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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861778

RESUMO

Ensuring students' access to safe drinking water at school is essential. However, many schools struggle with aging infrastructure and subsequent water safety problems and have turned to bottled water delivery systems. Little is known about whether such systems are feasible and effective in providing adequate student water access. This study was a mixed-methods investigation among six schools in an urban district in the U.S. with two types of water delivery systems: (1) tap water infrastructure, with updated water fountains and bottle fillers, and (2) bottled water coolers. We measured students' water consumption and collected qualitative data from students and teachers about their perceptions of school drinking water. Student water consumption was low-between 2.0 (SD: 1.4) ounces per student and 2.4 (SD: 1.1) ounces per student during lunch. Students and teachers reported substantial operational hurdles for relying on bottled water as a school's primary source of drinking water, including difficulties in stocking, cleaning, and maintaining the units. While students and teachers perceived newer bottle filler units positively, they also reported a distrust of tap water. Bottled water delivery systems may not be effective long-term solutions for providing adequate school drinking water access and robust efforts are needed to restore trust in tap water.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(25): 2440-2450, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the national obesity epidemic has been well documented, less is known about obesity at the U.S. state level. Current estimates are based on body measures reported by persons themselves that underestimate the prevalence of obesity, especially severe obesity. METHODS: We developed methods to correct for self-reporting bias and to estimate state-specific and demographic subgroup-specific trends and projections of the prevalence of categories of body-mass index (BMI). BMI data reported by 6,264,226 adults (18 years of age or older) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey (1993-1994 and 1999-2016) were obtained and corrected for quantile-specific self-reporting bias with the use of measured data from 57,131 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fitted multinomial regressions for each state and subgroup to estimate the prevalence of four BMI categories from 1990 through 2030: underweight or normal weight (BMI [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], <25), overweight (25 to <30), moderate obesity (30 to <35), and severe obesity (≥35). We evaluated the accuracy of our approach using data from 1990 through 2010 to predict 2016 outcomes. RESULTS: The findings from our approach suggest with high predictive accuracy that by 2030 nearly 1 in 2 adults will have obesity (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.7 to 50.1), and the prevalence will be higher than 50% in 29 states and not below 35% in any state. Nearly 1 in 4 adults is projected to have severe obesity by 2030 (24.2%; 95% CI, 22.9 to 25.5), and the prevalence will be higher than 25% in 25 states. We predict that, nationally, severe obesity is likely to become the most common BMI category among women (27.6%; 95% CI, 26.1 to 29.2), non-Hispanic black adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 29.9 to 33.4), and low-income adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 30.2 to 33.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that the prevalence of adult obesity and severe obesity will continue to increase nationwide, with large disparities across states and demographic subgroups. (Funded by the JPB Foundation.).


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Mórbida/etnologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1587, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a great need to identify implementation strategies to successfully scale-up public health interventions in order to achieve their intended population impact. The Out-of-school Nutrition and Physical Activity group-randomized trial previously demonstrated improvements in children's vigorous physical activity and the healthfulness of foods and beverages consumed. This implementation study aimed to assess the effects and costs of two training models to scale-up this evidence-based intervention. METHODS: A 3-arm group-randomized trial was conducted to compare effectiveness of in-person and online training models for scaling up the intervention compared to controls. One-third of sites were randomized to the in-person train-the-trainer model: local YMCA facilitators attended a training session and then conducted three learning collaborative meetings and technical assistance. One-third were assigned to the online model, consisting of self-paced monthly learning modules, videos, quizzes, and facilitated discussion boards. Remaining sites served as controls. Fifty-three afterschool sites from three YMCA Associations in different regions of the country completed baseline and follow-up observations using a validated tool of afterschool nutrition and physical activity practices. We used multivariable regression models, accounting for clustering of observations, to assess intervention effects on an aggregate afterschool practice primary outcome, and conducted secondary analyses of nine intervention goals (e.g. serving water). Cost data were collected to determine the resources to implement each training model. RESULTS: Changes in the primary outcome indicate that, on average, sites in the in-person arm achieved 0.44 additional goals compared to controls (95%CI 0.02, 0.86, p = 0.04). Increases in the number of additional goals achieved in sites in the online arm were not significantly greater than control sites (+ 0.28, 95% CI -0.18, 0.73, p = 0.24). Goal-specific improvements were observed for increasing water offered in the in-person arm and fruits and vegetables offered in the online arm. The cost per person trained was $678 for the in-person training model and $336 for the on-line training model. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot trial presents promising findings on implementation strategies for scale-up. It validated the in-person training model as an effective approach. The less expensive online training may be a useful option for geographically disbursed sites where in-person training is challenging. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Although this study does not report the results of a health care intervention on human subjects, it is a randomized trial and was therefore retrospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov on July 4, 2019 in accordance with the BMC guidelines to ensure the complete publication of all results (NCT04009304).

