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1.
Bone ; 130: 115047, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472299

RESUMO

Bruck syndrome (BRKS) is the rare disorder that features congenital joint contractures often with pterygia and subsequent fractures, also known as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type XI (OMIM # 610968). Its two forms, BRKS1 (OMIM # 259450) and BRKS2 (OMIM # 609220), reflect autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance of FKBP10 and PLOD2 loss-of-function mutations, respectively. A 10-year-old girl was referred with blue sclera, osteopenia, poorly-healing fragility fractures, Wormian skull bones, cleft soft palate, congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, progressive scoliosis, bell-shaped thorax, restrictive and reactive pulmonary disease, protrusio acetabuli, short stature, and additional dysmorphic features without joint contractures. Iliac crest biopsy after alendronate treatment that improved her bone density revealed low trabecular connectivity, abundant patchy osteoid, and active bone formation with widely-spaced tetracycline labels. Chromosome 22q11 deletion analysis for velocardiofacial syndrome, COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing for prevalent types of OI, and Sanger sequencing of LRP5, PPIB, FKBP10, and IFITM5 for rare pediatric osteoporoses were negative. Copy number microarray excluded a contiguous gene syndrome. Instead, exome sequencing revealed two missense variants in PLOD2 which encodes procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (lysyl hydroxylase 2, LH2); exon 8, c.797G>T, p.Gly266Val (paternal), and exon 12, c.1280A>G, p.Asn427Ser (maternal). In the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database, low frequency (Gly266Val, 0.0000419) and absence (Asn427Ser) implicated both variants as mutations of PLOD2. The father, mother, and sister (who carried the exon 12 defect) were reportedly well with normal parental DXA findings. BRKS2, characterized by under-hydroxylation of type I collagen telopeptides compromising their crosslinking, has been reported in at least 16 probands/families. Most PLOD2 mutations involve exons 17-19 (of 20 total) encoding the C-terminal domain with LH activity. However, truncating defects (nonsense, frameshift, splice site mutations) are also found throughout PLOD2. In three reports, AR PLOD2 mutations are not associated with congenital contractures. Our patient's missense defects lie within the central domain of unknown function of PLOD2. In our patient, compound heterozygosity with PLOD2 mutations is associated with a clinical phenotype distinctive from classic BRKS2 indicating that when COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutation testing is negative for OI without congenital contractures or pterygia, atypical BRKS should be considered.

2.
Bone ; 127: 228-243, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085352

RESUMO

LRP5 encodes low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5). When LRP5 with a Frizzled receptor join on the surface of an osteoblast and bind a member of the Wnt family of ligands, canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling occurs and increases bone formation. Eleven heterozygous gain-of-function missense mutations within LRP5 are known to prevent the LRP5 inhibitory ligands sclerostin and dickkopf1 from attaching to LRP5's first ß-propeller, and thereby explain the rare autosomal dominant (AD) skeletal disorder "high bone mass" (HBM). LRP6 is a cognate co-receptor of LRP5 and similarly controls Wnt signaling in osteoblasts, yet the consequences of increased LRP6-mediated signaling remain unknown. We investigated two multi-generational American families manifesting the clinical and routine laboratory features of LRP5 HBM but without an LRP5 defect and instead carrying a heterozygous LRP6 missense mutation that would alter the first ß-propeller of LRP6. In Family 1 LRP6 c.602C>T, p.A201V was homologous to LRP5 HBM mutation c.641C>T, p.A214V, and in Family 2 LRP6 c.553A>C, p.N185H was homologous to LRP5 HBM mutation c.593A>G, p.N198S but predicting a different residue at the identical amino acid position. In both families the LRP6 mutation co-segregated with striking generalized osteosclerosis and hyperostosis. Clinical features shared by the seven LRP6 HBM family members and ten LRP5 HBM patients included a broad jaw, torus palatinus, teeth encased in bone and, reportedly, resistance to fracturing and inability to float in water. For both HBM disorders, all affected individuals were taller than average for Americans (Ps < 0.005), but with similar mean height Z-scores (P = 0.7606) and indistinguishable radiographic skeletal features. Absence of adult maxillary lateral incisors was reported by some LRP6 HBM individuals. In contrast, our 16 patients with AD osteopetrosis [i.e., Albers-Schönberg disease (A-SD)] had an unremarkable mean height Z-score (P = 0.9401) lower than for either HBM group (Ps < 0.05). DXA mean BMD Z-scores in LRP6 HBM versus LRP5 HBM were somewhat higher at the lumbar spine (+7.8 vs +6.5, respectively; P = 0.0403), but no different at the total hip (+7.9 vs +7.7, respectively; P = 0.7905). Among the three diagnostic groups, only the LRP6 HBM DXA BMD values at the spine seemed to increase with subject age (R = +0.7183, P = 0.0448). Total hip BMD Z-scores were not significantly different among the three disorders (Ps > 0.05), and showed no age effect (Ps > 0.1). HR-pQCT available only for LRP6 HBM revealed indistinct corticomedullary boundaries, high distal forearm and tibial total volumetric BMD, and finite element analysis predicted marked fracture resistance. Hence, we have discovered mutations of LRP6 that cause a dento-osseous disorder indistinguishable without mutation analysis from LRP5 HBM. LRP6 HBM seems associated with generally good health, providing some reassurance for the development of anabolic treatments aimed to enhance LRP5/LRP6-mediated osteogenesis.

