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1.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(10): 1241-1246, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regorafenib(Rego)is the salvage line standard treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer(mCRC), which often causes severe toxicities, such as hand-foot syndrome. Previously, we reported that in phase Ⅱ study, S-1 plus bevacizumab( Bev)(SB)showed favorable anticancer activity and feasibility as a salvage line. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 treatments for mCRC as salvage line. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multicenter phase Ⅱ study, the patients were randomly assigned(1:1)to the Rego or SB group. In the Rego group, Rego 160 mg/kg body weight was orally administered every 28 days for 21 days. In the SB group, S-1 was orally administered every 42 days for 28 days, according to body surface area, and Bev 5 mg/kg was administered by intravenous infusion on days 1, 15, and 29. Administration of S-1 every 21 days for 14 days and Bev 7.5 mg/kg on day 1 was also permitted. The primary endpoint was overall survival(OS), and the planned sample size was 86. RESULTS: This study was ended prematurely due to poor accrual. Overall, 8 patients were enrolled from 6 institutions between Oct 2013 and May 2015. Although 4 patients were assigned to each group, one patient in the Rego group was excluded after enrollment. The median OS in the Rego and SB groups was 30.2 months and 6.6 months, respectively(hazard ratio: 0.205, p=0.123). The median progression-free survival in the Rego and SB groups was 3.7 months and 1.6 months, respectively. The disease control rate in the Rego and SB groups was 100% and 75%, respectively. The Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were increased, including AST/ALT(n=1, 25%), hyponatremia(n=1, 25%), hand-foot syndrome(n=1, 25%), hypertension(n=1, 25%), and proteinuria(n=1, 25%)in the Rego group and colitis( n=1, 25%)in the SB group; the treatment was discontinued. CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that data could only be collected from a small number of patients, SB is not recommended as salvage line for mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piridinas
2.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121129, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562557

RESUMO

Oral delivery of the sparingly soluble drug methotrexate (MTX) is challenging owing to its poor bioavailability and low solubility. To address this challenge, the present study reports the conversion of MTX into a series of five ionic liquids (ILs) comprising a cationic component-i.e., cholinium (Cho), tetramethylammonium (TMA), tetrabutylphosphonium (TBP), or an amino acid ester-and an anionic component-i.e., MTX. The biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and antitumor efficacy of each MTX-based IL were investigated to determine its usefulness as a pharmaceutical. Oral administration to mice revealed that proline ethyl ester MTX (IL[ProEt][MTX]) had 4.6-fold higher oral bioavailability than MTX sodium, followed by aspartic diethyl ester MTX, IL[TBP][MTX], IL[Cho][MTX], and IL[TMA][MTX]. The peak plasma concentration, elimination half-life, area under the plasma concentration, mean absorption time, and body clearance of IL[ProEt][MTX] were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher by 1.7-, 6.2-, 4.6-, 2.5-, and 3.6-fold, respectively, than those of MTX sodium. MTX accumulation in the lungs, spleen, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract was also reduced by 5.6-, 1.8-, 1.5-, and 1.4-fold, respectively, indicating the IL formulations had lower systemic toxicity than free MTX. Mechanistic studies revealed that the IL[ProEt][MTX] solution formed spherical structures with an average size of 190 nm. This was probably responsible for its improved oral absorption performance in vivo. In vivo antitumor studies also demonstrated that IL[ProEt][MTX] suppressed tumor growth more than MTX sodium. These results suggest that MTX-based ILs provide a simple scalable approach to improving the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble MTX.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Líquidos Iônicos , Animais , Metotrexato , Camundongos , Solubilidade , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 42461-42472, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460218