4.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(11): 1824-1831, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682510

RESUMO

An excise tax of 1 peso per liter on sugar-sweetened beverages was implemented in Mexico in 2014. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of this tax and an alternative tax scenario of 2 pesos per liter. We developed a cohort simulation model calibrated for Mexico to project the impact of the tax over ten years. The current tax is projected to prevent 239,900 cases of obesity, 39 percent of which would be among children. It could also prevent 61,340 cases of diabetes, lead to gains of 55,300 quality-adjusted life-years, and avert 5,840 disability-adjusted life-years. The tax is estimated to save $3.98 per dollar spent on its implementation. Doubling the tax to 2 pesos per liter would nearly double the cost savings and health impact. Countries with comparable conditions could benefit from implementing a similar tax.

5.
BMJ ; 367: l5837, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether calorie labeling of menus in large restaurant chains was associated with a change in mean calories purchased per transaction. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental longitudinal study. SETTING: Large franchise of a national fast food company with three different restaurant chains located in the southern United States (Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi) from April 2015 until April 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 104 restaurants with calorie information added to in-store and drive-thru menus in April 2017 and with weekly aggregated sales data during the pre-labeling (April 2015 to April 2017) and post-labeling (April 2017 to April 2018) implementation period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the overall level and trend changes in mean purchased calories per transaction after implementation of calorie labeling compared with the counterfactual (ie, assumption that the pre-intervention trend would have persisted had the intervention not occurred) using interrupted time series analyses with linear mixed models. Secondary outcomes were by item category (entrees, sides, and sugar sweetened beverages). Subgroup analyses estimated the effect of calorie labeling in stratums defined by the sociodemographic characteristics of restaurant census tracts (defined region for taking census). RESULTS: The analytic sample comprised 14 352 restaurant weeks. Over three years and among 104 restaurants, 49 062 440 transactions took place and 242 726 953 items were purchased. After labeling implementation, a level decrease was observed of 60 calories/transaction (95% confidence interval 48 to 72; about 4%), followed by an increasing trend of 0.71 calories/transaction/week (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.92) independent of the baseline trend over the year after implementation. These results were generally robust to different analytic assumptions in sensitivity analyses. The level decrease and post-implementation trend change were stronger for sides than for entrees or sugar sweetened beverages. The level decrease was similar between census tracts with higher and lower median income, but the post-implementation trend in calories per transaction was higher in low income (change in calories/transaction/week 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.21) than in high income census tracts (0.50, 0.19 to 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: A small decrease in mean calories purchased per transaction was observed after implementation of calorie labeling in a large franchise of fast food restaurants. This reduction diminished over one year of follow-up.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Prevalência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(12): 2037-2045, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness and impact on childhood obesity of installation of chilled water dispensers ("water jets") on school lunch lines and to compare water jets' cost, reach, and impact on water consumption with three additional strategies. METHODS: The Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study(CHOICES) microsimulation model estimated the cost-effectiveness of water jets on US childhood obesity cases prevented in 2025. Also estimated were the cost, number of children reached, and impact on water consumption of the installation of water jets and three other strategies. RESULTS: Installing water jets on school lunch lines was projected to reach 29.6 million children (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 29.4 million-29.8 million), cost $4.25 (95% UI: $2.74-$5.69) per child, prevent 179,550 cases of childhood obesity in 2025 (95% UI: 101,970-257,870), and save $0.31 in health care costs per dollar invested (95% UI: $0.15-$0.55). In the secondary analysis, installing cup dispensers next to existing water fountains was the least costly but also had the lowest population reach. CONCLUSIONS: Installating water jet dispensers on school lunch lines could also save almost half of the dollars needed for implementation via a reduction in obesity-related health care costs. School-based interventions to promote drinking water may be relatively inexpensive strategies for improving child health.

