, oxidative stress and platelet activation cooperate in a feed-forward mechanism leading to vascular dysfunction and possibly compromising the effect of stenting. Inhibitors of platelet function have thus important ancillary effects beyond their antithrombotic ones, which will be discussed in the present short review.

15.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319876232, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537124
16.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(10): 1359-1365, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320267

RESUMO

Transcatheter direct annuloplasty has been introduced as a novel interventional treatment option for severe mitral valve regurgitation. Until now, only one direct annuloplasty device (Edwards Cardioband) has been commercially available, being implanted in more than 250 patients worldwide. Yet this procedure poses greater challenges regarding optimal fluoroscopic and echocardiographic guidance compared with edge-to-edge repair: correct localization and orientation of the anchors upon penetration into the fibrous mitral annulus tissue and the basal left ventricular myocardium are preconditions for an optimal result and essential to avoid damage of the neighboring structures (atrioventricular node, circumflex artery, coronary sinus). Real-time single-beat multiplanar reconstruction has become available as an additional imaging tool for three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in most recent echo machines. In this review, we introduce a three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography-based imaging protocol implementing real-time multiplanar reconstruction for transcatheter direct annuloplasty procedures, which optimizes and also simplifies echocardiographic guidance during the implantation. The advanced echocardiographic protocol might also help to expedite implantation times and potentially increase the safety of the procedure. In this "how-to" article, we describe in detail this novel approach for optimized guidance and compare its advantages and challenges to "conventional" echocardiographic imaging for transcatheter mitral valve repair.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029509, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of devices have been developed to minimise operator radiation exposure in the setting of cardiac catheterisation. The effectiveness of these devices has traditionally been explored in transfemoral coronary procedures; however, less is known for the transradial approach. We set out to examine the impact of three different radiation protection devices in a real-world setting. METHODS AND DESIGN: Consecutive coronary diagnostic and intervention procedures are randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to a shield-only protection (shield group), shield and overlapping 0.5 mm Pb panel curtain (curtain group) or shield, curtain and additional 75×40 cm, 0.5 mm Pb drape placed across the waist of the patient (drape group).The primary outcome is the difference in relative exposure of the primary operator among groups. Relative exposure is defined as the ratio between operator's exposure (E in µSv) and patient exposure (dose area product in cGy·cm2). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol complies with good clinical practice and the ethical principles described in the Declaration of Helsinki and is approved by the local ethics committee. The results of the trial will be published as original article(s) in medical journals and/or as presentation at congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03634657.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients treated with bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) for off-label versus approved indications. BACKGROUND: The BRS promised some advantages in terms of complete biodegradation within 2-4 years, restored vascular physiology, and absence of potential stent-related long-term complications. However, the implication of BRS for off-label indications and further long-term follow-up of this particular patient group is not well described. METHODS: The short- and long-term outcome after implantation of an everolimus-eluting, poly-L-lactic acid-based bioresorbable scaffold system (ABSORB, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) was evaluated in the prospective, non-interventional, multicenter real-world German-Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R). RESULTS: A total of 3188 patients were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: on-label BRS use (33.0%) and off-label use (66.9%) if at least one off-label use criteria was met. The incidence of scaffold thrombosis in confirmed cases was significantly higher in off-label group (1.3% versus 0.5%, p = 0.04; OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.00-5.82) with also a trend toward higher myocardial infarction rate (2.3% versus 1.4%, p = 0.077; OR 1.70 (95% CI 0.95-3.03) and cardiovascular death (1.2% versus 1.1%, p = 0.76, OR 1.11 (95% CI 0.56-2.21) at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In a real-world setting, the majority patients were treated with BRS for off-label indications. The off-label use of BRS compared to confirmed indications appears to be associated with a higher rate of clinical endpoints considering more complex lesions and higher morbidity in this patients' group. Comparison between treatment of "established" versus complex "off-label" coronary lesions with Absorb® bioresorbable scaffold implantation: results from the GABI-R® registry.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of a circadian rhythm in endothelium-dependent vasomotor function, with a nadir in Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) in the early morning hours, has been previously reported. These changes have been proposed to be one of the mechanisms explaining the circadian pattern in the incidence of cardiovascular events. We set out to investigate the circadian rhythm of FMD, low-flow mediated dilation (L-FMC) and sympathetic vascular tone. METHODS AND RESULTS: 10 young healthy male volunteers (mean age, 28.9±3.7 years) underwent measurements of radial artery endothelium-dependent FMD and L-FMC at 8AM, 2PM and 8PM on the same day. Sympathetic vascular tone was assessed with laser Doppler and Fourier transform analysis. Compared with 2PM and 8PM, FMD decreased markedly in the early morning (2.9±3.4%; 6.2±2.9%; 6.0±4.0%; P = 0.007). In contrast, L-FMC was maximal at 8AM, decreased significantly at 2PM, and returned to higher values at 8PM (-5.1±1.3%; -2.7±2.0%; -4.6±2.2%; P = 0.030), such that the composite endpoint of endothelial function (sum of FMD+L-FMC) was not significantly different among timepoints. Vascular sympathetic tone was maximal early in the morning and lowest in the evening (P = 0.014) without a correlation with the changes in FMD or L-FMC. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial responsiveness (FMD) and basal tone (L-FMC) appear to follow different circadian rhythms, with an impaired responsiveness in the early morning and a nadir in baseline tone in the early afternoon.

20.
Biomarkers ; 24(6): 549-555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159594

RESUMO

Purpose: Established diagnostic thresholds for high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn) might not apply for elderly patients as they are elevated irrespective of the presence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Aim of the present study was to investigate hs-cTnI in elderly patients with suspected AMI and to calculate optimized diagnostic cutoffs. Material and methods: Data from a prospective multi-centre study and from a second independent prospective single-centre cohort study were analysed. A number of 2903 patients were eligible for further analysis. Patients > 70 years were classified as elderly. hs-cTnI was measured upon admission. Results: Around 34.7% of 2903 patients were classified as elderly. Around 22.5% of elderly patients were finally diagnosed with AMI. Elderly patients had higher hs-cTnI levels at admission irrespective of the final diagnosis (p < 0.001). According to the AUROC, hs-cTnI was a strong marker for detection of AMI in elderly patients. Application of the 99th percentile cutoffs showed a substantially lower specificity in elderly. By using optimized thresholds, specificity was improved to levels as in younger patients in both cohorts but accompanied with a decrease in sensitivity. Conclusions: hs-cTnI levels have a lower specificity for detecting AMI in elderly patients. This lower specificity can be improved by using hs-cTnI thresholds optimized for elderly patients.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/diagnóstico , Hiperlipidemias/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/fisiopatologia
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