RESUMO

Since injection administration for diabetes is invasive, it is important to develop an effective transdermal method for insulin. However, transdermal delivery remains challenging owing to the strong barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin. Here, we developed ionic liquid (IL)-in-oil microemulsion formulations (MEFs) for transdermal insulin delivery using choline-fatty acids ([Chl][FAs])-comprising three different FAs (C18:0, C18:1, and C18:2)-as biocompatible surface-active ILs (SAILs). The MEFs were successfully developed using [Chl][FAs] as surfactants, sorbitan monolaurate (Span-20) as a cosurfactant, choline propionate IL as an internal polar phase, and isopropyl myristate as a continuous oil phase. Ternary phase behavior, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that MEFs were thermodynamically stable with nanoparticle size. The MEFs significantly enhanced the transdermal permeation of insulin via the intercellular route by compromising the tight lamellar structure of SC lipids through a fluidity-enhancing mechanism. In vivo transdermal administration of low insulin doses (50 IU/kg) to diabetic mice showed that MEFs reduced blood glucose levels (BGLs) significantly compared with a commercial surfactant-based formulation by increasing the bioavailability of insulin in the systemic circulation and sustained the insulin level for a much longer period (half-life > 24 h) than subcutaneous injection (half-life 1.32 h). When [Chl][C18:2] SAIL-based MEF was transdermally administered, it reduced the BGL by 56% of its initial value. The MEFs were biocompatible and nontoxic (cell viability > 90%). They remained stable at room temperature for 3 months and their biological activity was retained for 4 months at 4 °C. We believe SAIL-based MEFs will alter current approaches to insulin therapy and may be a potential transdermal nanocarrier for protein and peptide delivery.

5.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(10): 1871-1880, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare irinotecan-alone, paclitaxel-alone, and each combination chemotherapy with S-1 in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) that is refractory to S-1 or S-1 plus cisplatin (SP). METHODS: Patients with AGC after first-line chemotherapy with S-1 or SP, or patients during adjuvant chemotherapy or within 26 weeks after adjuvant chemotherapy completion with S-1 with confirmed disease progression were eligible. Patients were randomly divided into four groups based on treatment: irinotecan-alone (irinotecan; 150 mg/m2, day 1, q14 days), paclitaxel-alone (paclitaxel; 80 mg/m2, days 1, 8, 15, q28 days), S-1 plus irinotecan (irinotecan; 80 mg/m2, days 1, 15, S-1; 80 mg/m2, days 1-21, q35 days), and S-1 plus paclitaxel (paclitaxel; 50 mg/m2, day1, 8, S-1; 80 mg/m2, days 1-14, q21 days). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and safety. RESULTS: From July 2008 to March 2012, 127 patients were enrolled. No difference in median OS was observed in the irinotecan vs. paclitaxel groups or in the monotherapy groups vs. the S-1 combination therapy groups. Median PFS was longer in the paclitaxel group compared with the irinotecan group (4.1 vs. 3.6 months, p = 0.035), although no difference was observed when comparing monotherapy vs. S-1 combination. The most common grade 3 to 4 hematological adverse events were neutropenia with no difference in incidence rate across the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in OS between irinotecan and paclitaxel no in OS prolongation of S-1 combination therapy in second-line chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445197

RESUMO

The term "cachexia" is derived from the Greek words kakos (bad) and hexis (habit). Cachexia is a malnutrition associated with chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic heart failure, chronic renal failure, and autoimmune diseases, and is characterized by decreased skeletal muscle mass. Cancer cachexia is quite common in patients with advanced cancer. Weight loss is also a characteristic symptom of cancer cachexia, along with decreased skeletal muscle mass. As nutritional supplementation alone cannot improve cachexia, cytokines and tumor-derived substances have been attracting attention as its relevant factors. Cancer cachexia can be also associated with reduced chemotherapeutic effects, increased side effects and treatment interruptions, and even poorer survival. In 2011, a consensus definition of cachexia has been proposed, and the number of relevant research reports has increased significantly. However, the pathogenesis of cachexia is not fully understood, and there are currently few regulatory-approved standard treatments for cachexia. The main reason for this is that multiple etiologies are involved in the development of cachexia. In this review, we will outline the current status of cachexia, the mechanisms of which have been elucidated in recent years, especially from the perspective of advanced cancer.


