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1.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(8): 1497-1504, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few reports have investigated patient experiences following total en bloc sacrectomy. The aims of this study were to obtain a deeper understanding of patients' personal experiences, needs, and satisfaction with the treatment to reveal areas in which perioperative and long-term patient care can be improved. METHODS: A qualitative design was applied to examine patient experiences and supportive care needs. Patients treated between 2007 and 2017 were identified from our institutional database. RESULTS: A total of 28 survivors were interviewed (13 females, age 13-75 years). Eight themes were identified: the effect of surgery on patients' (a) daily lives, (b) social activities, (c) work or school activities, (d) and family lives; (e) acceptance of ostomy surgery; (f) need for guidance regarding long-term rehabilitation; (g) satisfaction with the medical services provided in the hospital; and (h) satisfaction with the treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: Total en bloc sacrectomy can yield satisfactory oncological outcomes; however, the procedure is a life-changing event for patients and their families. Physicians must provide long-term support and guidance after surgery to enable patients to fully understand and cope with the changes in their lives.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 121: 177-183, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis is poor for children and adolescents with recurrent osteosarcoma (OS). Glycoprotein non-metastatic B (gpNMB) is a glycoprotein highly expressed in OS cells. We conducted a phase II study of glembatumumab vedotin (GV), a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody (CR011) against gpNMB conjugated to the microtubule inhibitor, monomethyl auristatin E. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients aged ≥12 years and <50 years with relapsed or refractory OS were eligible. GV 1.9 mg/kg/dose was administered on day 1 of each 21 day cycle. Pharmacokinetics were mandatory in patients aged <15 years. gpNMB expression was measured by immunohistochemistry. The primary end-point was disease control at 4 months and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours response. A 2-stage design was used to determine efficacy. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled, and all were evaluable for response. Antibody-drug conjugate levels were detectable in patients, although small numbers limit comparison to adult data. The toxicities observed were similar to the previous studies with GV. The most common grade III adverse event was rash. One death from end organ failure occurred possibly related to GV. Of the 22 patients, one patient had a partial response, and two had stable disease. There was no correlation between gpNMB expression and response to GV. CONCLUSIONS: GV was well tolerated in this population. Although there was some antitumour activity, the extent of disease control in stage I did not meet the level required to proceed to stage II. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT02487979.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(34): 3192-3202, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553693

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The R2Pulm trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of busulfan-melphalan high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue (BuMel) without whole-lung irradiation (WLI) on event-free survival (main end point) and overall survival, compared with standard chemotherapy with WLI in Ewing sarcoma (ES) presenting with pulmonary and/or pleural metastases. METHODS: From 2000 to 2015, we enrolled patients younger than 50 years of age with newly diagnosed ES and with only pulmonary or pleural metastases. Patients received chemotherapy with six courses of vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (VIDE) and one course of vincristine, dactinomycin, and ifosfamide (VAI) before either BuMel or seven courses of VAI and WLI (VAI plus WLI) by randomized assignment. The analysis was conducted as intention to treat. The estimates of the hazard ratio (HR), 95% CI, and P value were corrected for the three previous interim analyses by the inverse normal method. RESULTS: Of 543 potentially eligible patients, 287 were randomly assigned to VAI plus WLI (n = 143) or BuMel (n = 144). Selected patients requiring radiotherapy to an axial primary site were excluded from randomization to avoid excess organ toxicity from interaction between radiotherapy and busulfan. Median follow-up was 8.1 years. We did not observe any significant difference in survival outcomes between treatment groups. Event-free survival was 50.6% versus 56.6% at 3 years and 43.1% versus 52.9% at 8 years, for VAI plus WLI and BuMel patients, respectively, resulting in an HR of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.10; P = .16). For overall survival, the HR was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.70 to 1.44; P = .99). Four patients died as a result of BuMel-related toxicity, and none died after VAI plus WLI. Significantly more patients in the BuMel arm experienced severe acute toxicities than in the VAI plus WLI arm. CONCLUSION: In ES with pulmonary or pleural metastases, there is no clear benefit from BuMel compared with conventional VAI plus WLI.

