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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(1): 013603, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061449

RESUMO

Controllable Rydberg atom arrays have provided new insights into fundamental properties of quantum matter both in and out of equilibrium. In this work, we study the effect of experimentally relevant positional disorder on Rydberg atoms trapped in a 2D square lattice under antiblockade (facilitation) conditions. We show that the facilitation conditions lead the connectivity graph of a particular subspace of the full Hilbert space to form a 2D Lieb lattice, which features a singular flat band. Remarkably, we find three distinct regimes as the disorder strength is varied: a critical regime, a delocalized but nonergodic regime, and a regime with a disorder-induced flat band. The critical regime's existence depends crucially upon the singular flat band in our model, and is absent in any 1D array or ladder system. We propose to use quench dynamics to probe the three different regimes experimentally.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(1): 013601, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061450

RESUMO

Circuit quantum electrodynamics is one of the most promising platforms for efficient quantum simulation and computation. In recent groundbreaking experiments, the immense flexibility of superconducting microwave resonators was utilized to realize hyperbolic lattices that emulate quantum physics in negatively curved space. Here we investigate experimentally feasible settings in which a few superconducting qubits are coupled to a bath of photons evolving on the hyperbolic lattice. We compare our numerical results for finite lattices with analytical results for continuous hyperbolic space on the Poincaré disk. We find good agreement between the two descriptions in the long-wavelength regime. We show that photon-qubit bound states have a curvature-limited size. We propose to use a qubit as a local probe of the hyperbolic bath, for example, by measuring the relaxation dynamics of the qubit. We find that, although the boundary effects strongly impact the photonic density of states, the spectral density is well described by the continuum theory. We show that interactions between qubits are mediated by photons propagating along geodesics. We demonstrate that the photonic bath can give rise to geometrically frustrated hyperbolic quantum spin models with finite-range or exponentially decaying interaction.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(16): 160401, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723583

RESUMO

The Lieb-Robinson theorem states that information propagates with a finite velocity in quantum systems on a lattice with nearest-neighbor interactions. What are the speed limits on information propagation in quantum systems with power-law interactions, which decay as 1/r^{α} at distance r? Here, we present a definitive answer to this question for all exponents α>2d and all spatial dimensions d. Schematically, information takes time at least r^{min{1,α-2d}} to propagate a distance r. As recent state transfer protocols saturate this bound, our work closes a decades-long hunt for optimal Lieb-Robinson bounds on quantum information dynamics with power-law interactions.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(12): 120501, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597076

RESUMO

Because of their strong and tunable interactions, Rydberg atoms can be used to realize fast two-qubit entangling gates. We propose a generalization of a generic two-qubit Rydberg-blockade gate to multiqubit Rydberg-blockade gates that involve both many control qubits and many target qubits simultaneously. This is achieved by using strong microwave fields to dress nearby Rydberg states, leading to asymmetric blockade in which control-target interactions are much stronger than control-control and target-target interactions. The implementation of these multiqubit gates can drastically simplify both quantum algorithms and state preparation. To illustrate this, we show that a 25-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state can be created using only three gates with an error of 5.8%.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(17): 173401, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988429

RESUMO

Long-range Rydberg interactions, in combination with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), give rise to strongly interacting photons where the strength, sign, and form of the interactions are widely tunable and controllable. Such control can be applied to both coherent and dissipative interactions, which provides the potential for generating novel few-photon states. Recently it has been shown that Rydberg-EIT is a rare system in which three-body interactions can be as strong or stronger than two-body interactions. In this work, we study three-body scattering loss for Rydberg-EIT in a wide regime of single and two-photon detunings. Our numerical simulations of the full three-body wave function and analytical estimates based on Fermi's golden rule strongly suggest that the observed features in the outgoing photonic correlations are caused by the resonant enhancement of the three-body losses.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(7): 070505, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666474

RESUMO

Quantum annealing (QA) and the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) are two special cases of the following control problem: apply a combination of two Hamiltonians to minimize the energy of a quantum state. Which is more effective has remained unclear. Here we analytically apply the framework of optimal control theory to show that generically, given a fixed amount of time, the optimal procedure has the pulsed (or "bang-bang") structure of QAOA at the beginning and end but can have a smooth annealing structure in between. This is in contrast to previous works which have suggested that bang-bang (i.e., QAOA) protocols are ideal. To support this theoretical work, we carry out simulations of various transverse field Ising models, demonstrating that bang-anneal-bang protocols are more common. The general features identified here provide guideposts for the nascent experimental implementations of quantum optimization algorithms.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367192

