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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6256-6261, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658487

RESUMO

The intrinsic photophysical origin of lead halide perovskites (LHPs) that are used successfully in optolectronic applications remains hotly debated. Here, by using ultrafast X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully tracked the fate of photogenerated charge carriers at room temperature within the thin films of two classic LHPs, namely, MAPbBr3 (MA = CH3NH3) and FAPbBr3 [FA = CH(NH2)2]. We clearly observed in both thin films that the hole polaron is formed by localizing the photogenerated hole at the Br 4p orbital and concurrently distorting the local structure surrounding the Br atom after the photoexcitation. Furthermore, the larger FA cation in the cavity of the [PbBr6]4- octahedral framework induces a stronger hole polaron effect due to the hybridization of its p orbital into valence and conduction bands, correlating with the slower charge carrier recombination dynamics. Our direct experimental observation of the localized hole polaron in perovskites should advance the fundamental comprehension of charge carrier behavior within LHPs and their related devices.

2.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719510

RESUMO

A fundamental understanding of hot-carrier dynamics in photo-excited metal nanostructures is needed to unlock their potential for photodetection and photocatalysis. Despite numerous studies on the ultrafast dynamics of hot electrons, so far, the temporal evolution of hot holes in metal-semiconductor heterostructures remains unknown. Here, we report ultrafast (t < 200 fs) hot-hole injection from Au nanoparticles into the valence band of p-type GaN. The removal of hot holes from below the Au Fermi level is observed to substantially alter the thermalization dynamics of hot electrons, reducing the peak electronic temperature and the electron-phonon coupling time of the Au nanoparticles. First-principles calculations reveal that hot-hole injection modifies the relaxation dynamics of hot electrons in Au nanoparticles by modulating the electronic structure of the metal on timescales commensurate with electron-electron scattering. These results advance our understanding of hot-hole dynamics in metal-semiconductor heterostructures and offer additional strategies for manipulating the dynamics of hot carriers on ultrafast timescales.

3.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470309

RESUMO

Achieving propagation lengths in hybrid plasmonic systems beyond typical values of tens of micrometers is important for quantum plasmonics applications. We report long-range optical energy propagation due to excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) being strongly coupled to surface lattice resonance (SLRs) in silver nanoparticle arrays. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements provide evidence of an exciton-SLR (ESLR) mode extending at least 600 µm from the excitation region. We also observe additional energy propagation with range well beyond the ESLR mode and with dependency on the coupling strength, g, between SQDs and SLR. Cavity quantum electrodynamics calculations capture the nature of the PL spectra for consistent g values, while coupled dipole calculations show a SQD number-dependent electric field decay profile consistent with the experimental spatial PL profile. Our results suggest an exciting direction wherein SLRs mediate long-range interactions between SQDs, having possible applications in optoelectronics, sensing, and quantum information science.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(1): 233-241, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815456

RESUMO

Self-assembled peptide micelles and fibers demonstrate unique control over the photophysical properties of the bound, light-activated chromophore, zinc protoporphyrin IX, (PPIX)Zn. Micelles encapsulate either a mixture of uncoordinated and coordinated (PPIX)Zn or all coordinated depending on the ratio of peptide/porphyrin. As the ratio increases toward a 1:1 micelle/porphyrin ratio, providing the chromophore with a discrete coordination environment reminiscent of unstructured proteins, the micelles favor triplet formation. Fibers, however, promote a linear array of porphyrin molecules that dictates exciton hopping and excimer formation at ratios as high as 60:1, peptide/porphyrin. However, even in fibers, the formation of the triplet species increases with increasing peptide/porphyrin ratio due to increased spatial separation between neighboring chromophores facilitating intersystem crossing. Full characterization of the micelles structures and comparison to the fibers lead to the comparison with natural systems and the ability to control the excited populations that have utility in photocatalytic processes. In addition, the incorporation of a second chromophore, heme, yields an electron transfer pathway in both micelles and fibers that highlights the utility of the peptide assemblies when engineering multichromophore arrays as inspired by natural, photosynthetic proteins.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(50): 19728-19735, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743009