4.
Oncogene ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427736

RESUMO

The ligands for the natural killer group 2 (NKG2D) protein render tumor cells susceptible to NKG2D-dependent immune cell attack. However, cancer cells escape from immune surveillance by downregulating NKG2D ligands. We previously discovered that engagement of activated CD8+ T cells and tumor cells induces NKG2D ligands on tumor cells, but the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Both in vivo mouse tumor models and in vitro cell assays were performed to study the downstream signaling. Our results supported the notion that, upon engagement with the cognate receptors, CD137 ligand and CD40 initiates activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling in tumor cells even in the absence of CD8+ T cells. Like tumor and CD8+ T cell contact-dependent NKG2D ligand induction, this CD137L/CD40-mediated signaling activation was associated with elevated levels of acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), whereas inhibition of phosphorylated NF-κB abrogated PCAF induction. Although stimulation of CD137L/CD40-mediated signaling is vital, inflammatory cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFNγ) and TNFα, also facilitate NKG2D ligand-induced immune surveillance via both facilitating T-cell chemotaxis and CD137L/CD40 induced NF-κB/PCAF activation. Collectively, our results unveil a novel mechanism of NKG2D ligand upregulation involving reverse signaling of CD40 and CD137L on tumor cells which, along with inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα, stimulate downstream NF-κB and PCAF activation. Understanding this mechanism may help in development of induced NKG2D ligand-dependent T-cell therapy against cancers.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11476, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391495

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) represents 3.4% of all childhood cancers with overall survival of 70% not improving in 30 years. The consistent surface overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (IGF2R) has been reported in commercial and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) OS cell lines. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of treating PDX and commercial OS tumors in mice with radiolabeled antibody to IGF2R and to investigate IGF2R expression on canine OS tumors. IGF2R expression on human commercial lines 143B and SaOS2 and PDX lines OS-17, OS-33 and OS-31 was evaluated by FACS. The biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging with 111Indium-2G11 mAb was performed in 143B and OS-17 tumor-bearing SCID mice and followed by radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 177Lutetium-2G11 and safety evaluation. IGF2R expression in randomly selected canine OS tumors was measured by immunohistochemistry. All OS cell lines expressed IGF2R. Biodistribution and microSPECT/CT revealed selective uptake of 2G11 mAb in 143B and OS-17 xenografts. RIT significantly slowed down the growth of OS-17 and 143B tumors without local and systemic toxicity. Canine OS tumors expressed IGF2R. This study demonstrates the feasibility of targeting IGF2R on OS in PDX and spontaneous canine tumors and sets the stage for further development of RIT of OS using comparative oncology.

6.
Cancer ; 125(20): 3514-3525, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355930

RESUMO

Patients who are diagnosed with osteosarcoma (OS) today receive the same therapy that patients have received over the last 4 decades. Extensive efforts to identify more effective or less toxic regimens have proved disappointing. As we enter a postgenomic era in which we now recognize OS not as a cancer of mutations but as one defined by p53 loss, chromosomal complexity, copy number alteration, and profound heterogeneity, emerging threads of discovery leave many hopeful that an improving understanding of biology will drive discoveries that improve clinical care. Under the organization of the Bone Tumor Biology Committee of the Children's Oncology Group, a team of clinicians and scientists sought to define the state of the science and to identify questions that, if answered, have the greatest potential to drive fundamental clinical advances. Having discussed these questions in a series of meetings, each led by invited experts, we distilled these conversations into a series of seven Provocative Questions. These include questions about the molecular events that trigger oncogenesis, the genomic and epigenomic drivers of disease, the biology of lung metastasis, research models that best predict clinical outcomes, and processes for translating findings into clinical trials. Here, we briefly present each Provocative Question, review the current scientific evidence, note the immediate opportunities, and speculate on the impact that answered questions might have on the field. We do so with an intent to provide a framework around which investigators can build programs and collaborations to tackle the hardest problems and to establish research priorities for those developing policies and providing funding.