7.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(10): 1177-1187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of and stakeholder perspectives on a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) policy that would not allow SSB purchases in Maine, US. DESIGN: A cost-effectiveness simulation model combined with stakeholder interviews. SETTING: Maine, US. PARTICIPANTS: Microsimulation of the Maine population in 2015 and interviews with stakeholders (n = 14). Study conducted from 2013 to 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health care cost savings, net costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from 2017 to 2027. Stakeholder positions on policies. Retail SSB cost and implementation cost data were collected. ANALYSIS: Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost-Effectiveness Study project microsimulation model with uncertainty analysis to estimate cost-effectiveness. Thematic stakeholder interview coding. RESULTS: Over 10 years, the SSB and SNAP policies were projected to reduce health care costs by $78.3 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], $31.7 million-$185 million) and $15.3 million (95% UI, $8.32 million-$23.9 million), respectively. The SSB and SNAP policies were projected to save 3,560 QALYs (95% UI, 1,447-8,361) and 749 QALYs (95% UI, 415-1,168), respectively. Stakeholders were more supportive of SSB taxes than the SNAP policy because of equity concerns associated with the SNAP policy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Cost-effectiveness analysis provided evidence of potential health improvement and cost savings to state-level stakeholders weighing broader implementation considerations.

8.
Prev Med Rep ; 15: 100940, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367511

RESUMO

Many children are not sufficiently physically active. This study uses a quasi-experimental design to evaluate whether participation in a before-school physical activity program called Build Our Kids' Success (BOKS) increases physical activity. Participants (n = 426) were students in Fall, 2016 enrolled in BOKS programming and matched non-BOKS control students from the same grades (Kindergarten-6) and schools in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Analyses conducted in 2017 examined differences between children in BOKS versus controls in total daily steps, minutes of moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), vigorous (VPA), and total physical activity (TPA) assessed via Fitbit Charge HR™ monitors. Additional analyses compared physical activity on program days and non-program days. Students (mean age = 8.6 y; 47% female, 58% White, Non-Hispanic) wore monitors an average of 21.7 h/day on 3.2 days during the school week. Compared with controls, on BOKS days, BOKS participants accumulated more steps (1147, 95% confidence interval (CI): 583-1712, P < 0.001), MVPA minutes (13.4, 95% CI: 6.6-20.3, P < 0.001), and VPA minutes (4.0, 95% CI: 1.2-6.7, P = 0.005). Across all school days, BOKS participants accumulated more total steps than controls (716, 95% CI: 228-1204, P = 0.004). Compared to days without BOKS programming, on BOKS days, BOKS participants accumulated more steps (1153; 95% CI: 841-1464, P < 0.001) and daily minutes of MVPA (8.8, 95% CI: 5.3-12.2, P < 0.001), VPA (3.0, 95% CI: 1.6-4.5, P < 0.001), and TPA (20.8, 95% CI: 13.6-28.1, P < 0.001). BOKS programming promotes engagement in additional accumulated steps during the school week and physical activity on days that students participate. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03403816, available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03403816?term=NCT03403816&rank=1.

