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2.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443256

RESUMO

In the presence of alkynes (CH[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-R2), iodide chain-end polymers (Polymer-I) were successfully transformed to vinyl iodide chain-end polymers (polymer-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CR2-I) in a single step via organocatalysis. This reaction is completely metal-free and easy to carry out without using special reagents or special conditions. The polymers encompassing polyacrylates and polymethacrylate, and additional functionalities (e.g., OH and CF3) were also incorporated into the R2 moiety. The obtained Polymer-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CR2-I further served as a useful precursor for copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with various thiols (R3-SH) to yield vinyl sulfide chain-end polymers (polymer-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CR2-SR3) with various R3 moieties. Interestingly, under selected conditions, this organocatalysis also offered block-like copolymers containing a conjugated oligo-alkyne segment and a non-conjugated polyacrylate segment. Exploiting the unique structure, the block-like copolymer was used as an efficient dispersant of carbon nanotubes.

4.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433855

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared working cancer survivors' self-rated health status (SRHS), physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and happiness to those of cancer-free workers. METHODS: A nationwide general population-based cross-sectional study on a sample of Japanese was conducted. Prevalence of deteriorated SRHS, restricted physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and perceived happiness were compared between working cancer survivors and cancer-free workers with multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sociodemographic and health-related backgrounds. RESULTS: Of the 28,311 male and 26,068 female workers, 977 (3.5%) and 1267 (4.9%) were cancer survivors, respectively. Working cancer survivors reported deteriorated SRHS more frequently than cancer-free workers: 21.3% vs. 13.8%, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.64 (1.39-1.95) for men, 23.8% vs. 17.5%, 1.34 (1.16-1.54) for women. Restricted physical functional capacity was reported more frequently in working cancer survivors than cancer-free workers: 6.8% vs. 2.6%, 1.76 (1.34-2.32) for men, 4.9% vs. 2.0%, 2.06 (1.56-2.71) for women. No significant difference was found for depressive symptoms: 21.6% vs. 22.9% in men, 30.0% vs. 28.5% in women. Working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free survivors in men (77.3% vs. 71.7%, 1.21 (1.01-1.45)) but not in women (76.1% vs. 74.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Working cancer survivors had worse SRHS and more restricted physical functional capacity than cancer-free workers. In men, working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free workers. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Continuous support to improve cancer survivors' SRHS and physical functional capacity would be necessary even while they are working.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2664-2673, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348433

RESUMO

Evidence of the association between dietary fiber intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk from prospective studies is limited. We examined the association between dietary fiber intake and GC risk in a large prospective study. A total of 91 946 eligible Japanese aged 45 to 74 years (42 773 men and 49 173 women) participated in a population-based cohort study (Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study). From a validated food frequency questionnaire with 138 food items, total and food source-specific dietary fiber intake was calculated as exposure. The hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of GC incidence according to quintile of dietary fiber intake were examined after adjusting for confounding factors. In total, 2228 GC cases (1559 men and 669 women) were observed during the 15.0 years follow-up. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with GC risk; however, a marginally increased risk trend because of high HR in the highest quintile of total fiber intake was found in women (HR [95% CI] in Q5 vs Q1: 0.95 [0.79-1.14], P for trend .30 in men, HR [95% CI] 1.25 [0.98-1.61], P for trend .05 in women). Stratification by tumor location did not change the results. A marginal but not significant inverse trend was observed regarding cereal fiber intake and GC risk in men. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with GC risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm this association.

6.
Cancer Med ; 10(2): 757-771, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preclinical studies suggest that fermented soy foods may have a protective effect against breast cancer, no prospective cohort studies have examined this association. OBJECTIVE: Our study examined the association between fermented and nonfermented soy food intake and breast cancer risk using a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. METHODS: We included a total of 47,614 women aged 45-74 years in an analysis of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for the assessment of dietary intake. Breast cancer incidence was analyzed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During an average of 15.5 years of follow-up, 825 breast cancer cases were newly identified. We found no association of intake of soy foods with breast cancer risk, regardless of fermentation, with multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest quartiles of fermented and nonfermented soy food intake of 0.94 (0.67, 1.32) and 1.15 (0.85, 1.57) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend = 0.305 and 0.393). Unlike nonfermented soy, higher intake of fermented soy foods was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of nonlocalized breast cancer. The HR and 95% CI in the highest compared to lowest intake category of fermented soy foods was 0.53 (0.28, 0.99) versus nonfermented soy foods 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) (p for trend = 0.026 and 0.797). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses showed that fermented soy foods had no association with overall breast cancer but may be associated with decreased risk of nonlocalized breast cancer.