Assuntos
Caquexia/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Caquexia/diagnóstico , Caquexia/fisiopatologia , Caquexia/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico
7.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(11): 2065-2072, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although FOLFIRINOX is currently one of the standard therapies for chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC), the high rate of febrile neutropenia (FN) presents a clinical problem. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary prophylactic pegfilgrastim with FOLFIRINOX in Japanese MPC patients. METHODS: FOLFIRINOX (intravenous oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, irinotecan 180 mg/m2, levofolinate 200 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) bolus 400 mg/m2 and 5-FU 46 h infusion 2400 mg/m2) and pegfilgrastim 3.6 mg on day 4 or 5, every 2 weeks was administered to previously untreated MPC patients. The primary endpoint was the incidence of FN during the first 3 cycles. The planned sample size was 35 patients, but the trial was predefined to discontinue enrollment for safety if 4 patients developed FN. RESULTS: At the enrollment of 22 patients, 4 patients developed FN in the first cycle, resulting in an incidence of FN of 18% {95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-40.3%}, and enrollment was discontinued early. The incidence of grade 3 or higher neutropenia was 36.4%. Median relative dose intensities during the initial 3 cycles of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, bolus 5-FU, infusional 5-FU, and levofolinate maintained high (100%, 89.0%, 100%, 66.0%, and 100%, respectively). Response rate and median overall survival were 54.5% (95% CI 32.7-74.9) and 15.7 months (95% CI 7.9-18.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This phase II study could not demonstrate any reduction in the incidence of FN, nevertheless some patients experience benefits for efficacy by maintaining dose intensity using prophylactic pegfilgrastim. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index-j.htm , UMIN000017538. Date of registration: May/13/2015.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Filgrastim , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Japão , Leucovorina , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis
8.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(8): 1688-1698, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251809

RESUMO

Enzymatic reaction offers site-specific conjugation of protein units to form protein conjugates or protein polymers with intrinsic functions. Herein, we report horseradish peroxidase (HRP)- and microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-catalyzed orthogonal conjugation reactions to create antifungal protein polymers composed of Pteris ryukyuensis chitinase-A (ChiA) and its two domains, catalytic domain, CatD, and chitin-binding domain, LysM2. We engineered the ChiA and CatD by introducing a peptide tag containing tyrosine (Y-tag) at N-termini and a peptide tag containing lysine and tyrosine (KY-tag) at C-termini to construct Y-ChiA-KY and Y-CatD-KY. Also, LysM2 with Y-tag and KY-tag (Y-LysM2-KY) or with a glutamine-containing peptide tag (Q-tag) (LysM2-Q) were constructed. The proteins with Y-tag and KY-tag were efficiently polymerized by HRP reaction through the formation of dityrosine bonds at the tyrosine residues in the peptide tags. The Y-CatD-KY polymer was further treated by MTG to orthogonally graft LysM2-Q to the KY-tag via isopeptide formation between the side chains of the glutamine and lysine residues in the peptide tags to form LysM2-grafted CatD polymer. The LysM2-grafted CatD polymer exhibited significantly higher antifungal activity than the homopolymer of Y-ChiA-KY and the random copolymer of Y-CatD-KY and Y-LysM2-KY, demonstrating that the structural differences of artificial chitinase polymers have a significant impact on the antifungal activity. This strategy of polymerization and grafting reaction of protein can contribute to the further research and development of functional protein polymers for specific applications in various fields in biotechnology.