RESUMO

The synthesis of periodic two-dimensional (2D) polymers and characterization of their optoelectronic behaviors are challenges at the forefront of polymer chemistry and materials science. Recently, we showed that layered 2D polymers known as 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) can be synthesized as single crystals by preparing COF particles as colloidal suspensions. Here we expand this approach from the condensation of boronic acids and catechols to the dehydrative trimerization of polyboronic acids. The resulting boroxine-linked colloids are the next class of 2D COFs to be obtained as single-crystalline particles, as demonstrated here for four 2D COFs and one 3D COF. Colloidal stabilization enables detailed structural analysis by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Solution fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the COF crystallites are highly emissive compared to their respective monomer solutions. Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the origin of this enhanced emission can be attributed to through-space communication of chromophores between COF sheets. These observations will motivate the development of colloidal COF systems as a platform to organize functional aromatic systems into precise and predictable assemblies with emergent properties.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(42): 16849-16857, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566956

RESUMO

Chromophore assemblies within well-defined porous coordination polymers, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), can emulate the functionality of the antenna rings of chlorophylls in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The chemical, electronic, and structural diversities define MOFs as a promising platform where photogenerated excitons can be displaced to redox catalysts similar to the reaction center of the LHC. The precise positioning of the pigments and complementary redox units enables us to understand the charge/energy-transfer process within these crystalline solid compositions. In this study, we postsynthetically anchored tetraphenylporphyrinato zinc(II) (TPPZn)-derived complementary pigment within the 1D pores of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(p-benzoicacid)pyrene (H4TBAPy)-derived NU-1000 MOF to form a high-density donor-acceptor system. The ground- and excited-state redox potentials of the donor and acceptor were chosen to facilitate an energy transfer (EnT) from the excited MOF (i.e., NU-1000*) to TPPZn and a charge transfer (CT) from excited porphyrin (i.e., TPPZn*). Thus, the processes depend on the excitation wavelength. The energy transfer process was spectroscopically probed by excitation-emission mapping: MOF emission was completely quenched at 460 nm, where the pyrene-centered emission was expected. Instead, the excited MOF efficiently transfers the energy to manifest a TPPZn-centered emission at 670 nm (kEnT ≈ 4.7 × 1011 s-1). The excited TPPZn pigment, with a neighboring TBAPy linker, forms an artificial "special-pair"-like system driving the charge-separation process (kCT = 1.2 × 1010 s-1). The findings demonstrate a synthetic MOF-based artificial LHC system where their well-defined structure will open up new possibilities as the separated charge can hop along the 1D pore channel for further mechanistic understanding and future developments.

7.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 13264-13270, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661244

RESUMO

Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) constitute an ideal platform for developing near-infrared biosensors, single photon sources, and nanolasers due to their distinct optical and electrical properties. Covalent doping of SWCNTs has recently been discovered as an efficient approach in enhancing their emission intensities. We perform pump-probe studies of SWCNTs that are covalently doped with sp3 quantum defects and reveal strikingly different exciton formation dynamics and decay mechanisms in the presence of the defect sites. We show that, in highly doped SWCNTs, ultrafast trapping of excitons at the defect sites can outpace other photodynamic processes and lead to ground-state photobleaching of the quantum defects. Our fitting of the transient data with a kinetic model also reveals an upper limit in the quantum defect density for obtaining highly luminescent SWCNTs without causing irreversible damage. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the photodynamics in covalently doped SWCNTs but also reveal critical information for the design of bright near-infrared emitters that can be utilized in biological, quantum information, and nanophotonic applications.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(13): 12516-12524, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865419

RESUMO

The integration of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with semiconductors has attracted mounting attention for photocatalytic applications. However, more efforts are needed to unravel the interface structure in MOF/semiconductor composites and its role in charge transfer. Herein, a MIL-100(Fe)/TiO2 composite was synthesized as a prototypical photocatalyst and studied systematically to explore the interface structure and unravel the charge transfer pathways during the photocatalytic processes. The composite was fabricated by growing MIL-100(Fe) crystals on TiO2 using surface-coated FeOOH as the precursor. The as-prepared MIL-100(Fe)/TiO2 exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic performance over pristine TiO2, which was mainly because of the enhanced charge separation as confirmed by transient absorption spectroscopy analysis. This enhancement partially arose from the special chemical structure at the interface, where the Fe-O-Ti bond was formed. As verified by the density functional theory calculation, this distinct structure would create defect energy levels adjacent to the valence band maximum of TiO2. During the photocatalytic processes, the defect energy levels serve as sinks to capture excited charge carriers and retard the recombination, which subsequently leads to the increased charge density and promoted photocatalytic efficiency. Meanwhile, the intimate interactions between MIL-100(Fe) and TiO2 would also help to improve the charge separation by transferring photo-induced holes through the ligands to Fe-O clusters. These findings would advance the fundamental understanding of the interface structure and the charge transfer pathways in MOF/semiconductor composite photocatalysts.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(9): 9583-9593, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789701