7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 154, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although accumulated evidence provides a strong scientific premise for using immune profiles to predict survival in patients with cancer, a universal immune profile across tumor types is still lacking, and how to achieve a survival-associated immune profile remains to be evaluated. METHODS: We analyzed datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify an immune profile associated with prolonged overall survival in multiple tumor types and tested the efficacy of tumor cell-surface vimentin-targeted interleukin 12 (ttIL-12) in inducing that immune profile and prolonging survival in both mouse and patient-derived xenograft tumor models. RESULTS: We identified an immune profile (IFNγHiCD8HiFOXP3LowCD33Low) associated with prolonged overall survival across several human tumor types. ttIL-12 in combination with surgical resection of the primary tumor transformed tumors to this immune profile. Intriguingly, this immune profile transformation led to inhibition of metastasis and to prolonged survival in both mouse and patient-derived xenograft malignant models. Wild-type IL-12 combined with surgery was significantly less effective. In the IL-12-sensitive C3H mouse strain, in fact, wild-type IL-12 and surgery resulted in shorter overall survival than in mice treated with control pDNA; this surprising result is believed to be attributable to IL-12 toxicity, which was absent in the mice treated with ttIL-12. The ttIL-12-induced immune profile associated with longer overall survival was also associated with a greater accumulation of CD8+ T cells and reduced infiltration of regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and tumor-associated macrophages. The underlying mechanism for this transformation by ttIL-12 treatment was induction of expression of CXCL9 and reduction of expression of CXCL2 and CCL22 in tumors. CONCLUSIONS: ttIL-12 when combined with surgery led to conversion to the IFNγHiCD8HiFOXP3LowCD33Low immune profile, eliminated relapse and metastasis, and prolonged overall survival.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6161, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992462

RESUMO

The p27/kip1 (p27) tumor suppressor inhibits cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes and halts cell cycle progression. p27 further regulates invasion and migration in cancer cells, suggesting p27 also functions as an oncoprotein. Using a human osteosarcoma tissue microarray we identified high expression of cytoplasmic p27 in metastatic tumors. We demonstrated a positive correlation between mRNA and protein expression of p27 and expression of key metastatic markers, vimentin, snail-2, ß-catenin and stathmin-1 (STMN1) in patient tumors. Our results show that T198 phosphorylation of p27 controls the interaction between p27 and STMN1 that regulates microtubule stabilization and the invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells. We found that anti-tumoral activity of gemcitabine and the Wee1 kinase inhibitor AZD1775 in osteosarcoma cells, was dependent on drug sequencing that relied on p27 stabilization. Gemcitabine activated caspase-3 and synergized with AZD1775 through caspase-mediated cleavage of p27, that dissociated from STMN1 and effectively induced apoptosis. Further, blockage of nuclear export of p27 by inhibition of Exportin-1 (XPO1) promoted growth arrest, demonstrating that the biological effects of agents relied on the expression and localization of p27. Together, these data provide a rationale for combining chemotherapy with agents that promote p27 tumor suppressor activity for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

9.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031965

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma is a small round blue cell malignancy arising from bone or soft tissue and most commonly affects adolescents and young adults. Metastatic and relapsed Ewing sarcoma have poor outcomes and recurrences remain common. Owing to the poor outcomes associated with advanced disease and the need for a clear research strategy, the Children's Oncology Group Bone Tumor Committee formed the New Agents for Ewing Sarcoma Task Force to bring together experts in the field to evaluate and prioritize new agents for incorporation into clinical trials. This group's mission was to evaluate scientific and clinical challenges in moving new agents forward and to recommend agents and trial designs to the Bone Tumor Committee. The task force generated a framework for vetting prospective agents that included critical evaluation of each drug by using both clinical and non-clinical parameters. Representative appraisal of agents of highest priority, including eribulin, dinutuximab, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors, anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, is described. The task force continues to analyze new compounds by using the paradigm established.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 120(8): 869, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880335