9.
Langmuir ; 37(30): 8971-8977, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242506

RESUMO

The stratum corneum (SC) covers the outer surface of the skin and prevents the permeation of unwanted materials; however, the SC barrier also inhibits the desired permeation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Therefore, the development of a novel method to enhance the permeation of APIs through the skin has been the focus of significant attention. Palmitoyl-glycine-histidine (Pal-GH)-comprising palmitic acid, glycine, and histidine-can be co-assembled with various additives to form a thixotropic hydrogel. Self-assembled Pal-GH enhances the permeation of ivermectin through the skin; however, the permeation mechanism is unclear and has not yet been discussed in detail. In the present study, the self-assembled structure of Pal-GH was analyzed using X-rays and infrared, and its permeation enhancement effect was verified. There was a correlation between the amount of Pal-GH in the skin and permeation enhancement, suggesting the involvement of the Pal-GH molecule. The presence of Pal-GH in the skin was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence labeling (labeling with Thioflavin T, a fluorescent dye that responds to ß-sheets). The self-assembled Pal-GH permeated the SC without disrupting its organization. However, the structure of the Pal-GH caused changes to the lipid organization of the SC. The findings indicated that self-assembled Pal-GH is an effective permeation enhancer for transdermal delivery and does not induce skin irritation.


Assuntos
Histidina , Absorção Cutânea , Administração Cutânea , Glicina , Permeabilidade , Pele/metabolismo
10.
Mol Pharm ; 18(8): 3108-3115, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250805

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread across the world, and no specific antiviral drugs have yet been approved to combat this disease. Favipiravir (FAV) is an antiviral drug that is currently in clinical trials for use against COVID-19. However, the delivery of FAV is challenging because of its limited solubility, and its formulation is difficult with common organic solvents and water. To address these issues, four FAV ionic liquids (FAV-ILs) were synthesized as potent antiviral prodrugs and were fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aqueous solubility and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of the FAV-ILs were also evaluated. The FAV-ILs exhibited improved aqueous solubility by 78 to 125 orders of magnitude when compared with that of free FAV. Upon oral dosing in mice, the absolute bioavailability of the ß-alanine ethyl ester FAV formulation was increased 1.9-fold compared with that of the control FAV formulation. The peak blood concentration, elimination half-life, and mean absorption time of FAV were also increased by 1.5-, 2.0-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with the control. Furthermore, the FAV in the FAV-ILs exhibited significantly different biodistribution compared with the control FAV formulation. Interestingly, drug accumulation in the lungs and liver was improved 1.5-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively, compared with the control FAV formulation. These results indicate that the use of ILs exhibits potential as a simple, scalable strategy to improve the solubility and oral absorption of hydrophobic drugs, such as FAV.


Assuntos
Amidas/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Amidas/síntese química , Amidas/química , Amidas/farmacocinética , Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pirazinas/síntese química , Pirazinas/química , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , Solubilidade , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(7): 1238-1247, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of combination treatment with panitumumab plus trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) in patients with wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who were refractory/intolerant to standard therapies other than anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. METHODS: APOLLON was an open-label, multicentre, phase 1/2 trial. In the phase 1 part, 3 + 3 de-escalation design was used to investigate the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D); all patients in the phase 2 part received the RP2D. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included PFS, overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), time to treatment failure (TTF), and safety. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were enrolled (phase 1, n = 7; phase 2, n = 49) at 25 Japanese centres. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in patients receiving panitumumab (6 mg/kg every 2 weeks) plus FTD/TPI (35 mg/m2 twice daily; days 1-5 and 8-12 in a 28-day cycle), which became RP2D. PFS rate at 6 months was 33.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 22.8-45.3). Median PFS, OS, ORR, DCR, and TTF were 5.8 months (95% CI 4.5-6.5), 14.1 months (95% CI 12.2-19.3), 37.0% (95% CI 24.3-51.3), 81.5% (95% CI 68.6-90.8), and 5.8 months (95% CI 4.29-6.21), respectively. Neutrophil count decreased (47.3%) was the most common Grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event. No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSION: Panitumumab plus FTD/TPI exhibited favourable anti-tumour activity with a manageable safety profile and may be a therapeutic option for pre-treated mCRC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Trifluridina , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Panitumumabe , Pirrolidinas , Timina , Trifluridina/efeitos adversos
12.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117119, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906032