3.
Lancet ; 393(10189): 2416-2427, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hypophosphataemia in children is characterised by elevated serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphataemia, rickets, lower extremity bowing, and growth impairment. We compared the efficacy and safety of continuing conventional therapy, consisting of oral phosphate and active vitamin D, versus switching to burosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against FGF23, in paediatric X-linked hypophosphataemia. METHODS: In this randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial at 16 clinical sites, we enrolled children with X-linked hypophosphataemia aged 1-12 years. Key eligibility criteria were a total Thacher rickets severity score of at least 2·0, fasting serum phosphorus lower than 0·97 mmol/L (3·0 mg/dL), confirmed PHEX (phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked) mutation or variant of unknown significance in the patient or a family member with appropriate X-linked dominant inheritance, and receipt of conventional therapy for at least 6 consecutive months for children younger than 3 years or at least 12 consecutive months for children older than 3 years. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either subcutaneous burosumab starting at 0·8 mg/kg every 2 weeks (burosumab group) or conventional therapy prescribed by investigators (conventional therapy group). Both interventions lasted 64 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in rickets severity at week 40, assessed by the Radiographic Global Impression of Change global score. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the primary and safety analyses. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02915705. FINDINGS: Recruitment took place between Aug 3, 2016, and May 8, 2017. Of 122 patients assessed, 61 were enrolled. Of these, 32 (18 girls, 14 boys) were randomly assigned to continue receiving conventional therapy and 29 (16 girls, 13 boys) to receive burosumab. For the primary endpoint at week 40, patients in the burosumab group had significantly greater improvement in Radiographic Global Impression of Change global score than did patients in the conventional therapy group (least squares mean +1·9 [SE 0·1] with burosumab vs +0·8 [0·1] with conventional therapy; difference 1·1, 95% CI 0·8-1·5; p<0·0001). Treatment-emergent adverse events considered possibly, probably, or definitely related to treatment by the investigator occurred more frequently with burosumab (17 [59%] of 29 patients in the burosumab group vs seven [22%] of 32 patients in the conventional therapy group). Three serious adverse events occurred in each group, all considered unrelated to treatment and resolved. INTERPRETATION: Significantly greater clinical improvements were shown in rickets severity, growth, and biochemistries among children with X-linked hypophosphataemia treated with burosumab compared with those continuing conventional therapy. FUNDING: Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical and Kyowa Kirin International.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Estatura , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(3): 189-199, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with X-linked hypophosphataemia have high concentrations of circulating phosphatonin fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which causes renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphataemia, rickets, skeletal deformities, and growth impairment. Burosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against FGF23, improves phosphate homoeostasis and rickets in children aged 5-12 years with X-linked hypophosphataemia. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of burosumab in younger children with X-linked hypophosphataemia. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 trial at three hospitals in the USA, children (aged 1-4 years) with X-linked hypophosphataemia received burosumab (0·8 mg/kg) via subcutaneous injection every 2 weeks for 64 weeks. The dose was increased to 1·2 mg/kg if two consecutive pre-dose serum phosphorus concentrations were below 1·03 mmol/L (3·2 mg/dL), serum phosphorus had increased by less than 0·16 mmol/L (<0·5 mg/dL) from baseline, and a dose of burosumab had not been missed. Participants could continue to receive burosumab for up to an additional 96 weeks during the extension period. Key inclusion criteria were age 1-4 years at the time of informed consent; fasting serum phosphorus concentration of less than 0·97 mmol/L (3·0 mg/dL); serum creatinine 8·8-35·4 µmol/L (0·1-0·4 mg/dL); radiographic evidence of rickets (at least five participants were required to have a Thacher Rickets Severity Score of ≥1·5 at the knee); and a confirmed PHEX mutation or a variant of unknown significance in the patient or direct relative also affected with X-linked hypophosphataemia. Conventional therapy was stopped upon enrolment. The coprimary endpoints were safety and change from baseline to week 40 in fasting serum phosphorus concentrations. Changes in rickets severity from baseline to weeks 40 and 64 (assessed radiographically using Thacher Rickets Severity Score and an adaptation of the Radiographic Global Impression of Change), and recumbent length or standing height, were key secondary outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02750618, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between May 16, 2016, and June 10, 2016, we enrolled 13 children with X-linked hypophosphataemia. All 13 children completed 64 weeks of treatment and were included in the efficacy and safety analysis; none exceeded 70 weeks of treatment at the time of analysis. Serum phosphorus least squares mean increase from baseline to week 40 of treatment was 0·31 mmol/L (SE 0·04; 95% CI 0·24-0·39; 0·96 mg/dL [SE 0·12]; p<0·0001). All patients had at least one adverse event. 14 treatment-related adverse events, mostly injection site reactions, occurred in five children. One serious adverse event considered unrelated to treatment (tooth abscess) occurred in a child with a history of tooth abscess. All other adverse events were mild to moderate, except a severe food allergy considered unrelated to treatment. No instances of nephrocalcinosis or noteworthy changes in the results of a standard safety chemistry panel emerged. Total Thacher Rickets Severity Score decreased by a least squares mean of -1·7 (SE 0·1; p<0·0001) from baseline to week 40 and by -2·0 (SE 0·1; p<0·0001) by week 64. The Radiographic Global Impression of Change score also indicated significant improvement, with a least squares mean score of +2·3 (SE 0·1) at week 40 and +2·2 (0·1) at week 64 (both p<0·0001). Mean length or standing height Z score was maintained from baseline to week 64. INTERPRETATION: Burosumab had a favourable safety profile, increased serum phosphorus, and improved rickets and prevented early declines in growth in children aged 1-4 years with X-linked hypophosphataemia. These findings could substantially alter the treatment of young children with X-linked hypophosphataemia. FUNDING: Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical and Kyowa Kirin International.