9.
Pediatrics ; 143(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of the 2009 changes to the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package and childhood obesity trends. We hypothesized that the food package change reduced obesity among children participating in WIC, a population that has been especially vulnerable to the childhood obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used an interrupted time-series design with repeated cross-sectional measurements of state-specific obesity prevalence among WIC-participating 2- to 4-year-old children from 2000 to 2014. We used multilevel linear regression models to estimate the trend in obesity prevalence for states before the WIC package revision and to test whether the trend in obesity prevalence changed after the 2009 WIC package revision, adjusting for changes in demographics. In a secondary analysis, we adjusted for changes in macrosomia and high prepregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Before the 2009 WIC food package change, the prevalence of obesity across states among 2- to 4-year-old WIC participants was increasing by 0.23 percentage points annually (95% confidence interval: 0.17 to 0.29; P < .001). After 2009, the trend was reversed (-0.34 percentage points per year; 95% confidence interval: -0.42 to -0.25; P < .001). Changes in sociodemographic and other obesity risk factors did not account for this change in the trend in obesity prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 WIC food package change may have helped to reverse the rapid increase in obesity prevalence among WIC participants observed before the food package change.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/tendências , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/tendências , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Health Promot Int ; 34(1): 144-153, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040574

RESUMO

Physical activity engagement during childhood is associated with positive health outcomes in adulthood. Exercise and sport science research links physical activity enjoyment with physical activity adoption and maintenance, among other positive health behaviors. However, public health researchers rarely measure enjoyment or discuss its role in interventions or theory. In this paper, we present the rationale for bringing enjoyment to the forefront of public health dialogue and action to increase physical activity in children and across the life course. We outline five potential explanations for the lack of physical activity enjoyment research in public health, and offer solutions and action steps for each. Enjoyment research has the potential to improve people's health by working on multiple levels, from individuals to schools to public sectors, and could have positive implications for various health behaviors.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Saúde Pública , Estudantes , Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 118(8): 1425-1437, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Afterschool interventions have been found to improve the nutritional quality of snacks served. However, there is limited evidence on how these interventions affect children's snacking behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the impact of an afterschool intervention focused at the school district, site, family, and child levels on dietary consumption of foods and beverages served at snack. DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a group-randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Data were collected from 400 children at 20 afterschool sites in Boston, MA before (fall 2010) and after (spring 2011) intervention implementation. INTERVENTION: The Out-of-School Nutrition and Physical Activity intervention aimed to promote fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and water, while limiting sugary drinks and trans fats. Researchers worked with district foodservice staff to change snack foods and beverages. Teams of afterschool staff participated in three 3-hour learning collaborative sessions to build skills and created action plans for changing site practices. The intervention included family and child nutrition education. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Research assistants observed dietary snack consumption using a validated measure on 2 days per site at baseline and follow-up. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: This study used multivariable regression models, accounting for clustering of observations, to assess the intervention effect, and conducted post-hoc stratified analyses by foodservice type. RESULTS: Children in intervention sites had greater decreases in consumption of juice (-0.61 oz/snack, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.12), beverage calories (-29.1 kcal/snack, 95% CI -40.2 to 18.0), foods with trans fats (-0.12 servings/snack, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.04), total calories (-47.7 kcal/snack, 95% CI -68.2 to -27.2), and increases in consumption of whole grains (0.10 servings/snack, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.18) compared to controls. In post-hoc analyses, sites with on-site foodservice had significant improvements for all outcomes (P<0.001), with no effect for sites with satellite foodservice. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that an afterschool intervention can improve children's dietary snack consumption, particularly at sites with on-site foodservice.