7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether relatively low glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels are beneficial or harmful for the long-term health outcomes among people without diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association between low HbA1c levels and mortality among the US general population. METHODS: This study includes a nationally representative sample of 39 453 US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2014, linked to mortality data through 2015. We employed the parametric g-formula with pooled logistic regression models and the ensemble machine learning algorithms to estimate the time-varying risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by HbA1c categories (low, 4.0 to <5.0%; mid-level, 5.0 to <5.7%; prediabetes, 5.7 to <6.5%; and diabetes, ≥6.5% or taking antidiabetic medication), adjusting for 72 potential confounders including demographic characteristics, lifestyle, biomarkers, comorbidities and medications. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 5118 (13%) all-cause deaths, and 1116 (3%) cardiovascular deaths were observed. Logistic regression models and machine learning algorithms showed nearly identical predictive performance of death and risk estimates. Compared with mid-level HbA1c, low HbA1c was associated with a 30% (95% CI, 16 to 48) and a 12% (95% CI, 3 to 22) increased risk of all-cause mortality at 5 years and 10 years of follow-up, respectively. We found no evidence that low HbA1c levels were associated with cardiovascular mortality risk. The diabetes group, but not the prediabetes group, also showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Using the US national database and adjusting for an extensive set of potential confounders with flexible modelling, we found that adults with low HbA1c were at increased risk of all-cause mortality. Further evaluation and careful monitoring of low HbA1c levels need to be considered.

9.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and mortality among Asians, a population that consumes a large amount of carbohydrates. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score (based on percentage of energy as carbohydrate, fat, and protein) and the risk of total and cause-specific mortality among Asians. DESIGN: This study was a prospective cohort study in Japan with follow-up for a median of 16.9 years involving 43008 men and 50646 women aged 45-75 years. Association of LCD score, LCD score based on animal sources of protein and fat, and LCD score based on plant sources of protein and fat with risk of mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A U-shaped association was observed between LCD score and total mortality: the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) of total mortality for lowest through highest scores were 1.00, 0.95 (0.91, 1.01), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), and 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) (P-non-linearity <0.01). A similar association was found for mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart disease. LCD score based on carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat also showed a U-shaped association for total mortality (P-non-linearity <0.01). In contrast, LCD score based on carbohydrate, plant protein, and plant fat was linearly associated with lower total (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile), CVD [0.82 (0.73, 0.92)], heart disease [0.83 (0.71, 0.98)], and cerebrovascular disease [0.75 (0.62, 0.91) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Both LCD with high animal protein and fat and high-carbohydrate diet with low animal protein and fat were associated with higher risk of mortality. Meanwhile, LCD high in plant-based sources of protein and fat was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality.

12.
Chronobiol Int ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059467

RESUMO

Characteristics of the chronotypes of patients with gastrointestinal disease are unknown. We evaluated chronotypes of patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ). A total of 2027 subjects from 29 institutions in Japan who had undergone esophagogastroduodenoscopy were asked to answer the MCTQ. The subjects' chronotypes were divided into three groups (early, intermediate, and late chronotype) using the sleep-corrected mid-point of sleep on free days (MSFSC) values. According to their endoscopic diagnosis and abdominal symptoms, the subjects were divided into the reflux esophagitis (RE) group, gastroduodenal ulcer (GDU) group, upper gastrointestinal carcinoma (CA) group, functional dyspepsia (FD) group, non-FD group, and control group. In total, 1128 subjects were eligible for the analysis. The MSFSC (average ± standard deviation, clock hours, h) of each disease group was as follows: control group: 02.51 ± 1.22, non-FD group: 02.69 ± 1.14, FD group: 02.91 ± 1.19, RE group: 02.58 ± 1.05, GDU group: 02.47 ± 1.31, and CA group: 02.11 ± 1.08 h. Compared to the control group, the rate of late chronotype of the FD group significantly increased to 33.3%, whereas that of early chronotype of the CA group significantly increased to 38.3% (P = .0177 and 0.0036, respectively). In both the FD and CA groups, chronotype was the independent factor related to the diseases. The adjusted odds ratio of late chronotype to early chronotype was 3.01 [95% CI, 1.23-7.35] in the FD group and 0.44 [95% CI, 0.23-0.85] in the CA group. In conclusion, late chronotype was common in patients with FD, and early chronotype was common in patients with upper gastrointestinal carcinoma.