RESUMO

Strongly long-range interacting quantum systems-those with interactions decaying as a power law 1/r α in the distance r on a D-dimensional lattice for α ⩽ D-have received significant interest in recent years. They are present in leading experimental platforms for quantum computation and simulation, as well as in theoretical models of quantum-information scrambling and fast entanglement creation. Since no notion of locality is expected in such systems, a general understanding of their dynamics is lacking. In a step towards rectifying this problem, we prove two Lieb-Robinson-type bounds that constrain the time for signaling and scrambling in strongly long-range interacting systems, for which no tight bounds were previously known. Our first bound applies to systems mappable to free-particle Hamiltonians with long-range hopping, and is saturable for α ⩽ D/2. Our second bound pertains to generic long-range interacting spin Hamiltonians and gives a tight lower bound for the signaling time to extensive subsets of the system for all α< D. This many-site signaling time lower bounds the scrambling time in strongly long-range interacting systems.

8.
Phys Rev Res ; 2(3)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367285

RESUMO

We study the dissipative propagation of quantized light in interacting Rydberg media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. The regime of high incoming photon flux constitutes a challenging many-body dissipative problem. We experimentally study in detail the pulse shapes and the second-order correlation function of the outgoing field and compare our data with simulations based on two novel theoretical approaches well-suited to treat this many-photon limit. At low incoming flux, we report good agreement between both theories and the experiment. For higher input flux, the intensity of the outgoing light is lower than that obtained from theoretical predictions. We explain this discrepancy using a simple phenomenological model taking into account pollutants, which are nearly stationary Rydberg excitations coming from the reabsorption of scattered probe photons. At high incoming photon rates, the blockade physics results in unconventional shapes of measured correlation functions.

9.
Phys Rev X ; 10(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364075

RESUMO

Driven-dissipative systems are expected to give rise to nonequilibrium phenomena that are absent in their equilibrium counterparts. However, phase transitions in these systems generically exhibit an effectively classical equilibrium behavior in spite of their nonequilibrium origin. In this paper, we show that multicritical points in such systems lead to a rich and genuinely nonequilibrium behavior. Specifically, we investigate a driven-dissipative model of interacting bosons that possesses two distinct phase transitions: one from a high- to a low-density phase-reminiscent of a liquid-gas transition-and another to an antiferromagnetic phase. Each phase transition is described by the Ising universality class characterized by an (emergent or microscopic) ℤ 2 symmetry. However, they coalesce at a multicritical point, giving rise to a nonequilibrium model of coupled Ising-like order parameters described by a ℤ 2 × â„¤ 2 symmetry. Using a dynamical renormalization-group approach, we show that a pair of nonequilibrium fixed points (NEFPs) emerge that govern the long-distance critical behavior of the system. We elucidate various exotic features of these NEFPs. In particular, we show that a generic continuous scale invariance at criticality is reduced to a discrete scale invariance. This further results in complex-valued critical exponents and spiraling phase boundaries, and it is also accompanied by a complex Liouvillian gap even close to the phase transition. As direct evidence of the nonequilibrium nature of the NEFPs, we show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation is violated at all scales, leading to an effective temperature that becomes "hotter" and "hotter" at longer and longer wavelengths. Finally, we argue that this nonequilibrium behavior can be observed in cavity arrays with cross-Kerr nonlinearities.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25396-25401, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024018

RESUMO

Quantum computers and simulators may offer significant advantages over their classical counterparts, providing insights into quantum many-body systems and possibly improving performance for solving exponentially hard problems, such as optimization and satisfiability. Here, we report the implementation of a low-depth Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) using an analog quantum simulator. We estimate the ground-state energy of the Transverse Field Ising Model with long-range interactions with tunable range, and we optimize the corresponding combinatorial classical problem by sampling the QAOA output with high-fidelity, single-shot, individual qubit measurements. We execute the algorithm with both an exhaustive search and closed-loop optimization of the variational parameters, approximating the ground-state energy with up to 40 trapped-ion qubits. We benchmark the experiment with bootstrapping heuristic methods scaling polynomially with the system size. We observe, in agreement with numerics, that the QAOA performance does not degrade significantly as we scale up the system size and that the runtime is approximately independent from the number of qubits. We finally give a comprehensive analysis of the errors occurring in our system, a crucial step in the path forward toward the application of the QAOA to more general problem instances.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(13): 130601, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034468

