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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18111, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792267

RESUMO

The first thousand days of life are a critical time of development in humans during which the risk profile for diseases in later life can be modified. Nevertheless, long-term consequences of early environment on susceptibility to intestinal diseases have not yet been assessed. Using a mouse model of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR), we showed that early life nutrition influences intestinal maturation and gut health in later life. PNGR induced an alteration of the intestinal barrier in pups at weaning, resulting in increased intestinal permeability, and affected gut bacterial colonization. Specifically, pups with PNGR harbored a decreased bacterial diversity, higher Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia-Shigella spp., and lower Odoribacter spp. and several members of the Lachnospiraceae family. The lack of an efficient intestinal barrier in early life and the dysbiosis induced by PNGR were associated with a higher susceptibility to chronic colitis in adulthood.

2.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710383

RESUMO

AIM: Oesophageal atresia is frequently associated with other malformations and our aim was to use computed tomography (CT) to explore intrathoracic malformations in patients with this condition. METHOD: This was retrospective study of children aged 0-16 with oesophageal atresia who were born in 1996-2013 and followed up at the French reference centre for rare oesophageal diseases at the University of Lille. CT scans were available for 48 of the 234 patients during follow-up visits and these were reviewed by a thoracic radiologist. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of the scans were performed to explore persistent respiratory symptoms. We found that six patients had a pulmonary malformations: four lobar agenesis, one right pulmonary aplasia and one congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. CT enabled us to diagnose unexpected thoracic malformations in 16 patients: four lobar agenesis, six arteria lusoria, five persistent left superior vena cava, one partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. It also confirmed the diagnoses of suspected malformations in five patients: one congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, one pulmonary hypoplasia, two right-sided aortic arches and one communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation. CONCLUSION: Intrathoracic anomalies were frequently associated with oesophageal atresia and contrast-enhanced chest CT scans should be performed on patients with persistent respiratory symptoms.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16993, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740753

RESUMO

Mucus is the first biological barrier encountered by particles and pathogenic bacteria at the surface of secretory epithelia. The viscoelasticity of mucus is governed in part by low energy interactions that are difficult to assess. The CYS domain is a good candidate to support low energy interactions between GFMs and/or mucus constituents. Our aim was to stiffen the mucus from HT29-MTX cell cocultures and the colon of mice through the delivery of a recombinant protein made of hydrophobic CYS domains and found in multiple copies in polymeric mucins. The ability of the delivery of a poly-CYS molecule to stiffen mucus gels was assessed by probing cellular motility and particle diffusion. We demonstrated that poly-CYS enrichment decreases mucus permeability and hinders displacement of pathogenic flagellated bacteria and spermatozoa. Particle tracking microrheology showed a decrease of mucus diffusivity. The empirical obstruction scaling model evidenced a decrease of mesh size for mouse mucus enriched with poly-CYS molecules. Our data bring evidence that enrichment with a protein made of CYS domains stiffens the mucin network to provide a more impermeable and protective mucus barrier than mucus without such enrichment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural history models for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are derived from adult patient data, but have never been validated in children. It is unclear how accurate such models are for children with PSC. METHODS: We utilized the pediatric PSC consortium database to assess the Revised Mayo Clinic, Amsterdam-Oxford and Boberg models. We calculated the risk stratum and predicted survival for each patient within each model using patient data at PSC diagnosis, and compared it to observed survival. We evaluated model fit using the c-statistic. RESULTS: Model fit was good at one year (c-statistics 0.93, 0.87, 0.82) and fair at ten years (0.78, 0.75, 0.69) in the Mayo, Boberg and Amsterdam-Oxford models, respectively. The Mayo model correctly classified most children as low risk, whereas the Amsterdam-Oxford model incorrectly classified most as high risk. All of the models underestimated survival of patients classified as high risk. Albumin, bilirubin, AST and platelets were most associated with outcomes. Autoimmune hepatitis was more prevalent in higher risk groups, and over-weighting of AST in these patients accounted for the observed vs. predicted survival discrepancy. CONCLUSION: All three models offered good short-term discrimination of outcomes but only fair long-term discrimination. None of the models account for the high prevalence of features of autoimmune hepatitis overlap in children and the associated elevated aminotransferases. A pediatric-specific model is needed. AST, bilirubin, albumin and platelets will be important predictors, but must be weighted to account for the unique features of PSC in children.