13.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(12): 107710, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921574

RESUMO

AIMS: To provide updated systematic and quantitative summary of the association between depression and the risk of CVD events among individuals with type 2 diabetes. We also aimed to examine the sensitivity of the association to uncontrolled confounding. METHODS: Data sources included Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo through September 2019. Two independent reviewers selected cohort studies that evaluated the association between depression and fatal or non-fatal CVD events among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Bias analysis was performed using the bias formula approach. RESULTS: Of 2527 citations screened, 17 eligible studies with a total of 1,033,131 participants were identified. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, depression was associated with higher risks of non-fatal CVD events (relative risk 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.53) and fatal CVD event (relative risk 1.47, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.77). Bias analysis indicated that unmeasured confounders alone may not explain the observed association between depression and CVD events among individuals with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Depression was associated with a higher risk of non-fatal and fatal CVD events among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our findings provide updated and robust evidence about the association between depression and CVD events among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

14.
Solid State Nucl Magn Reson ; 109: 101688, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947243

RESUMO

Experimental and theoretical investigations of indium-115 electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensors of indium(III) oxide, In2O3, have been presented. Field-stepwise-swept QCPMG solid-state 115In NMR experiments are carried out at T â€‹= â€‹120 â€‹K, observed at 52.695 â€‹MHz, and in the range of external magnetic fields between 4.0 and 6.5 â€‹T. The spectral simulations yield the quadrupolar coupling constant, CQ value, of 183(2) MHz and the asymmetry parameter, ηQ, of 0.05(5), for In(1), and that of 126(2) MHz and ηQ of 0.86(5) for In(2). Quantum chemical calculations are carried out to provide 115In EFG tensor orientations with respect to the molecular structure. A relationship between operative frequencies and variable ranges of external magnetic fields is briefly discussed for field-swept solid-state 115In NMR.

16.
Cancer Sci ; 111(10): 3862-3872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741012

RESUMO

Although intake of highly sugary foods is considered to be a potential risk factor for colorectal cancer through hyperinsulinemia, the association of sugar intake and colorectal adenoma, a precursor lesion to most colorectal cancer, is poorly understood, particularly in Asian populations. We undertook a cross-sectional study in a Japanese population to investigate the association between dietary sugar intake and the prevalence of colorectal adenoma. Study subjects were selected from participants who underwent magnifying colonoscopy with dye spraying as part of a cancer screening program and who responded to a self-administered questionnaire before the colonoscopy. A total of 738 cases with colorectal adenoma and 697 controls were enrolled. Dietary intakes of glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, and total sugars (sum of these six mono- or disaccharides) were calculated from a food frequency questionnaire, and divided into quartiles based on the distribution among controls. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of colorectal adenoma were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Total sugar intake was not significantly associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma (odds ratio for the highest intake group compared to reference group = 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.73; P for trend = .34). Furthermore, no statistically significant positive associations were observed for any of the six mono- or disaccharides. Findings were similar on additional analyses by site, size, and number of adenomas. Our findings do not support an association between high sugar intake and increased odds ratios of colorectal adenoma.