RESUMO

The authors have noticed that the final paragraph of the Results section contains errors in the number of patients involved. The correct number of patients is included in the text below. These errors do not affect the Figure referenced.In osteosarcoma, we focused on 8q gain as a specific biological feature of interest. Among the 41 patients with detectable ctDNA in the osteosarcoma cohort, 8q gain was detected in 73.2% (30/41). The 3-year EFS for patients with 8q gain (n = 30) in ctDNA was 60.0% (95% CI 40.5-75.0) compared to 80.8 (95% CI 42.4-94.9) in patients without 8q gain (n = 11) in ctDNA (p = 0.18; Fig. 3).

11.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 27(22): 841-847, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The LigaSure system has been successfully used in thoracic and abdominal surgery. However, to date, its use in the resection of sarcomas has not been systematically studied. We aimed to determine whether the use of the LigaSure system reduces blood loss and blood transfusion volumes in sarcoma surgery. METHODS: One hundred forty-two consecutive patients who underwent sarcoma surgeries between July 2010 and October 2016 were included. Conventional electrocautery alone (n = 91) and with LigaSure (n = 51) were compared. Case-matched samples (n = 46) from each group were additionally compared. RESULTS: The use of the LigaSure system resulted in a significant decrease in mean intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.02) and blood transfusion volume (P = 0.04). Likewise, a significant decrease in both mean and median intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.003; P < 0.0001) was seen with LigaSure in the case-matched analysis. In the soft-tissue sarcoma subgroup, a significant decrease was observed in mean hemoglobin reduction (P = 0.03) and mean intraoperative blood loss with LigaSure (P = 0.04). No adverse perioperative complications attributed to the LigaSure system were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The LigaSure vessel sealing and dividing system is a safe and effective hemostatic tool for deep dissection in bone and soft-tissue sarcoma surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 109: 36-50, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-grade osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumour mainly affecting children and young adults. The European and American Osteosarcoma Study (EURAMOS)-1 is a collaboration of four study groups aiming to improve outcomes of this rare disease by facilitating randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Patients eligible for EURAMOS-1 were aged ≤40 years with M0 or M1 skeletal high-grade osteosarcoma in which case complete surgical resection at all sites was deemed to be possible. A three-drug combination with methotrexate, doxorubicin and cisplatin was defined as standard chemotherapy, and between April 2005 and June 2011, 2260 patients were registered. We report survival outcomes and prognostic factors in the full cohort of registered patients. RESULTS: For all registered patients at a median follow-up of 54 months (interquartile range: 38-73) from biopsy, 3-year and 5-year event-free survival were 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 57-61%) and 54% (95% CI: 52-56%), respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the most adverse factors at diagnosis were pulmonary metastases (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.95-2.81), non-pulmonary metastases (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.38-2.73) or an axial skeleton tumour site (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10-2.13). The histological subtypes telangiectatic (HR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.80) and unspecified conventional (HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88) were associated with a favourable prognosis compared with chondroblastic subtype. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival from biopsy were 79% (95% CI: 77-81%) and 71% (95% CI: 68-73%), respectively. For patients with localised disease at presentation and in complete remission after surgery, having a poor histological response was associated with worse outcome after surgery (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.76-2.58). In radically operated patients, there was no good evidence that axial tumour site was associated with worse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, data from >2000 patients registered to EURAMOS-1 demonstrated survival rates in concordance with institution- or group-level osteosarcoma trials. Further efforts are required to drive improvements for patients who can be identified to be at higher risk of adverse outcome. This trial reaffirms known prognostic factors, and owing to the large numbers of patients registered, it sheds light on some additional factors to consider.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(7): 2278-2289, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563935