6.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500937

RESUMO

AIM: From a nutrigenetics perspective, we aim to investigate the moderating role of the Mediterranean diet and each of its subgroups in the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) gene polymorphisms and CRP blood concentration in adolescents. METHODS: In 562 adolescents (13-17 y) of the European HELENA study, data was available on circulating CRP levels as inflammatory biomarker, three CRP gene SNPs (rs3093068, rs1204, rs1130864), food intake determined by a self-administered computerized 24 h-dietary recall for 2 days, and body composition. A 9-point Mediterranean diet score and each food subgroup were tested as moderator via SNP*diet interaction. Analyzes were adjusted for age, sex, puberty, adiposity and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The minor allele frequencies of rs3093068 and rs1130864 SNPs (GG and TT, respectively) were associated with higher CRP concentrations, while rs1205 (CT/TT) was associated with lower CRP concentrations. There were significant interactions between rs3093068 and Mediterranean diet (B = -0.1139, p = 0.011), or the fish food subgroup (B = -0.0090, p = 0.022), so that those with the highest genetic CRP risk underwent the highest CRP attenuation by a healthier diet. Although the effect of diet and SNP was substantial, the explained variance by interaction was only 1%. CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet and particularly its fish component was associated with a lower CRP blood concentrations especially in those at highest genetic risk due to the rs3093068 SNP.

7.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(5): 528-532, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research on long-term use of mitomycin C (MC) for recurrent esophageal stenoses is limited. We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of local application of MC for recurrent esophageal stenoses in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 39 patients (17 girls) with a median age of 19.5 months (range: 2.4-196.0) at the time of MC application. The etiologies of stenosis were esophageal atresia (n = 25), caustic ingestion (n = 9), congenital esophageal stenosis (n = 3), and other causes (n = 2). Stenosis was single in 35 (90%) patients and multiple in 4 (10%). Before MC, patients underwent multiple repeated dilations (median: 3 dilations per child [range: 2-26]) over a median period of 7 months (range: 2.6-49.3). Treatment success was defined a priori as a reduction in the number of dilations over the same period from before to after the application of MC. RESULTS: For 26 (67%) patients, the application of MC was considered a success: 102 versus 17 dilatations (P < 0.0001). Sixteen (41%) patients never required additional dilation during the follow-up after MC application (median: 3.1 years [range: 0.6-8.5]). No complication related to MC was observed. Biopsies at the site of MC application were performed at maximal follow-up in 16 patients and revealed no dysplasia. Three factors were associated with success of MC: single stenosis, short stenosis, and esophageal atresia type III. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest series reported showing that topical application of MC is an efficient and safe treatment for recurrent esophageal stenosis in children.

8.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bone health is an important concern in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a powerful predictor of fracture risk in IBD patients. Physical activity (PA) plays an important role in bone health. However, PA data for children and adolescents with IBD are scarce. The primary aim is to evaluate the relationship between PA and BMD in children with IBD. The secondary aim was to assess the relationship between PA and quality of life. METHODS: Eighty-four IBD paediatric patients (45 boys) aged 14.3 ± 2.7 years were included (disease activity: (i) remission, n = 62; (ii) mild, n = 18; (iii) severe disease, n = 1). BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and expressed as age- and sex-based Z-scores. Each patient wore a triaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days for objective PA quantification. Quality of life was assessed using the PedsQL™ and energy intake was assessed prospectively for three days using a dietary diary. RESULTS: BMD Z-score was -0.96 ± 1.11. Only five patients (6%) fulfilled the recommendation of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). The proportion of children with osteopenia and osteoporosis was 51% and 4%, respectively. After adjustment for confounders (pubertal status and body mass index), total PA and time in MVPA were positively associated with BMD (regression coefficient per one standard deviation increase in PA parameters = 0.26; P < 0.05). There was no association between time spent in MVPA and total PA, and total quality of life score. CONCLUSIONS: PA likely is associated with improved bone health in IBD children. Intervention studies investigating a causal relationship between PA and BMD in paediatric patients with IBD are warranted.

9.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(4): 416-424, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study analyses the prognosis of biliary atresia (BA) in France since 1986, when both Kasai operation (KOp) and liver transplantation (LT) became widely available. METHODS: The charts of all patients diagnosed with BA born between 1986 and 2015 and living in France were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 1428 patients were included; 1340 (94%) underwent KOp. Total clearance of jaundice (total bilirubin ≤20 µmol/L) was documented in 516 patients (39%). Age at KOp (median 59 days, range 6-199) was stable over time. Survival with native liver after KOp was 41%, 35%, 26%, and 22% at 5, 10, 20, and 30 years, stable in the 4 cohorts. 25-year survival with native liver was 38%, 27%, 22%, and 19% in patients operated in the first, second, third month of life or later, respectively (P = 0.0001). Center caseloads had a significant impact on results in the 1986 to 1996 cohort only. 16%, 7%, 7%, and 8% of patients died without LT in the 4 cohorts (P = 0.0001). A total of 753 patients (55%) underwent LT. Patient survival after LT was 79% at 28 years. Five-year patient survival after LT was 76%, 91%, 88%, and 92% in cohorts 1 to 4, respectively (P < 0.0001). Actual BA patient survival (from diagnosis) was 81%. Five-year BA patient survival was 72%, 88%, 87%, and 87% in cohorts 1986 to 1996, 1997 to 2002, 2003 to 2009, and 2010 to 2015, respectively (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In France, 87% of patients with BA survive nowadays and 22% reach the age of 30 years without transplantation. Improvement of BA prognosis is mainly due to reduced mortality before LT and better outcomes after LT.