RESUMO

We study quantum information scrambling in spin models with both long-range all-to-all and short-range interactions. We argue that a simple global, spatially homogeneous interaction together with local chaotic dynamics is sufficient to give rise to fast scrambling, which describes the spread of quantum information over the entire system in a time that is logarithmic in the system size. This is illustrated in two tractable models: (1) a random circuit with Haar random local unitaries and a global interaction and (2) a classical model of globally coupled nonlinear oscillators. We use exact numerics to provide further evidence by studying the time evolution of an out-of-time-order correlator and entanglement entropy in spin chains of intermediate sizes. Our results pave the way towards experimental investigations of fast scrambling and aspects of quantum gravity with quantum simulators.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(9): 093601, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915601

RESUMO

Ultracold systems offer an unprecedented level of control of interactions between atoms. An important challenge is to achieve a similar level of control of the interactions between photons. Towards this goal, we propose a realization of a novel Lennard-Jones-like potential between photons coupled to the Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). This potential is achieved by tuning Rydberg states to a Förster resonance with other Rydberg states. We consider few-body problems in 1D and 2D geometries and show the existence of self-bound clusters ("molecules") of photons. We demonstrate that for a few-body problem, the multibody interactions have a significant impact on the geometry of the molecular ground state. This leads to phenomena without counterparts in conventional systems: For example, three photons in two dimensions preferentially arrange themselves in a line configuration rather than in an equilateral-triangle configuration. Our result opens a new avenue for studies of many-body phenomena with strongly interacting photons.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(22): 220502, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567903

RESUMO

Quantum computers can efficiently simulate the dynamics of quantum systems. In this Letter, we study the cost of digitally simulating the dynamics of several physically relevant systems using the first-order product-formula algorithm. We show that the errors from different Trotterization steps in the algorithm can interfere destructively, yielding a much smaller error than previously estimated. In particular, we prove that the total error in simulating a nearest-neighbor interacting system of n sites for time t using the first-order product formula with r time slices is O(nt/r+nt^{3}/r^{2}) when nt^{2}/r is less than a small constant. Given an error tolerance ϵ, the error bound yields an estimate of max{O(n^{2}t/ϵ),O(n^{2}t^{3/2}/ϵ^{1/2})} for the total gate count of the simulation. The estimate is tighter than previous bounds and matches the empirical performance observed in Childs et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, 9456 (2018)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1801723115]. We also provide numerical evidence for potential improvements and conjecture an even tighter estimate for the gate count.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(20): 207602, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501079

RESUMO

We study one-dimensional spin-1/2 models in which strict confinement of Ising domain walls leads to the fragmentation of Hilbert space into exponentially many disconnected subspaces. Whereas most previous works emphasize dipole moment conservation as an essential ingredient for such fragmentation, we instead require two commuting U(1) conserved quantities associated with the total domain-wall number and the total magnetization. The latter arises naturally from the confinement of domain walls. Remarkably, while some connected components of the Hilbert space thermalize, others are integrable by Bethe ansatz. We further demonstrate how this Hilbert-space fragmentation pattern arises perturbatively in the confining limit of Z_{2} gauge theory coupled to fermionic matter, leading to a hierarchy of timescales for motion of the fermions. This model can be realized experimentally in two complementary settings.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(24): 240405, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412027

RESUMO

Symmetry-breaking transitions are a well-understood phenomenon of closed quantum systems in quantum optics, condensed matter, and high energy physics. However, symmetry breaking in open systems is less thoroughly understood, in part due to the richer steady-state and symmetry structure that such systems possess. For the prototypical open system-a Lindbladian-a unitary symmetry can be imposed in a "weak" or a "strong" way. We characterize the possible Z_{n} symmetry-breaking transitions for both cases. In the case of Z_{2}, a weak-symmetry-broken phase guarantees at most a classical bit steady-state structure, while a strong-symmetry-broken phase admits a partially protected steady-state qubit. Viewing photonic cat qubits through the lens of strong-symmetry breaking, we show how to dynamically recover the logical information after any gap-preserving strong-symmetric error; such recovery becomes perfect exponentially quickly in the number of photons. Our study forges a connection between driven-dissipative phase transitions and error correction.