Assuntos
/métodos , Serviços de Alimentação , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Lanches , Bebidas , Boston , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Verduras
12.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(12): 2345-2350, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Financial conflicts of interest involving the food industry have been reported to bias nutrition studies. However, some have hypothesized that independently funded studies may be biased if the authors have strong a priori beliefs about the healthfulness of a food product ('white hat bias'). The extent to which each source of bias may affect the scientific literature has not been examined. We aimed to explore this question with research involving sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) as a test case, focusing on a period during which scientific consensus about the adverse health effects of SSB emerged from uncertainty. DESIGN: PubMed search of worldwide literature was used to identify articles related to SSB and health risks published between 2001 and 2013. Financial relationships and article conclusions were classified by independent groups of co-investigators. Associations were explored by Fischer's exact tests and regression analyses, controlling for covariates. RESULTS: A total of 133 articles published in English met inclusion criteria. The proportion of industry-related scientific studies decreased significantly with time, from approximately 30 % at the beginning of the study period to <5 % towards the end (P=0·003). A 'strong' or 'qualified' scientific conclusion was reached in 82 % of independent v. 7 % of industry-related SSB studies (P<0·001). Industry-related studies were overwhelmingly more likely to reach 'weak/null' conclusions compared with independent studies regarding the adverse effects of SSB consumption on health (OR=57·30, 95 % CI 7·12, 461·56). CONCLUSION: Industry-related research during a critical period appears biased to underestimate the adverse health effects of SSB, potentially delaying corrective public health action.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Viés , Açúcares da Dieta , Indústria Alimentícia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Edulcorantes , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Obesidade , Saúde Pública
13.
Am J Health Promot ; 32(1): 72-74, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed public support for required water access in schools and parks and perceived safety and taste of water in these settings to inform efforts to increase access to and consumption of tap water. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of the US public collected from August to November 2011. SETTING: Random digit-dialed telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n = 1218) aged 17 and older from 1055 US counties in 46 states. MEASURES: Perceived safety and taste of water in schools and parks as well as support for required access to water in these settings. ANALYSIS: Survey-adjusted perceived safety and taste as well as support for required access were estimated. RESULTS: There was broad support for required access to water throughout the day in schools (96%) and parks (89%). Few participants believed water was unsafe in schools (10%) or parks (18%). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of public support for efforts to increase access to drinking water in schools and parks and documents overall high levels of perceived taste and safety of water provided in these settings.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Parques Recreativos/normas , Opinião Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
N Engl J Med ; 377(22): 2145-2153, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the current obesity epidemic has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about long-term risks of adult obesity for a given child at his or her present age and weight. We developed a simulation model to estimate the risk of adult obesity at the age of 35 years for the current population of children in the United States. METHODS: We pooled height and weight data from five nationally representative longitudinal studies totaling 176,720 observations from 41,567 children and adults. We simulated growth trajectories across the life course and adjusted for secular trends. We created 1000 virtual populations of 1 million children through the age of 19 years that were representative of the 2016 population of the United States and projected their trajectories in height and weight up to the age of 35 years. Severe obesity was defined as a body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 35 or higher in adults and 120% or more of the 95th percentile in children. RESULTS: Given the current level of childhood obesity, the models predicted that a majority of today's children (57.3%; 95% uncertainly interval [UI], 55.2 to 60.0) will be obese at the age of 35 years, and roughly half of the projected prevalence will occur during childhood. Our simulations indicated that the relative risk of adult obesity increased with age and BMI, from 1.17 (95% UI, 1.09 to 1.29) for overweight 2-year-olds to 3.10 (95% UI, 2.43 to 3.65) for 19-year-olds with severe obesity. For children with severe obesity, the chance they will no longer be obese at the age of 35 years fell from 21.0% (95% UI, 7.3 to 47.3) at the age of 2 years to 6.1% (95% UI, 2.1 to 9.9) at the age of 19 years. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our simulation models, childhood obesity and overweight will continue to be a major health problem in the United States. Early development of obesity predicted obesity in adulthood, especially for children who were severely obese. (Funded by the JPB Foundation and others.).


