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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769611

RESUMO

This study investigated risk perception of contracting and dying of SARS-CoV-2 in sub-Sahara Africa during and after the lockdown periods. Two online surveys were conducted one year apart, with participants 18 years and above living in sub-Sahara Africa or the diaspora. Each survey took four weeks. The first survey was taken from 18 April to 16 May 2020, i.e., during the lockdown. The second survey was taken from 14 April to 14 May 2021, i.e., after the lockdown. A cross-sectional study using adopted and modified questionnaires for both surveys were distributed through online platforms. Question about risks perception of contracting and dying of SARS-CoV-2 were asked. The Helsinki declaration was applied, and ethical approvals were obtained. Total responses for both surveys, i.e., both during and after the lockdown, was 4605. The mean age was similar in both surveys (18-28 years). The mean risk perception scores were higher after lockdown by 3.59%. Factors associated with risk perception of COVID-19 were survey period, age group, region of residence, and occupation. Non-health care workers had a lower risk perception of COVID-19. This first comparative study on the level of risk perception of Africans during and after the lockdown shows that one in every three and every four persons in sub-Sahara Africa felt at high risk of contracting COVID-19 and thought they could die from contracting the same, respectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1562, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived risk towards the coronavirus pandemic is key to improved compliance with public health measures to reduce the infection rates. This study investigated how Sub-Saharan Africans (SSA) living in their respective countries and those in the diaspora perceive their risk of getting infected by the COVID-19 virus as well as the associated factors. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey on 1969 participants aged 18 years and above (55.1% male) was conducted between April 27th and May 17th 2020, corresponding to the mandatory lockdown in most SSA countries. The dependent variable was the perception of risk for contracting COVID-19 scores. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, and COVID-19 related knowledge and attitude scores. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses identified the factors associated with risk perception towards COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the respondents, majority were living in SSA (n = 1855, 92.8%) and 143 (7.2%) in the diaspora. There was no significant difference in the mean risk perception scores between the two groups (p = 0.117), however, those aged 18-28 years had lower risk perception scores (p = 0.003) than the older respondents, while those who were employed (p = 0.040) and had higher levels of education (p < 0.001) had significantly higher risk perception scores than other respondents. After adjusting for covariates, multivariable analyses revealed that SSA residents aged 39-48 years (adjusted coefficient, ß = 0.06, 95% CI [0.01, 1.19]) and health care sector workers (ß = 0.61, 95% CI [0.09, 1.14]) reported a higher perceived risk of COVID-19. Knowledge and attitude scores increased as perceived risk for COVID-19 increased for both SSAs in Africa (ß = 1.19, 95% CI [1.05, 1.34] for knowledge; ß = 0.63, 95% CI [0.58, 0.69] for attitude) and in Diaspora (ß = 1.97, 95% CI [1.16, 2.41] for knowledge; ß = 0.30, 95% CI [0.02, 0.58] for attitude). CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to promote preventive measures focusing on increasing people's knowledge about COVID-19 and encouraging positive attitudes towards the mitigation measures such as vaccines and education. Such interventions should target the younger population, less educated and non-healthcare workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Migração Humana , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371886

RESUMO

Adequate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) improve child survival and growth. Globally, about 18 million babies are born to mothers aged 18 years or less and have a higher likelihood of adverse birth outcomes in India due to insufficient knowledge of child growth. This paper examined factors associated with IYCF practices among adolescent Indian mothers. This cross-sectional study extracted data on 5148 children aged 0-23 months from the 2015-2016 India National Family Health Survey. Survey logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with IYCF among adolescent mothers. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding, minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, and minimum acceptable diet rates were: 58.7%, 43.8%, 43.3%, 16.6%, 27.4% and 6.8%, respectively. Maternal education, mode of delivery, frequency of antenatal care (ANC) clinic visits, geographical region, child's age, and household wealth were the main factors associated with breastfeeding practices while maternal education, maternal marital status, child's age, frequency of ANC clinic visits, geographical region, and household wealth were factors associated with complementary feeding practices. IYCF practices among adolescent mothers are suboptimal except for breastfeeding. Health and nutritional support interventions should address the factors for these indicators among adolescent mothers in India.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Índia , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia
4.
Health Secur ; 19(5): 468-478, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348050

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated fear, panic, distress, anxiety, and depression among many people in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, we examined factors associated with different levels of psychological impact as a result of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. From April 1 to 30, 2020, we used a self-administered online questionnaire to collect data from 10,609 respondents. Using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on respondents, we categorized the levels of impact as normal, mild, moderate, or severe. Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the associated factors. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe psychological impact was 10.2%, 4.8%, and 45.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of reporting normal vs mild, moderate, or severe psychological impact were 5.9 times higher for people living in the Chittagong Division, 1.7 times higher for women with lower education levels, 3.0 times higher among those who were divorced or separated, 1.8 times higher for those working full time, and 2.4 times higher for those living in shared apartments. The odds of reporting a psychological impact were also higher among people who did not enforce protective measures inside the home, those in self-quarantine, those who did not wear face masks, and those who did not comply with World Health Organization precautionary measures. Increased psychological health risks due to COVID-19 were significantly higher among people who experienced chills, headache, cough, breathing difficulties, dizziness, and sore throat before data collection. Our results showed that 1 in 2 respondents experienced a significant psychological impact as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health researchers should consider these factors when targeting interventions that would have a protective effect on the individual's psychological health during a pandemic or future disease outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Health Secur ; 19(4): 393-404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227870