16.
Phys Rev Res ; 2(3)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124689

RESUMO

There are many possible architectures of qubit connectivity that designers of future quantum computers will need to choose between. However, the process of evaluating a particular connectivity graph's performance as a quantum architecture can be difficult. In this paper, we show that a quantity known as the isoperimetric number establishes a lower bound on the time required to create highly entangled states. This metric we propose counts resources based on the use of two-qubit unitary operations, while allowing for arbitrarily fast measurements and classical feedback. We use this metric to evaluate the hierarchical architecture proposed by A. Bapat et al. [Phys. Rev. A 98, 062328 (2018)] and find it to be a promising alternative to the conventional grid architecture. We also show that the lower bound that this metric places on the creation time of highly entangled states can be saturated with a constructive protocol, up to a factor logarithmic in the number of qubits.

17.
Phys Rev B ; 102(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131609

RESUMO

String breaking is a central dynamical process in theories featuring confinement, where a string connecting two charges decays at the expense of the creation of new particle-antiparticle pairs. Here, we show that this process can also be observed in quantum Ising chains where domain walls get confined either by a symmetry-breaking field or by long-range interactions. We find that string breaking occurs, in general, as a two-stage process. First, the initial charges remain essentially static and stable. The connecting string, however, can become a dynamical object. We develop an effective description of this motion, which we find is strongly constrained. In the second stage, which can be severely delayed due to these dynamical constraints, the string finally breaks. We observe that the associated timescale can depend crucially on the initial separation between domain walls and can grow by orders of magnitude by changing the distance by just a few lattice sites. We discuss how our results generalize to one-dimensional confining gauge theories and how they can be made accessible in quantum simulator experiments such as Rydberg atoms or trapped ions.

18.
Phys Rev A (Coll Park) ; 102(3)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136732

RESUMO

The Dicke model famously exhibits a phase transition to a superradiant phase with a macroscopic population of photons and is realized in multiple settings in open quantum systems. In this paper, we study a variant of the Dicke model where the cavity mode is lossy due to the coupling to a Markovian environment while the atomic mode is coupled to a colored bath. We analytically investigate this model by inspecting its low-frequency behavior via the Schwinger-Keldysh field theory and carefully examine the nature of the corresponding superradiant phase transition. Integrating out the fast modes, we can identify a simple effective theory allowing us to derive analytical expressions for various critical exponents including the dynamical exponent. We find excellent agreement with previous numerical results when the non-Markovian bath is at zero temperature; however, contrary to these studies, our low-frequency approach reveals that the same exponents govern the critical behavior when the colored bath is at finite temperature unless the chemical potential is zero. Furthermore, we show that the superradiant phase transition is classical in nature, while it is genuinely nonequilibrium. We derive a fractional Langevin equation and conjecture the associated fractional Fokker-Planck equation that captures the system's long-time memory as well as its nonequilibrium behavior. Finally, we consider finite-size effects at the phase transition and identify the finite-size scaling exponents, unlocking a rich behavior in both statics and dynamics of the photonic and atomic observables.

19.
Phys Rev A (Coll Park) ; 102(3)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136733

RESUMO

We show how quantum many-body systems on hyperbolic lattices with nearest-neighbor hopping and local interactions can be mapped onto quantum field theories in continuous negatively curved space. The underlying lattices have recently been realized experimentally with superconducting resonators and therefore allow for a table-top quantum simulation of quantum physics in curved background. Our mapping provides a computational tool to determine observables of the discrete system even for large lattices, where exact diagonalization fails. As an application and proof of principle we quantitatively reproduce the ground state energy, spectral gap, and correlation functions of the noninteracting lattice system by means of analytic formulas on the Poincaré disk, and show how conformal symmetry emerges for large lattices. This sets the stage for studying interactions and disorder on hyperbolic graphs in the future. Importantly, our analysis reveals that even relatively small discrete hyperbolic lattices emulate the continuous geometry of negatively curved space, and thus can be used to experimentally resolve fundamental open problems at the interface of interacting many-body systems, quantum field theory in curved space, and quantum gravity.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(21): 213603, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809182

RESUMO

We propose a protocol for sympathetically cooling neutral atoms without destroying the quantum information stored in their internal states. This is achieved by designing state-insensitive Rydberg interactions between the data-carrying atoms and cold auxiliary atoms. The resulting interactions give rise to an effective phonon coupling, which leads to the transfer of heat from the data atoms to the auxiliary atoms, where the latter can be cooled by conventional methods. This can be used to extend the lifetime of quantum storage based on neutral atoms and can have applications for long quantum computations. The protocol can also be modified to realize state-insensitive interactions between the data and the auxiliary atoms but tunable and nontrivial interactions among the data atoms, allowing one to simultaneously cool and simulate a quantum spin model.

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