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Crescimento , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatrics ; 140(5)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness and population impact of the national implementation of the Study of Technology to Accelerate Research (STAR) intervention for childhood obesity. METHODS: In the STAR cluster-randomized trial, 6- to 12-year-old children with obesity seen at pediatric practices with electronic health record (EHR)-based decision support for primary care providers and self-guided behavior-change support for parents had significantly smaller increases in BMI than children who received usual care. We used a microsimulation model of a national implementation of STAR from 2015 to 2025 among all pediatric primary care providers in the United States with fully functional EHRs to estimate cost, impact on obesity prevalence, and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The expected population reach of a 10-year national implementation is ∼2 million children, with intervention costs of $119 per child and $237 per BMI unit reduced. At 10 years, assuming maintenance of effect, the intervention is expected to avert 43 000 cases and 226 000 life-years with obesity at a net cost of $4085 per case and $774 per life-year with obesity averted. Limiting implementation to large practices and using higher estimates of EHR adoption improved both cost-effectiveness and reach, whereas decreasing the maintenance of the intervention's effect worsened the former. CONCLUSIONS: A childhood obesity intervention with electronic decision support for clinicians and self-guided behavior-change support for parents may be more cost-effective than previous clinical interventions. Effective and efficient interventions that target children with obesity are necessary and could work in synergy with population-level prevention strategies to accelerate progress in reducing obesity prevalence.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Intervenção Médica Precoce/economia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício/tendências , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Public Health ; 107(9): 1387-1394, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether differences in tap water and other beverage intake explain differences in inadequate hydration among US adults by race/ethnicity and income. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of inadequate hydration (urine osmolality ≥ 800 mOsm/kg) by race/ethnicity and income of 8258 participants aged 20 to 74 years in the 2009 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable regression models, we estimated associations between demographic variables, tap water intake, and inadequate hydration. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hydration among US adults was 29.5%. Non-Hispanic Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17, 1.76) and Hispanics (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.67) had a higher risk of inadequate hydration than did non-Hispanic Whites. Lower-income adults had a higher risk of inadequate hydration than did higher-income adults (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.45). Differences in tap water intake partially attenuated racial/ethnic differences in hydration status. Differences in total beverage and other fluid intake further attenuated sociodemographic disparities. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in inadequate hydration among US adults are related to differences in tap water and other beverage intake. Policy action is needed to ensure equitable access to healthy beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Líquidos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 25(7): 1159-1166, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which a clinical intervention resulted in reduced BMI z scores among 2- to 12-year-old children compared to routine practice (treatment as usual [TAU]). METHODS: The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) project is a multifaceted initiative to prevent childhood obesity among low-income children. At the federally qualified community health centers (FQHCs) of two communities (Intervention Site #1 and #2), the following were implemented: (1) pediatric weight management training, (2) electronic decision supports for clinicians, (3) on-site Healthy Weight Clinics, (4) community health worker integration, and (5) healthful clinical environment changes. One FQHC in a demographically matched community served as the TAU site. Using electronic health records, we assessed BMI z scores and used linear mixed models to examine BMI z score change over 2 years in each intervention site compared to a TAU site. RESULTS: Compared to children in the TAU site (n = 2,286), children in Intervention Site #2 (n = 1,368) had a significant decline in BMI z scores following the start of the intervention (-0.16 units/y; 95% confidence interval: -0.21 to -0.12). No evidence of an effect was found in Intervention Site #1 (n = 111). CONCLUSIONS: The MA-CORD clinical interventions were associated with modest improvement in BMI z scores in one of two intervention communities compared to a TAU community.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Exercício , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 117(7): 1097-1103, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28330733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 14 million children in the United States attend summer camp annually, yet little is known about the food environment in day camps. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the nutritional quality of meals served to, brought by, and consumed by children attending summer day camps serving meals and snacks, and to describe camp water access. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: Participants were 149 children attending five summer camps in Boston, MA, in 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Foods and beverages served were observed for 5 consecutive days. For 2 days, children's dietary intake was directly observed using a validated protocol. Outcome measures included total energy (kilocalories) and servings of different types of foods and beverages served and consumed during breakfast, lunch, and snack. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Mean total energy, trans fats, sodium, sugar, and fiber served per meal were calculated across the camps, as were mean weekly frequencies of serving fruits, vegetables, meat/meat alternates, grains, milk, 100% juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grains, red/highly processed meats, grain-based desserts, and salty snacks. Mean consumption was calculated per camper per day. RESULTS: Camps served a mean (standard deviation) of 647.7 (134.3) kcal for lunch, 401.8 (149.6) kcal for breakfast, and 266.4 (150.8) kcal for snack. Most camps served red/highly processed meats, salty snacks, and grain-based desserts frequently, and rarely served vegetables or water. Children consumed little (eg, at lunch, 36.5% of fruit portions, 35.0% of meat/meat alternative portions, and 37.6% of milk portions served) except for salty snacks (66.9% of portions) and grain-based desserts (64.1% of portions). Sugar-sweetened beverages and salty snacks were frequently brought to camp. One-quarter of campers drank nothing throughout the entire camp day. CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional quality of foods and beverages served at summer day camps could be improved. Future studies should assess barriers to consumption of healthy foods and beverages in these settings.