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskites present a versatile class of solution-processable semiconductors with highly tunable bandgaps that span ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. We explore phase-separated chloride and iodide lead perovskite mixtures as candidate materials for intermediate band applications in future photovoltaics. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal that deposition of precursor solutions across the MAPbCl3/MAPbI3 composition space affords quasi-epitaxial cocrystallized films, in which the two perovskites do not alloy but instead remain phase-segregated. First-principle calculations further support the formation of an epitaxial interface and predict energy offsets in the valence band and conduction band edges that could result in intermediate energy absorption. The charge dynamics of variable mixtures of the relatively narrow bandgap (1.57 eV) MAPbI3 perovskite and wide bandgap (3.02 eV) MAPbCl3 are probed to map charge and energy flow direction and kinetics. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption measurements reveal charge transfer of photoexcited carriers in MAPbCl3 to MAPbI3 in tens of picoseconds. The rate of quenching can be further tuned by replacing MAPbI3 with two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper (BA)2(MA) n-1Pb nI3 n+1 ( n = 3, 2, and 1) perovskites, which also remain phase-separated.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(46): 15791-15803, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285448

RESUMO

The ensemble emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots are broader than achievable spectra of cadmium- and lead-based quantum dots, despite similar single-particle line widths and significant efforts invested in the improvement of synthetic protocols. We seek to explain the origin of persistently broad ensemble emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots by investigating the nature of the electronic states responsible for luminescence. We identify a correlation between red-shifted emission spectra and anomalous broadening of the excitation spectra of luminescent InP colloids, suggesting a trap-associated emission pathway in highly emissive core-shell quantum dots. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments find that electrons are largely untrapped on photoluminescence relevant time scales pointing to emission from recombination of localized holes with free electrons. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy on InP quantum dots reveals multiple emissive states and increased electron-phonon coupling associated with hole localization. These localized hole states near the valence band edge are hypothesized to arise from incomplete surface passivation and structural disorder associated with lattice defects. We confirm the presence and effect of lattice disorder by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman scattering measurements. Participation of localized electronic states that are associated with various classes of lattice defects gives rise to phonon-coupled defect related emission. These findings explain the origins of the persistently broad emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots and suggest future strategies to narrow ensemble emission lines comparable to what is observed for cadmium-based materials.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(12): 127401, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296165

RESUMO

Excitations of free electrons and optical phonons are known to permit access to the negative real part of relative permittivities (ϵ^{'}<0) that yield strong light-matter interactions. However, negative ϵ^{'} arising from excitons has been much less explored. Via development of a dielectric-coating based technique described herein, we report fundamental optical properties of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites (2DHPs), composed of alternating layers of inorganic and organic sublattices. Low members of 2DHPs (N=1 and N=2) exhibit negative ϵ^{'} stemming from the large exciton binding energy and sizable oscillator strength. Furthermore, hyperbolic dispersion (i.e., ϵ^{'} changes sign with directions) occurs in the visible range, which has been previously achieved only with artificial metamaterials. Such naturally occurring, exotic dispersion stems from the extremely anisotropic excitonic behaviors of 2DHPs, and can intrinsically support a large photonic density of states. We suggest that several other van der Waals solids may exhibit similar behaviors arising from excitonic response.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(46): 5809-5818, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748666

RESUMO

It is recognized that metal organic complexes that serve as sensitizers can present various degrees of challenges viz. synthesis and stability for photonic applications such as triplet-triplet annihilation based photon upconversion (TTA-PUC). Presently, researchers, including our group, are turning their attention toward purely organic triplet sensitizers, which can be handled more easily for photon management science. In this review, we surveyed recently developed all-organic chromophoric systems that were devised and used for TTA-PUC research. Knowing that TTA-PUC research has mainly been focused on the design and synthesis of the triplet sensitizers, we detailed the underlying photophysics and thermodynamics that served as the starting point for the synthesis of the purely organic chromophores in question. Accordingly, this review details triplet sensitizers that operate on (i) spin-orbit coupling or heavy atom effect, (ii) Baird-type aromaticity and antiaromaticity, (iii) open-shell characteristics or doublet excited state and (iv) thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