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(11): 2071-2080, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933504

RESUMO

Pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) refers to two formerly separate entities: autosomal dominant Blau syndrome (BS) and its sporadic phenocopy early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). In 2001 BS and in 2005 EOS became explained by heterozygous mutations within the gene that encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also called caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15). NOD2 is a microbe sensor in leukocyte cytosol that activates and regulates inflammation. PGA is characterized by a triad of autoinflammatory problems (dermatitis, uveitis, and arthritis) in early childhood, which suggests the causal NOD2/CARD15 mutations are activating defects. Additional complications of PGA were recognized especially when NOD2 mutation analysis became generally available. However, in PGA, hypercalcemia is only briefly mentioned, and generalized osteosclerosis is not reported, although NOD2 regulates NF-κB signaling essential for osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. Herein, we report a 4-year-old girl with PGA uniquely complicated by severe 1,25(OH)2 D-mediated hypercalcemia, nephrocalcinosis, and compromised renal function together with radiological and histopathological features of osteopetrosis (OPT). The classic triad of PGA complications was absent, although joint pain and an antalgic gait accompanied wrist, knee, and ankle swelling and soft non-tender masses over her hands, knees, and feet. MRI revealed tenosynovitis in her hands and suprapatellar effusions. Synovial biopsy demonstrated reactive synovitis without granulomas. Spontaneous resolution of metaphyseal osteosclerosis occurred while biochemical markers indicated active bone turnover. Anti-inflammatory medications suppressed circulating 1,25(OH)2 D, corrected the hypercalcemia, and improved her renal function, joint pain and swelling, and gait. Mutation analysis excluded idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, type 1, and known forms of OPT, and identified a heterozygous germline missense mutation in NOD2 common in PGA (c.1001G>A, p.Arg334Gln). Thus, radiological and histological findings of OPT and severe hypercalcemia from apparent extrarenal production of 1,25(OH)2 D can complicate NOD2-associated PGA. Although the skeletal findings seem inconsequential, treatment of the hypercalcemia is crucial to protect the kidneys. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