17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the impact of fermented and unfermented soy intake, based on the following soy-derived products: tofu, soymilk, natto, and miso, on the risk of liver cancer among Japanese adults. METHODS: 75,089 Participants of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) were followed from the time of the 5-year follow-up questionnaire until the end of 2012-2013. Subjects with available data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status from blood samples (n = 14,016) and those who were anti-HCV antibody (anti-HCV) or hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) positive (n = 1033) were also analyzed separately. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During 1,145,453 person-years, 534 newly diagnosed cases of liver cancer were identified in the JPHC Study. For miso intake among men, the multivariate-adjusted highest versus lowest quartile HR was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89); p for trend = 0.006. Results were similar in those who were anti-HCV or HBsAg positive, 0.24 (0.08-0.70); p for trend = 0.004 highest versus lowest tertile. For the sub-analysis among only participants with known hepatitis infection status and HCV and HBsAg adjustment, a similar association was observed. In the multivariate complete cohort analysis, among women, the highest intake of fried tofu was inversely associated with the risk of liver cancer, HR = 0.45 (0.26-0.80); p for trend = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no association between total soy intake, fermented and unfermented, and risk of liver cancer, and only an inverse association between miso intake and liver cancer among men.

18.
J Nutr ; 150(9): 2442-2450, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soy is commonly consumed in east Asian countries and is suggested to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconsistent, despite the anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties of soy isoflavones and soy protein. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between soy isoflavones and soy protein and CRC risk using 4 prospective cohort studies from China and Japan. METHODS: Data were pooled from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Cohort 1 (JPHC1), and Cohort 2 (JPHC2). Cox proportional hazards models estimated HRs and corresponding 95% CIs for the association of soy protein and isoflavone intake with CRC risk. The study included 205,060 individuals, among whom 2971 were diagnosed with incident CRC over an average follow-up of 12.7 y. RESULTS: No statistically significant associations with CRC risk were observed for soy protein or isoflavone intake. No association was observed among ever smokers consuming higher isoflavones (HRisoflavones: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.00) and soy protein (HRsoy protein: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.10). However, risk reductions were observed among premenopausal women with a body mass index [BMI (kg/m2)] <23.0 at baseline for higher isoflavone (HRisoflavones: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: No evidence for an overall reduction in CRC risk by increasing soy food intake (i.e., protein or isoflavones) was observed. However, the association between soy and CRC risk may vary by BMI, smoking, and menopausal status among women. Future investigations are needed to further understand the biologic mechanisms observed.

19.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to examine the association between adherence to the Japanese diet and the subsequent risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality using a large-scale cohort from settings all over Japan. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cohort study of 92,969 Japanese adults aged 45-74 years, covering 11 public health center areas nationwide. We collected dietary information using a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Japanese diet consisting of eight components (high intake of rice, miso soup, seaweeds, pickles, green and yellow vegetables, fish, and green tea; low intake of beef and pork) was assessed using 8-item Japanese Diet Index (JDI8) score, with scores ranging from 0 to 8. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.9 years, we documented 20,596 deaths. A higher JDI8 score was significantly associated with a lower risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The multivariable-adjusted HR of all-cause and CVD mortality for the highest JDI8 score group (score of 6-8) versus the lowest JDI8 score group (score of 0-2) were 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.90, P trend < 0.001), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.80-0.99, P trend = 0.007), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adhering to the Japanese diet, as assessed by the JDI8, was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among adults living in multiple areas across Japan.

20.
Cancer Sci ; 111(10): 3835-3844, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662535

RESUMO

The well-known gene-environment interaction between alcohol consumption and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotype in upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk may improve our ability to identify high-risk subjects. Here, we developed and validated risk prediction models for this cancer in Japanese men and evaluated whether adding the gene-environment interaction to the model improved the predictive performance. We developed two case-cohort datasets in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study: one from subjects in the baseline survey for model development (108 cases and 4049 subcohort subjects) and the second from subjects in the 5-year follow-up survey for model validation (31 cases and 1527 subcohort subjects). We developed an environmental model including age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption, and a gene-environment interaction model including age, smoking status, and the combination of alcohol consumption and the ALDH2 genotype. We found a statistically significant gene-environment interaction for alcohol consumption and the ALDH2 genotype. The c-index for the gene-environment interaction model (0.71) was slightly higher than that for the environmental model (0.67). The values of integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for the gene-environment interaction model were also slightly higher than those for the environmental model. Goodness-of-fit tests suggested that the models were well calibrated. Results from external model validation by the 5-year follow-up survey were consistent with those from the model development by the baseline survey. The addition of a gene-environment interaction to a lifestyle-based model might improve the performance to estimate the probability of developing upper aerodigestive tract cancer for Japanese men.

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