13.
Nanoscale ; 10(15): 7040-7046, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616273

RESUMO

We report on luminescence lifetimes and linewidths from an array of individual quantum dots (QDs) that were either interfaced with graphene surface guides or dispersed on aluminum electrodes. The observed fluorescence quenching is consistent with screening by charge carriers. Fluorescence quenching is typically mentioned as a sign that chromophores are interfacing with a conductive surface (metal or graphene); we find that the QDs interfaced with the metal film exhibit shortened lifetime and line-broadening but not necessarily fluorescence quenching as the latter may be impacted by molecular concentration, reflectivity and conductor imperfections. We also comment on angle-dependent lifetime measurements, which we postulate depend on the specifics of the local density-of-states involved.

14.
Nanotechnology ; 29(17): 175201, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443008

RESUMO

We demonstrate here defect induced changes on the morphology and surface properties of indium oxide (In2O3) nanowires and further study their effects on the near-band-edge (NBE) emission, thereby showing the significant influence of surface states on In2O3 nanostructure based device characteristics for potential optoelectronic applications. In2O3 nanowires with cubic crystal structure (c-In2O3) were synthesized via carbothermal reduction technique using a gold-catalyst-assisted vapor-liquid-solid method. Onset of strong optical absorption could be observed at energies greater than 3.5 eV consistent with highly n-type characteristics due to unintentional doping from oxygen vacancy [Formula: see text] defects as confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. A combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and valence band analysis on the nanowire morphology and stoichiometry reveals presence of high-density of [Formula: see text] defects on the surface of the nanowires. As a result, chemisorbed oxygen species can be observed leading to upward band bending at the surface which corresponds to a smaller valence band offset of 2.15 eV. Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to study the nature of the defect states and the influence of the surface states on the electronic band structure and NBE emission has been discussed. Our data reveals significant broadening of the NBE PL peak consistent with impurity band broadening leading to band-tailing effect from heavy doping.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 57(5): 2673-2677, 2018 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461811

RESUMO

We report the discovery of an η2-SO2 linkage photoisomer in the osmium pentaammine coordination complex, [Os(NH3)5(SO2)][Os(NH3)5(HSO3)]Cl4 (1). Its dark- and light-induced crystal structures are determined via synchrotron X-ray crystallography, at 100 K, where the photoinduced state is metastable in a single crystal that has been stimulated by 505 nm light for 2.5 h. The SO2 photoisomer in the [Os(NH3)5(SO2)]2+ cation contrasts starkly with the photoinactivity of the HSO3 ligand in its companion [Os(NH3)5(HSO3)]+ cation within the crystallographic asymmetric unit of this single crystal. Panchromatic optical absorption characteristics of this single crystal are revealed in both dark- and light-induced states, using concerted absorption spectroscopy and optical microscopy. Its absorption halves across most of its visible spectrum, upon exposure to 505 nm light. The SO2 ligand seems to be responsible for this photoinduced bleaching effect, judging from a comparison of the dark- and light-induced crystal structures of 1. The SO2 photoisomerism is found to be thermally reversible, and so 1 presents a rare example of an osmium-based solid-state optical switch. Such switching in an osmium complex is significant because bottom-row transition metals stand to offer linkage photoisomerism with the greatest photoconversion levels and thermal stability. The demonstration of η2-SO2 bonding in this complex also represents a fundamental contribution to osmium coordination chemistry.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 29(9): 095701, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300167

RESUMO

It is a well-known fact that ZnO has been one of the most studied wide bandgap II-VI materials by the scientific community specifically due to its potential for being used as exciton-related optical devices. Hence, realizing ways to increase the efficiency of these devices is important. We discuss a plasma treatment technique to enhance the near-band-edge (NBE) excitonic emission from ZnO based nanoribbons. We observed an enhancement of the NBE peak and simultaneous quenching of the visible emission peak resulting from the removal of surface traps on these ZnO nanoribbons. More importantly, we report here the associated ultrafast carrier dynamics resulting from this surface treatment. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was performed using pump-probe differential transmission measurements shedding new light on these improved dynamics with faster relaxation times. The knowledge obtained is important for improving the application of ZnO based optoelectronic devices. We also observed how these improved carrier dynamics have a direct effect on the threshold and efficiency of random lasing from the material.