6.
Bone ; 107: 161-171, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175271

RESUMO

Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD; OMIM #166260) is an ultra-rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutation in the anoctamin 5 (ANO5) gene and features fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones, bone fragility with recurrent fractures, and bowing/sclerosis of tubular bones. The physiologic role of ANO5 is unknown. We report a 5-year-old boy with a seemingly atypical and especially severe presentation of GDD and unique ANO5 mutation. Severe osteopenia was associated with prenatal femoral fractures, recurrent postnatal fractures, and progressive bilateral enlargement of his maxilla and mandible beginning at ~2months-of-age that interfered with feeding and speech and required four debulking operations. Histopathological analysis revealed benign fibro-osseous lesions resembling cemento-ossifying fibromas of the jaw without psammomatoid bodies. A novel, de novo, heterozygous, missense mutation was identified in exon 15 of ANO5 (c.1553G>A; p.Gly518Glu). Our findings broaden the phenotypic and molecular spectra of GDD. Fractures early in life with progressive facial swelling are key features. We assessed his response to a total of 7 pamidronate infusions commencing at age 15months. Additional reports must further elucidate the phenotype, explore any genotype-phenotype correlation, and evaluate treatments.

7.
Clin Case Rep ; 5(6): 968-974, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588849

RESUMO

This case report describes a patient with ankyloglossia, oligodontia, unilateral hypoplasia of the zygoma and mandible, along with bilateral distal reduction anomalies of his limbs without long bone abnormalities. This may represent a mild variant of oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndrome, expanding the phenotypic spectrum, or a previously unrecognized malformation syndrome.

8.
Bone ; 101: 145-155, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434888

RESUMO

Melorheostosis (MEL) is the rare sporadic dysostosis characterized by monostotic or polyostotic osteosclerosis and hyperostosis often distributed in a sclerotomal pattern. The prevailing hypothesis for MEL invokes postzygotic mosaicism. Sometimes scleroderma-like skin changes, considered a representation of the pathogenetic process of MEL, overlie the bony changes, and sometimes MEL becomes malignant. Osteopoikilosis (OPK) is the autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia that features symmetrically distributed punctate osteosclerosis due to heterozygous loss-of-function mutation within LEMD3. Rarely, radiographic findings of MEL occur in OPK. However, germline mutation of LEMD3 does not explain sporadic MEL. To explore if mosaicism underlies MEL, we studied a boy with polyostotic MEL and characteristic overlying scleroderma-like skin, a few bony lesions consistent with OPK, and a large epidermal nevus known to usually harbor a HRAS, FGFR3, or PIK3CA gene mutation. Exome sequencing was performed to ~100× average read depth for his two dermatoses, two areas of normal skin, and peripheral blood leukocytes. As expected for non-malignant tissues, the patient's mutation burden in his normal skin and leukocytes was low. He, his mother, and his maternal grandfather carried a heterozygous, germline, in-frame, 24-base-pair deletion in LEMD3. Radiographs of the patient and his mother revealed bony foci consistent with OPK, but she showed no MEL. For the patient, somatic variant analysis, using four algorithms to compare all 20 possible pairwise combinations of his five DNA samples, identified only one high-confidence mutation, heterozygous KRAS Q61H (NM_033360.3:c.183A>C, NP_203524.1:p.Gln61His), in both his dermatoses but absent in his normal skin and blood. Thus, sparing our patient biopsy of his MEL bone, we identified a heterozygous somatic KRAS mutation in his scleroderma-like dermatosis considered a surrogate for MEL. This implicates postzygotic mosaicism of mutated KRAS, perhaps facilitated by germline LEMD3 haploinsufficiency, causing his MEL.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Melorreostose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adolescente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Nevo/genética , Osteopecilose/genética , Osteosclerose/genética
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(4): 978-85, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26762549