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) inhibitors potentiate the DNA-damaging effects of cytotoxic therapies and/or promote elevated levels of replication stress, leading to tumor cell death. Prexasertib (LY2606368) is a CHK1 small-molecule inhibitor under clinical evaluation in multiple adult and pediatric cancers. In this study, prexasertib was tested in a large panel of preclinical models of pediatric solid malignancies alone or in combination with chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DNA damage and changes in cell signaling following in vitro prexasertib treatment in pediatric sarcoma cell lines were analyzed by Western blot and high content imaging. Antitumor activity of prexasertib as a single agent or in combination with different chemotherapies was explored in cell line-derived (CDX) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models representing nine different pediatric cancer histologies. RESULTS: Pediatric sarcoma cell lines were highly sensitive to prexasertib treatment in vitro, resulting in activation of the DNA damage response. Two PDX models of desmoplastic small round cell tumor and one malignant rhabdoid tumor CDX model responded to prexasertib with complete regression. Prexasertib monotherapy also elicited robust responses in mouse models of rhabdomyosarcoma. Concurrent administration with chemotherapy was sufficient to overcome innate resistance or prevent acquired resistance to prexasertib in preclinical models of neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma, or alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prexasertib has significant antitumor effects as a monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy in multiple preclinical models of pediatric cancer. These findings support further investigation of prexasertib in pediatric malignancies.

14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(1): e27444, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite drastic improvement in overall survival for pediatric patients with cancer, those with osteosarcoma have stable rates of survival since the 1980s. This project evaluates the effect of several variables on survival after first recurrence in patients with osteosarcoma. METHODS: Data from three prospective North American cooperative group trials for newly diagnosed osteosarcoma are included: INT-0133, POG-9754, and AOST0121. The analytic population for this study is all enrolled patients with first event-free survival (EFS) event of relapse. The primary outcome measure for this retrospective analysis was survival after recurrence (SAR). RESULTS: The analytic population consisted of N = 431 patients. SAR was statistically significantly associated with age at enrollment (<10 years, P = 0.027), presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis (localized, P < 0.0001), site of relapse (combination lung + bone, unfavorable, P = 0.005), and time to first relapse (2+ years, favorable, P < 0.0001) in multivariate analysis. Ethnicity, primary site of tumor, race, and sex were not significantly related to SAR. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged SAR in patients with relapsed osteosarcoma is associated with age, extent of disease at diagnosis, site of and time to relapse. Adolescent and young adult patients with osteosarcoma have shorter SAR than younger patients, consistent with studies showing decreased overall survival in this group. Although patients with primary metastatic disease have shorter SAR, there is a subset of patients who relapse greater than 2 years from initial diagnosis that will become survivors. Histological response was significantly associated with time to relapse, but was not predictive of SAR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Osteossarcoma/secundário , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e27524, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma have a poor prognosis with less than 30% surviving two years. Eribulin is a synthetic analog of halichondrin B, has a novel mechanism of action when compared with other microtubule inhibitors, and may have antitumor activity in osteosarcoma. METHODS: A prospective study was designed to assess the disease control success at four months and objective response rates in patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma treated with eribulin. Eligible patients were between 12 and 50 years of age, had measurable tumor, and met standard organ function requirements. Patients were given eribulin 1.4 mg/m2 /dose on days 1 and 8 of each 3-week cycle for up to 24 months if there was no progressive disease. Response to therapy was assessed using RECIST 1.1 criteria after cycles 2 and 5 and every fourth cycle thereafter. RESULTS: Nineteen patients enrolled on the AOST1322 study. The median age of enrollment was 16 years (range, 12-25 years). Twelve patients were male and seven female. Eribulin was well tolerated, with neutropenia identified as the most common toxicity. The median progression-free survival was 38 days and no patients reached the four-month time point without progression. No objective responses were seen in any patient. CONCLUSION: This study rapidly assessed the clinical activity of a novel agent in this patient population. Eribulin was well tolerated, but there were no patients who demonstrated objective response, and all patients had progression prior to four months.