RESUMO

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic and associated high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, there is panic among healthcare workers because of the higher risk of being infected. This study compared knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) and examined common associated factors. A web-based cross-sectional study of 1,871 respondents (430 HCWs and 1,441 non-HCWs) was conducted while lockdown measures were in place in 4 regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Data were obtained using a validated self-administered questionnaire via an online survey platform. Mean scores were calculated and summarized using a t test for both groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the unadjusted (B) and adjusted coefficients (ß) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. The mean scores were slightly higher among HCWs than non-HCWs, but not statistically significant. Being worried about contracting COVID-19 was the only common factor associated with knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions between the 2 groups. Knowledge of COVID-19 was associated with attitudes and perceptions between the 2 groups. Other significant associated factors were: the sub-Saharan Africa region, ages 29 to 38 years (ß = .32; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.60 for knowledge among non-HCWs), education (ß = -.43; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.04; and ß = -.95; 95% CI, -1.69 to -0.22, for knowledge among non-HCWs and HCWs, respectively), practice of self-isolation (ß = .71; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.02 for attitude among non-HCWs and HCWs (ß = .97; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.49), and home quarantine due to COVID-19, in both groups. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider these factors when targeting interventions during COVID-19 and other future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 43, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981590

RESUMO

Background: Feelings of isolation, insecurity, and instability triggered by COVID-19 could have a long-term impact on the mental health status of individuals. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of mental health symptoms (anxiety, depression, and stress) in Bangladesh and the factors associated with these symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: From 1 to 30 April 2020, we used a validated self-administered questionnaire to conduct a cross-sectional study on 10,609 participants through an online survey platform. We assessed mental health status using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The total depression, anxiety, and stress subscale scores were divided into normal, mild, moderate, severe, and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associated factors. Findings: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 15%, 34%, and 15% for mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 59% for severe anxiety symptoms, 14% for moderate anxiety symptoms, and 14% for mild anxiety symptoms, while the prevalence for stress levels were 16% for severe stress level, 22% for moderate stress level, and 13% for mild stress level. Multivariate analyses revealed that the most consistent factors associated with mild, moderate, and severe of the three mental health subscales (depression, anxiety, and stress) were respondents who lived in Dhaka and Rangpur division, females, those who self-quarantined in the previous seven days before the survey, and those respondents who experienced chills, breathing difficulty, dizziness, and sore throat. Conclusion: Our results showed that about 64%, 87%, and 61% of the respondents in Bangladesh reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. There is a need for mental health support targeting women and those who self-quarantined or lived in Dhaka and Rangpur during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Health Secur ; 19(1): 44-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606572

RESUMO

Misinformation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a significant threat to global public health because it can inadvertently exacerbate public health challenges by promoting spread of the disease. This study used a convenience sampling technique to examine factors associated with misinformation about COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa using an online cross-sectional survey. A link to the online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,969 participants through social media platforms and the authors' email networks. Four false statements-informed by results from a pilot study-were included in the survey. The participants' responses were classified as "Agree," "Neutral," and "Disagree." A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associated factors. Among those who responded to the survey, 19.3% believed that COVID-19 was designed to reduce world population, 22.2% thought the ability to hold your breath for 10 seconds meant that you do not have COVID-19, 27.8% believed drinking hot water flushes down the virus, and 13.9% thought that COVID-19 had little effect on Blacks compared with Whites. An average of 33.7% were unsure whether the 4 false statements were true. Multivariate analysis revealed that those who thought COVID-19 was unlikely to continue in their countries reported higher odds of believing in these 4 false statements. Other significant factors associated with belief in misinformation were age (older adults), employment status (unemployed), gender (female), education (bachelor's degree), and knowledge about the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Strategies to reduce the spread of false information about COVID-19 and other future pandemics should target these subpopulations, especially those with limited education. This will also enhance compliance with public health measures to reduce spread of further outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494209

RESUMO

Mental health and emotional responses to the effects of COVID-19 lockdown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are of serious public health concern and may negatively affect the mental health status of people. Hence, this study assessed the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as emotional reactions among sub-Saharan Africans (SSAs) and associated factors among SSAs during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This was a web-based cross-sectional study on mental health and emotional features from 2005 respondents in seven SSA countries. This study was conducted between 17 April and 17 May 2020 corresponding to the lockdown period in most SSA countries. Respondents aged 18 years and above and the self-reported symptoms were feeling anxious, being worried, angry, bored and frustrated. These were the main outcomes and were treated as dichotomous variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with these symptoms. We found that over half (52.2%) of the participants reported any of the mental health symptoms and the prevalence of feeling bored was 70.5% followed by feeling anxious (59.1%), being worried (57.5%), frustrated (51.5%) and angry (22.3%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariate analysis revealed that males, those aged >28 years, those who lived in Central and Southern Africa, those who were not married, the unemployed, those living with more than six persons in a household, had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Similarly, people who perceived low risk of contracting the infection, and those who thought the pandemic would not continue after the lockdown had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Health care workers had lower odds for feeling angry than non-healthcare workers. During the COVID-19 lockdown periods in SSA, about one in two participants reported mental health and emotional symptoms. Public health measures can be effectively used to identify target groups for prevention and treatment of mental health and emotional symptoms. Such interventions should be an integral component of SSA governments' response and recovery strategies of any future pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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