RESUMO

We report auricular ossification (AO) affecting the elastic cartilage of the ear as a newly recognized feature of osteoprotegerin (OPG)-deficiency juvenile Paget disease (JPD). AO and auricular calcification refer interchangeably to rigid pinnae, sparing the ear lobe, from various etiologies. JPD is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity accompanied by skeletal pain and deformity from rapid bone turnover. Autosomal recessive transmission of loss-of-function mutations within TNFRSF11B encoding OPG accounts for most JPD (JPD1). JPD2 results from heterozygous constitutive activation of TNFRSF11A encoding RANK. Other causes of JPD remain unknown. In 2007, we reported a 60-year-old man with JPD1 who described hardening of his external ears at age 45 years, after 4 years of treatment with bisphosphonates (BPs). Subsequently, we noted rigid pinnae in a 17-year-old boy and 14-year-old girl, yet pliable pinnae in a 12-year-old boy, each with JPD1 and several years of BP treatment. Cranial imaging indicated cortical bone within the pinnae of both teenagers. Radiologic studies of our three JPD patients without mutations in TNFRSF11B showed normal auricles. Review of the JPD literature revealed possible AO in several reports. Two of our JPD1 patients had experienced difficult tracheal intubation, raising concern for mineralization of laryngeal elastic cartilage. Thus, AO is a newly recognized feature of JPD1, possibly exacerbated by BP treatment. Elastic cartilage at other sites in JPD1 might also ossify, and warrants investigation.


Assuntos
Pavilhão Auricular/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ossificação Heterotópica/genética , Ossificação Heterotópica/patologia , Osteíte Deformante/diagnóstico , Osteíte Deformante/genética , Osteoprotegerina/deficiência , Adolescente , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Bone Miner Res ; 30(1): 137-43, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25042154

RESUMO

Heritable forms of hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) include X-linked dominant (XLH), autosomal recessive, and autosomal dominant HR (from deactivating mutations in PHEX, DMP1 or ENPP1, and activating mutations in FGF23, respectively). Over 30 years, we have cared for 284 children with HR. For those 72 deemed sporadic XLH, we preliminarily reported mutation analysis for 30 subjects. Eleven had PHEX mutations. However, the remaining 19 lacked readily identifiable defects in PHEX, DMP1, or FGF23. In 2008, a novel single-base change near the polyadenylation (pA) signal in the 3'-UTR of PHEX was identified in XLH by other investigators. This c.*231A > G mutation is 3-bp upstream of the putative pA signal (AATAAA) in PHEX. Accordingly, we investigated whether this 3'-UTR defect accounted for HR in any of these 19 sporadic XLH patients. PCR amplification and sequencing of their 3'-UTR region showed the c.*231A > G mutation in four unrelated boys. Then, among an additional 22 of our 72 "sporadic" XLH patients, one boy and one girl were found to have the 3'-UTR defect, totaling six patients. Among these 52 sporadic XLH patients with PHEX analysis, 36 were girls and 16 were boys; ie, a ∼2:1 gender ratio consistent with XLH. However, finding five boys and only one girl with this 3'-UTR mutation presented an unexplained gender bias (p = 0.02). Haplotyping for the five boys, all reportedly unrelated, showed a common core haplotype suggesting a founder. Five of their six mothers had been studied clinically and biochemically (three radiologically). Remarkably, the seemingly unaffected mothers of four of these boys carried the 3'-UTR mutation. These healthy women had normal height, straight limbs, lacked the radiographic presentation of XLH, and showed normal or slight decreases in fasting serum Pi levels and/or TmP/GFR. Hence, PHEX c.*231A > G can masquerade as sporadic or X-linked recessive HR.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/genética , Endopeptidase Neutra Reguladora de Fosfato PHEX/genética , Mutação Puntual , Sinais de Poliadenilação na Ponta 3' do RNA/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/sangue , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Radiografia
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(9): 2287-93, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989131