16.
Cancer J ; 24(6): 301-306, 2018 Nov/Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480574

RESUMO

Clinical management of adolescents and young adults with bone and soft tissue sarcomas is quite challenging, mainly because of different chemotherapy approaches adopted by pediatric and adult oncologists and tumor-associated factors related to this peculiar age group. Overcoming these barriers is essential for adolescent and young adult patients, whose survival and long-term physical effects are worse than their pediatric counterparts. Nowadays, constant efforts from international collaborations between pediatric and adult oncologists of sarcoma groups have optioned in converging toward a common therapeutic strategy, while improving quality of treatment, as well as research advances dedicated to this at-risk age group of patients with sarcomas.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14294, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250282

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary cancer of bone, exhibits a high propensity for local invasion and distant metastasis. This study sought to elucidate the role of S phase kinase-associated protein (Skp2) in osteosarcoma invasion and metastasis and to explore flavokawain A (FKA), a natural chalcone from kava extract, as a potential Skp2 targeting agent for preventing osteosarcoma progression. Skp2 was found to be overexpressed in multiple osteosarcoma cell lines, including 5 standard and 8 primary patient-derived cell lines. Patients whose tumors expressed high levels of Skp2 sustained a significantly worse metastasis-free (p = 0.0095) and overall survival (p = 0.0013) than those with low Skp2. Skp2 knockdown markedly reduced in vitro cellular invasion and in vivo lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of osteosarcoma. Similar to Skp2 knockdown, treatment with FKA also reduced Skp2 expression in osteosarcoma cell lines and blocked the invasion of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Together, our findings suggest that Skp2 is a promising therapeutic target in osteosarcoma, and that FKA may be an effective Skp2-targeted therapy to reduce osteosarcoma metastasis.

18.
19.
Br J Cancer ; 119(5): 615-621, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New prognostic markers are needed to identify patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and osteosarcoma unlikely to benefit from standard therapy. We describe the incidence and association with outcome of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) using next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays. METHODS: A NGS hybrid capture assay and an ultra-low-pass whole-genome sequencing assay were used to detect ctDNA in banked plasma from patients with EWS and osteosarcoma, respectively. Patients were coded as positive or negative for ctDNA and tested for association with clinical features and outcome. RESULTS: The analytic cohort included 94 patients with EWS (82% from initial diagnosis) and 72 patients with primary localised osteosarcoma (100% from initial diagnosis). ctDNA was detectable in 53% and 57% of newly diagnosed patients with EWS and osteosarcoma, respectively. Among patients with newly diagnosed localised EWS, detectable ctDNA was associated with inferior 3-year event-free survival (48.6% vs. 82.1%; p = 0.006) and overall survival (79.8% vs. 92.6%; p = 0.01). In both EWS and osteosarcoma, risk of event and death increased with ctDNA levels. CONCLUSIONS: NGS assays agnostic of primary tumour sequencing results detect ctDNA in half of the plasma samples from patients with newly diagnosed EWS and osteosarcoma. Detectable ctDNA is associated with inferior outcomes.

20.
Eur J Radiol ; 105: 49-55, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of tumor thrombus in the large veins draining primary pelvic osteosarcoma on early cross-sectional imaging studies and its effect on patient survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our retrospective study included all patients with primary pelvic osteosarcoma treated at our facility between January 2000 and May 2014, who were ≤ 45 years of age, and had adequate imaging studies and clinical follow up. Four radiologists evaluated for tumor in the large draining veins on initial CT, MRI and PET/CTs. A consensus evaluation by the four radiologists together with findings on operative reports, pathology reports or follow-up imaging was used as the reference standard. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with primary pelvic osteosarcoma met final inclusion criteria. Tumor thrombus was identified in the large draining veins in 10 of the 22 (45%) patients who underwent tumor resection and 10 of the 17 (59%) who did not. In the 22 patients who underwent tumor resection, tumor thrombus was significantly associated with worse overall survival (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor thrombus in the large draining veins is identified in a significant proportion of initial imaging studies in patients with pelvic osteosarcoma, and is associated with worse overall survival in patients who undergo tumor resection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/irrigação sanguínea , Osteossarcoma/irrigação sanguínea , Ossos Pélvicos , Tromboflebite/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tromboflebite/mortalidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/mortalidade , Veias , Adulto Jovem
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