RESUMO

The well-known toxicity of conventional chemical oil spill dispersants demands the development of alternative and environmentally friendly dispersant formulations. Therefore, in the present study we have developed a pair of less toxic and green dispersants by combining lactonic sophorolipid (LS) biosurfactant individually with choline myristate and choline oleate ionic liquid surfactants. The aggregation behavior of resulted surfactant blends and their dispersion effectiveness was investigated using the baffled flask test. The introduction of long hydrophobic alkyl chain with unsaturation (attached to choline cation) provided synergistic interactions between the binary surfactant mixtures. The maximum dispersion effectiveness was found to be 78.23% for 80:20 (w/w) lactonic sophorolipid-choline myristate blends, and 81.15% for 70:30 (w/w) lactonic sophorolipid-choline oleate blends at the dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:25 (v/v). The high dispersion effectiveness of lactonic sophorolipid-choline oleate between two developed blends is attributed to the stronger synergistic interactions between surfactants and slower desorption rate of blend from oil-water interface. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets at several DOR were evaluated and it was observed that oil droplets become smaller with increasing DOR. In addition, the acute toxicity analysis of developed formulations against zebra fish (Danio rerio) confirmed their non-toxic behavior with LC50 values higher than 400 ppm after 96 h. Overall, the proposed new blends/formulations could effectively substitute the toxic and unsafe chemical dispersants.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbono , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801602

RESUMO

Supramolecular fibrous materials in biological systems play important structural and functional roles, and therefore, there is a growing interest in synthetic materials that mimic such fibrils, especially those bearing enzymatic reactivity. In this study, we investigated the self-assembly and enzymatic post-modification of short aromatic peptide amphiphiles (PAs), Fmoc-LnQG (n = 2 or 3), which contain an LQG recognition unit for microbial transglutaminase (MTG). These aromatic PAs self-assemble into fibrous structures via π-π stacking interactions between the Fmoc groups and hydrogen bonds between the peptides. The intermolecular interactions and morphologies of the assemblies were influenced by the solution pH because of the change in the ionization states of the C-terminal carboxy group of the peptides. Moreover, MTG-catalyzed post-modification of a small fluorescent molecule bearing an amine group also showed pH dependency, where the enzymatic reaction rate was increased at higher pH, which may be because of the higher nucleophilicity of the amine group and the electrostatic interaction between MTG and the self-assembled Fmoc-LnQG. Finally, the accumulation of the fluorescent molecule on these assembled materials was directly observed by confocal fluorescence images. Our study provides a method to accumulate functional molecules on supramolecular structures enzymatically with the morphology control.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Transglutaminases/química , Aminas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Biomimética/métodos , Cadaverina/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Enzimas , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Confocal , Nanoestruturas/química , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(17): 19745-19755, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891816

RESUMO

Chemotherapeutic cytotoxic agents such as paclitaxel (PTX) are considered essential for the treatment of various cancers. However, PTX injection is associated with severe systemic side effects and high rates of patient noncompliance. Micelle formulations (MFs) are nano-drug delivery systems that offer a solution to these problems. Herein, we report an advantageous carrier for the transdermal delivery of PTX comprising a new MF that consists of two biocompatible surfactants: cholinium oleate ([Cho][Ole]), which is a surface-active ionic liquid (SAIL), and sorbitan monolaurate (Span-20). A solubility assessment confirmed that PTX was readily solubilized in the SAIL-based micelles via multipoint hydrogen bonding and cation-π and π-π interactions between PTX and SAIL[Cho][Ole]. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy revealed that in the presence of PTX, the MF formed spherical PTX-loaded micelles that were well-distributed in the range 8.7-25.3 nm. According to DLS, the sizes and size distributions of the micelle droplets did not change significantly over the entire storage period, attesting to their physical stability. In vitro transdermal assessments using a Franz diffusion cell revealed that the MF absorbed PTX 4 times more effectively than a Tween 80-based formulation and 6 times more effectively than an ethanol-based formulation. In vitro and in vivo skin irritation tests revealed that the new carrier had a negligible toxicity profile compared with a conventional ionic liquid-based carrier. Based on these findings, we believe that the SAIL[Cho][Ole]-based MF has potential as a biocompatible nanocarrier for the effective transdermal delivery of poorly soluble chemotherapeutics such as PTX.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Micelas , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paclitaxel/farmacocinética , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Absorção Cutânea , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tensoativos/química
15.
Int J Pharm ; 601: 120582, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872711