RESUMO

Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome (MCTO), an autosomal dominant disorder that often presents sporadically, features carpal-tarsal lysis frequently followed by nephropathy and renal failure. In 2012, mutations in the single-exon gene MAFB were reported in 13 probands with MCTO. MAFB is a negative regulator of RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. We studied nine MCTO patients (seven sporadic patients and one affected mother and son) for MAFB mutation. We PCR-amplified and selectively sequenced the MAFB region that contains the transactivation domain in this 323 amino acid protein, where mutations were previously reported for MCTO. We found five different heterozygous missense defects among eight probands: c.176C > T, p.Pro59Leu; c.185C > T, p.Thr62Ile; c.206C > T, p.Ser69Leu (four had this defect); c.209C > T, p.Ser70Leu; and c.211C > T, p.Pro71Ser. All 5 mutations are within a 13 amino acid stretch of the transactivation domain. Four were identical to the previously reported mutations. Our unique mutation (c.185C > T, p.Thr62Ile) involved the same domain. DNA available from seven parents of the seven sporadic patients did not show their child's MAFB mutation. The affected mother and son had an identical defect. Hence, the mutations for 7/8 probands were suspected to have arisen spontaneously as there was no history of features of MCTO in either parent. Penetrance of MCTO seemed complete. Lack of nonsense or other truncating mutations suggested a dominant-negative pathogenesis. Our findings indicate that only a few transactivation domain-specific mutations within MAFB cause MCTO.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição MafB/genética , Mutação/genética , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteogênese/genética , Osteólise/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Bone Miner Res ; 28(2): 419-30, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22972716

RESUMO

Generalized arterial calcification (AC) of infancy (GACI) is an autosomal recessive disorder that features hydroxyapatite deposition within arterial elastic fibers. Untreated, approximately 85% of GACI patients die by 6 months of age from cardiac ischemia and congestive heart failure. The first-generation bisphosphonate etidronate (EHDP; ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonic acid, also known as 1-hydroxyethylidene-bisphosphonate) inhibits bone resorption and can mimic endogenous inorganic pyrophosphate by blocking mineralization. With EHDP therapy for GACI, AC may resolve without recurrence upon treatment cessation. Skeletal disease is not an early characteristic of GACI, but rickets can appear from acquired hypophosphatemia or prolonged EHDP therapy. We report a 7-year-old boy with GACI referred for profound, acquired, skeletal disease. AC was gone after 5 months of EHDP therapy during infancy, but GACI-related joint calcifications progressed. He was receiving EHDP, 200 mg/day orally, and had odynodysphagia, diffuse opioid-controlled pain, plagiocephaly, facial dysmorphism, joint calcifications, contractures, and was wheelchair bound. Biochemical parameters of mineral homeostasis were essentially normal. Serum osteocalcin was low and the brain isoform of creatine kinase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b) were elevated as in osteopetrosis. Skeletal radiographic findings resembled pediatric hypophosphatasia with pancranial synostosis, long-bone bowing, widened physes, as well as metaphyseal osteosclerosis, cupping and fraying, and "tongues" of radiolucency. Radiographic features of osteopetrosis included osteosclerosis and femoral Erlenmeyer flask deformity. After stopping EHDP, he improved rapidly, including remarkable skeletal healing and decreased joint calcifications. Profound, but rapidly reversible, inhibition of skeletal mineralization with paradoxical calcifications near joints can occur in GACI from protracted EHDP therapy. Although EHDP treatment is lifesaving in GACI, surveillance for toxicity is crucial.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Ácido Etidrônico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Etidrônico/uso terapêutico , Calcificação Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Radiografia , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 155A(12): 3002-6, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22065502

RESUMO

Classical Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by LMNA mutations that generate an alternatively spliced form of lamin A, termed progerin. HGPS patients present in early childhood with atherosclerosis and striking features of accelerated aging. We report on two pedigrees of adult-onset coronary artery disease with progeroid features, who were referred to our International Registry of Werner Syndrome (WS) because of clinical features consistent with the diagnosis. No mutations were identified in the WRN gene that is responsible for WS, among these patients. Instead, we found two novel heterozygous mutations at the junction of exon 10 and intron 11 of the LMNA gene. These mutations resulted in the production of progerin at a level substantially lower than that of HGPS. Our findings indicate that LMNA mutations may result in coronary artery disease presenting in the fourth to sixth decades along with short stature and a progeroid appearance resembling WS. The absence of early-onset cataracts in this setting should suggest the diagnosis of progeroid laminopathy. This study illustrates the evolving genotype-phenotype relationship between the amount of progerin produced and the age of onset among the spectrum of restrictive dermopathy, HGPS, and atypical forms of WS.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Progéria/complicações , Progéria/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Éxons , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Progéria/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Werner/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mo Med ; 106(3): 234-40, 2009 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22641920