17.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2135, 2017 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233993

RESUMO

The originally published version of this Article contained an error in Equation 1. The two ℏ terms were missing from this equation. This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 986, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042536

RESUMO

The creation of energetic electrons through plasmon excitation of nanostructures before thermalization has been proposed for a wide number of applications in optical energy conversion and ultrafast nanophotonics. However, the use of "nonthermal" electrons is primarily limited by both a low generation efficiency and their ultrafast decay. We report experimental and theoretical results on the use of broadband plasmonic nanopatch metasurfaces comprising a gold substrate coupled to silver nanocubes that produce large concentrations of hot electrons, which we measure using transient absorption spectroscopy. We find evidence for three subpopulations of nonthermal carriers, which we propose arise from anisotropic electron-electron scattering within sp-bands near the Fermi surface. The bimetallic character of the metasurface strongly impacts the physics, with dissipation occurring primarily in the gold, whereas the quantum process of hot electron generation takes place in both components. Our calculations show that the choice of geometry and materials is crucial for producing strong ultrafast nonthermal electron components.The creation of energetic electrons through plasmon excitation has implications in optical energy conversion and ultrafast nanophotonics. Here, the authors find evidence for three subpopulations of nonthermal carriers which arise from anisotropic electron-electron scattering near the Fermi surface.

19.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 9119-9127, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787569

RESUMO

Quasi-two-dimensional nanoplatelets (NPLs) possess fundamentally different excitonic properties from zero-dimensional quantum dots. We study lateral size-dependent photon emission statistics and carrier dynamics of individual NPLs using second-order photon correlation (g(2)(τ)) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) intensity-dependent lifetime analysis. Room-temperature radiative lifetimes of NPLs can be derived from maximum PL intensity periods in PL time traces. It first decreases with NPL lateral size and then stays constant, deviating from the electric dipole approximation. Analysis of the PL time traces further reveals that the single exciton quantum yield in NPLs decreases with NPL lateral size and increases with protecting shell thickness, indicating the importance of surface passivation on NPL emission quality. Second-order photon correlation (g(2)(τ)) studies of single NPLs show that the biexciton quantum yield is strongly dependent on the lateral size and single exciton quantum yield of the NPLs. In large NPLs with unity single exciton quantum yield, the corresponding biexciton quantum yield can reach unity. These findings reveal that by careful growth control and core-shell material engineering, NPLs can be of great potential for light amplification and integrated quantum photonic applications.

20.
J Org Chem ; 82(19): 10167-10173, 2017 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836439

RESUMO

We report a novel reductive desulfurization reaction involving π-acidic naphthalene diimides (NDI) 1 using thionating agents such as Lawesson's reagent. Along with the expected thionated NDI derivatives 2-6, new heterocyclic naphtho-p-quinodimethane compounds 7 depicting broken/reduced symmetry were successfully isolated and fully characterized. Empirical studies and theoretical modeling suggest that 7 was formed via a six-membered ring oxathiaphosphenine intermediate rather than the usual four-membered ring oxathiaphosphetane of 2-6. Aside from the reduced symmetry in 7 as confirmed by single-crystal XRD analysis, we established that the ground state UV-vis absorption of 7 is red-shifted in comparison to the parent NDI 1. This result was expected in the case of thionated polycyclic diimides. However, unusual low energy transitions originate from Baird 4nπ aromaticity of compounds 7 in lieu of the intrinsic Hückel (4n + 2)π aromaticity as encountered in NDI 1. Moreover, complementary theoretical modeling results also corroborate this change in aromaticity of 7. Consequently, photophysical investigations show that, compared to parent NDI 1, 7 can easily access and emit from its T1 state with a phosphorescence 3(7a)* lifetime of τP = 395 µs at 77 K indicative of the formation of the corresponding "aromatic triplet" species according to the Baird's rule of aromaticity.

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