RESUMO

Human skin contains numerous antigen-presenting cells that are a potential target for several immune-based therapies, including vaccination and cancer immunotherapy. However, the outermost layer of the skin-the stratum corneum-acts as a major physical barrier against the permeation of antigens that have a molecular weight > 500 Da. In this study, an ionic liquid-assisted delivery system (ILDS) was developed, which enabled the successful transdermal delivery of an antigenic protein, ovalbumin (OVA), with a toll-like receptor agonist, imiquimod, as an adjuvant, to stimulate a specific immune response. Both the ionic liquids and ILDS were completely biocompatible for topical or transdermal application for therapeutic purposes. The skin permeation of the antigenic protein and adjuvant was found to be significantly enhanced because of the incorporation of a surface-active ionic liquid in the ILDS. An in vivo immunization study showed that there was a high level of OVA-specific IgG antibody production because of the enhanced permeation of the antigen and adjuvant across and into the skin. In a preclusive anticancer study, vaccination through ILDS showed stronger tumor-growth inhibition compared to control group. These results indicated that the ILDS could be a promising strategy for transdermal immunization as future therapeutics.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Neoplasias , Administração Cutânea , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea
16.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(4): 655-660, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689283

RESUMO

Synthesis of lipid-protein conjugates is one of the significant techniques in drug delivery systems of proteins; however, the intact conjugation of a lipid and protein is yet challenging due to the hydrophobicity of lipid molecules. In order to facilitate easy handling of the lipid moiety in conjugation, we have focused on a microbial transglutaminase (MTG) that can ligate specific lysine (K) and glutamine (Q) residues in lipopeptides and a protein of interest. As MTG substrates, monolipid- and dilipid-fused amphiphilic short lipopeptide substrates (lipid-G3S-RHK or lipid2-KG3S-RHK) were designed. These amphiphilic lipopeptides and a model protein (enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP) fused with LLQG (LQ-EGFP) were both water-soluble, and thus lipid-protein conjugates were efficiently obtained through the MTG reaction with a >80% conversion rate of LQ-EGFP even using cholesterol-G3S-RHK. In vitro cell adhesion and in vivo half-life stability of the successfully obtained lipid-protein conjugates were evaluated, showing that the monocholesterol-G3S-RHK modification of a protein gave the highest cell adhesion efficiency and longest half-life time by formation of a stable albumin/lipid-protein complex.