Assuntos
Creches , Refeições , Valor Nutritivo , Estações do Ano , Bebidas , Boston , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grão Comestível , Ingestão de Energia , Serviços de Alimentação , Frutas , Humanos , Carne , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos , Verduras
19.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 14: E03, 2017 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28084989

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although evidence-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity in school settings exist, few studies have identified factors that enhance school districts' capacity to undertake such efforts. We describe the implementation of a school-based intervention using classroom lessons based on existing "Eat Well and Keep Moving" and "Planet Health" behavior change interventions and schoolwide activities to target 5,144 children in 4th through 7th grade in 2 low-income school districts. METHODS: The intervention was part of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) project, a multisector community-based intervention implemented from 2012 through 2014. Using mixed methods, we operationalized key implementation outcomes, including acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, implementation fidelity, perceived implementation cost, reach, and sustainability. RESULTS: MA-CORD was adopted in 2 school districts that were facing resource limitations and competing priorities. Although strong leadership support existed in both communities at baseline, one district's staff reported less schoolwide readiness and commitment. Consequently, fewer teachers reported engaging in training, teaching lessons, or planning to sustain the lessons after MA-CORD. Interviews showed that principal and superintendent turnover, statewide testing, and teacher burnout limited implementation; passionate wellness champions in schools appeared to offset implementation barriers. CONCLUSION: Future interventions should assess adoption readiness at both leadership and staff levels, offer curriculum training sessions during school hours, use school nurses or health teachers as wellness champions to support teachers, and offer incentives such as staff stipends or play equipment to encourage school participation and sustained intervention activities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas/economia , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Currículo , Exercício , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pobreza , Pesquisa , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Professores Escolares
20.
Pediatr Obes ; 12(3): e24-e27, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27231236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic has spared no age group, even young infants. Most childhood obesity is incident by the age of 5 years, making prevention in preschool years a priority. OBJECTIVE: To examine 2-year changes in age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores and obesity-related behaviours among 441 of the 475 originally recruited participants in High Five for Kids, a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 paediatric practices. METHODS: The intervention included a more intensive 1-year intervention period (four in-person visits and two phone calls) followed by a less intensive 1-year maintenance period (two in-person visits) among children who were overweight or obese and age 2-6 years at enrolment. The five intervention practices restructured care to manage these children including motivational interviewing and educational modules targeting television viewing and intakes of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. RESULTS: After 2 years, compared with usual care, intervention participants had similar changes in BMI z-scores (-0.04 units; 95% CI -0.14, 0.06), television viewing (-0.20 h/d; -0.49 to 0.09) and intakes of fast food (-0.09 servings/week; -0.34 to 0.17) and sugar-sweetened beverages (-0.26 servings/day; -0.67 to 0.14). CONCLUSION: High Five for Kids, a primarily clinical-based intervention, did not affect BMI z-scores or obesity-related behaviours after 2 years.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Bebidas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Fast Foods , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Televisão
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