RESUMO

Newborn screening has recently been transformed by our enhanced knowledge of medical disorders and our ability to detect and manage them. The Missouri State Newborn Screening Laboratory incorporated tandem mass spectrometry into the newborn screening protocol in 2005. This review will highlight the new capabilities of the newborn screening laboratory and the pitfalls of screening related to preterm birth, blood transfusion and intravenous fluid administration that complicate the interpretation of screening results.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Biotinidase/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Galactosemias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido
18.
Mol Genet Metab ; 88(3): 244-55, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16616566

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia is caused by deficiency of activity of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP), resulting in a defect of bone mineralization. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with partially purified plasma enzyme was attempted but with little clinical improvement. Attaining clinical effectiveness with ERT for hypophosphatasia may require delivering functional TNSALP enzyme to bone. We tagged the C-terminal-anchorless TNSALP enzyme with an acidic oligopeptide (a six or eight residue stretch of L-Asp), and compared the biochemical properties of the purified tagged and untagged enzymes derived from Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. The specific activities of the purified enzymes tagged with the acidic oligopeptide were the same as the untagged enzyme. In vitro affinity experiments showed the tagged enzymes had 30-fold higher affinity for hydroxyapatite than the untagged enzyme. Lectin affinity chromatography for carbohydrate structure showed little difference among the three enzymes. Biodistribution pattern from single infusion of the fluorescence-labeled enzymes into mice showed delayed clearance from the plasma up to 18 h post infusion and the amount of tagged enzyme retained in bone was 4-fold greater than that of the untagged enzyme. In vitro mineralization assays with the bone marrow from a hypophosphatasia patient using each of the three enzymes in the presence of high concentrations of pyrophosphate provided evidence of bone mineralization. These results show the anchorless enzymes tagged with an acidic oligopeptide are delivered efficiently to bone and function bioactively in bone mineralization, at least in vitro. They suggest potential advantages for use of these tagged enzymes in ERT for hypophosphatasia, which should be explored.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/farmacocinética , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/química , Animais , Asparagina/química , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Durapatita/química , Humanos , Hipofosfatasia/patologia , Lactente , Fígado/enzimologia , Camundongos , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 78(1): 89-102, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16385452

RESUMO

Epimerase-deficiency galactosemia results from the impairment of UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE), the third enzyme in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Originally identified as a clinically benign "peripheral" condition with enzyme impairment restricted to circulating blood cells, GALE deficiency was later demonstrated also to exist in a rare but clinically severe "generalized" form, with enzyme impairment affecting a range of tissues. Isolated cases of clinically and/or biochemically intermediate cases of epimerase deficiency have also been reported. We report here studies of 10 patients who, in the neonatal period, received the diagnosis of hemolysate epimerase deficiency. We have characterized these patients with regard to three parameters: (1) GALE activity in transformed lymphoblasts, representing a "nonperipheral" tissue, (2) metabolic sensitivity of those lymphoblasts to galactose challenge in culture, and (3) evidence of normal versus abnormal galactose metabolism in the patients themselves. Our results demonstrate two important points. First, whereas some of the patients studied exhibited near-normal levels of GALE activity in lymphoblasts, consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral epimerase deficiency, many did not. We detected a spectrum of GALE activity levels ranging from 15%-64% of control levels, demonstrating that epimerase deficiency is not a binary condition; it is a continuum disorder. Second, lymphoblasts demonstrating the most severe reduction in GALE activity also demonstrated abnormal metabolite levels in the presence of external galactose and, in some cases, also in the absence of galactose. These abnormalities included elevated galactose-1P, elevated UDP-galactose, and deficient UDP-glucose. Moreover, some of the patients themselves also demonstrated metabolic abnormalities, both on and off galactose-restricted diet. Long-term follow-up studies of these and other patients will be required to elucidate the clinical significance of these biochemical abnormalities and the potential impact of dietary intervention on outcome.


Assuntos
Galactose/metabolismo , Galactosemias/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , UDPglucose 4-Epimerase/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Primers do DNA , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Galactosemias/genética , Georgia , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , UDPglucose 4-Epimerase/genética , UTP-Hexose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/metabolismo
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