Assuntos
Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(3): 871-877, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fosaprepitant, an NK1 receptor antagonist, inhibits and induces cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) as its substrate. Contrarily dexamethasone is metabolized by CYP3A4. Therefore, in combination therapy wherein both agents interact with each other, it is recommended that the dexamethasone dose be reduced in the first two days. Thus far, there are only a few studies on the optimum dose of dexamethasone after day 3. Thus, we aimed to determine the pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone on day3 when administered together with fosaprepitant and investigate the dose-dependent differences in its antiemetic effect in patients with cancer. METHODS: Twelve patients with esophageal, stomach, or lung cancer received primary highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). We intravenously administered 9.9 mg and 6.6 mg of dexamethasone on days 1 and 2, respectively, and 6.6 mg or 13.2 mg on day 3 together with the administration of 150 mg fosaprepitant and 0.75 mg palonosetron. We assessed the pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone on day 3 by dose and examined the dose-dependent antiemetic effect. RESULTS: No differences were observed in the time-to-maximum concentration and blood half-life of dexamethasone between patient groups that received dexamethasone at doses of 6.6 mg and 13.2 mg. In contrast, the area under the blood concentration-time curve and the maximum concentration of dexamethasone correlated with its dose. Moreover, the blood dexamethasone concentration on day 3 increased by twofold after the administration of a higher dose than after a lower dose. The severity of nausea in the delayed phase significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Administration of a higher dexamethasone dose on day 3 improved the antiemetic effect of the combined regimen in patients with cancer who underwent HEC.
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18.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 43(3): 302-310, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is a water-soluble vitamin that is used to prevent and treat acne and pellagra. It is often found in water-based skin care cosmetics because of its high water solubility. Nicotinamide is a small molecule with a molar mass of 122.1 g/mol. However, it has a hydrophilic nature that becomes an obstacle when it penetrates through the skin. The topmost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, acts as a strong hydrophobic barrier for such hydrophilic molecules. The oil-based formulations are expected to enhance the transdermal delivery efficiency of nicotinamide. METHODS: We have developed oil-based microemulsion formulations composed of a squalane vehicle. Monoolein was used as an emulsifier that has a potential to enhance the nicotinamide delivery through the stratum corneum. RESULTS: Because the mean size of the emulsions measured by dynamic light scattering was 20.9 ± 0.4 nm, the microemulsion formulation was stable under the long-term storage. Monoolein acted as a skin penetration enhancer, and it effectively enabled the penetration of nicotinamide through human abdominal skin, compared with nicotinamide in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The flux was increased 25-fold. Microscopic imaging revealed that the hydrophilic bioactive compounds penetrated through the intercellular spaces in the epidermis. CONCLUSION: The monoolein-based microemulsion was transparent and stable, suggesting that it is a promising formulation for a transdermal nicotinamide delivery.

19.
In Vivo ; 35(2): 977-985, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy without radiation (NAC) shows favorable outcomes for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), however, the optimal regimen has not been determined yet. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, folinic acid, and 5-fluorouracil (mFOLFOXIRI) with capecitabine/S-1 and oxaliplatin (XELOX/SOX) in rectal cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients with LARC who received mFOLFOXIRI or XELOX/SOX as NAC. RESULTS: Between January 2015 and July 2019, 49 patients received mFOLFOXIRI and 37 patients received XELOX/SOX. The pathological response rates (over two-thirds affected tumor area) were 36.7% and 40.5% in the mFOLFOXIRI and XELOX/SOX groups, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was experienced by 45.0% of the patients in the mFOLFOXIRI group and 8.0% in the XEOX/SOX group. CONCLUSION: Although pathological responses were comparable between two groups, mFOLFOXIRI tended to be more toxic compared to XELOX/SOX as NAC for LARC.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Oxaloacetatos , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatectomy is currently recommended as the most reliable treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the association between the choice of treatment for recurrence and the timing of recurrence remains controversial. METHODS: Three-hundred thirty-nine patients who underwent hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed using a propensity score matching analysis for the risk factors and outcomes for early recurrences within 6 months. The remnant liver volumes and laboratory data were measured postoperatively using multidetector computed tomography on days 7 and months 1, 2, and 5 after surgery. The Student's t test and chi-square test, the likelihood-ratio test, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U test, or Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Early recurrence developed in 41/312 patients (13.1%). Vascular invasion and non-curative resection were independent risk factors for the occurrence of early recurrence (P < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). Patients with early recurrence had a poorer prognosis than patients who developed later recurrences (P < 0.001). Patients who underwent surgery or other local treatments had better outcomes (P < 0.001). The changes in remnant liver volumes and laboratory data after postoperative month 2 were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with early recurrence within 6 months had a poorer prognosis than patients who developed a later recurrence. However, patients who underwent repeat hepatectomy for recurrences had a better prognosis than did those who underwent other treatments, with good prospects for long-term survival.

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