10.
Exp Eye Res ; 186: 107724, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325452

RESUMO

Dry eye disease is a common and multifactorial disease with a high prevalence worldwide. Water loss, reduced expression of glycocalyx mucins, and loss of goblet cells secreting gel-forming mucins are hallmarks of dry eye disease. Mucins are large and complex heavily glycosylated proteins. Their organization in the tear film remains unclear, but they play a key role to protect and maintain integrity of the ocular surface. Mice have been extremely valuable mammalian models with which to study ocular physiology and disease, and to evaluate eye therapies. Genetically modified mice and spontaneously occurring mutants with eye defects have proven to be powerful tools for the pharmaceutical industry, clinicians, and basic researchers investigating dry eye disease. However, ocular mucins remain relatively under-studied and inadequately characterized. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about mucin production at the ocular surface in healthy individuals and in dry eye disease, and to compile an overview of mouse models available for the study of mucins in dry eye disease.

11.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(13): 2381-2397, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether adherence to the adapted Mediterranean Diet Score for Adolescents (MDS_A) and the adapted Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (KIDMED_A) is associated with better food/nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers. DESIGN: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study is a cross-sectional study aiming to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in European adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. SETTING: Nine European countries. PARTICIPANTS: European adolescents (n 2330) recruited to the HELENA study. Dietary intake was obtained with 24 h dietary recalls, an FFQ and a Food Choices and Preferences questionnaire. MDS_A was calculated as a categorical variable using cut-offs (MDS_A), as a continuous variable (zMDS_A) and with energy adjustments (zEnMDS_A). The KIDMED_A score was also calculated. RESULTS: Multilevel linear regression analysis showed positive associations for zMDS_A and KIDMED_A with serum levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, plasma folate, holo-transcobalamin, ß-carotene and n-3 fatty acids, while negative associations were observed with trans-fatty acid serum levels. For categorical indices, blood biomarkers showed few significant results. zMDS_A and KIDMED_A showed positive associations with vegetables and fruits intake, and negative associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. zMDS_A and KIDMED_A were positively associated with all macronutrients, vitamins and minerals (all P < 0·0001), except with monosaccharides and PUFA for KIDMED_A and cholesterol for both indices (P < 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: zMDS_A and KIDMED_A have shown the strongest associations with the dietary indicators and biomarkers that have been associated with the Mediterranean diet before, and are therefore considered the most appropriate and valid Mediterranean diet scores for European adolescents.

12.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(2): 239-258, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Jejunal tube feeding (JTF) is increasingly becoming the standard of care for children in whom gastric tube feeding is insufficient to achieve caloric needs. Given a lack of a systematic approach to the care of JTF in paediatric patients, the aim of this position paper is to provide expert guidance regarding the indications for its use and practical considerations to optimize its utility and safety. METHODS: A group of members of the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Committees of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition and of invited experts in the field was formed in September 2016 to produce this clinical guide. Seventeen clinical questions treating indications and contraindications, investigations before placement, techniques of placement, suitable feeds and feeding regimen, weaning from JTF, complications, long-term care, and ethical considerations were addressed.A systematic literature search was performed from 1982 to November 2018 using PubMed, the MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was applied to evaluate the outcomes.During a consensus meeting, all recommendations were discussed and finalized. In the absence of evidence from randomized controlled trials, recommendations reflect the expert opinion of the authors. RESULTS: A total of 33 recommendations were voted on using the nominal voting technique. CONCLUSIONS: JTF is a safe and effective means of enteral feeding when gastric feeding is insufficient to meet caloric needs or is not possible. The decision to place a jejunal tube has to be made by close cooperation of a multidisciplinary team providing active follow-up and care.

13.
J Pediatr ; 211: 120-125.e1, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of and factors associated with the performance of antireflux surgery during the first year of life in children born with esophageal atresia. STUDY DESIGN: All patients were included in a French registry for esophageal atresia. All 38 multidisciplinary French centers completed questionnaires about perinatal characteristics and one-year outcome for children born with esophageal atresia. RESULTS: Of 835 infants with esophageal atresia born in France from 2010 to 2014, 682 patients, excluding those with long-gap esophageal atresia, were included. Three patients had type I, 669 had type III, and 10 had type IV esophageal atresia. Fifty-three children (7.8%) received fundoplication during the first year of life. The median age at the time of the end-to-end esophageal anastomosis was 1.1 day (range 0-15). Multivariate analysis identified three perioperative factors that predicted the need for early antireflux surgery: anastomotic tension (P = .004), associated malformations (P = .019), and low birth weight (P = .018). Six other factors, measured during the first year of life, were associated with the need for antireflux surgery: gastroesophageal reflux (P < .001), anastomotic stricture (P < .001), gastrostomy (P < .001), acute life-threatening event (P = .002), respiratory complications (P = .045), and poor nutritional status (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease, low birth weight, poor nutrition, and surgical anastomosis difficulties predicted the performance of antireflux surgery in the first year of life in infants with esophageal atresia.

14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 72, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerometers are widely used to measure sedentary time and daily physical activity (PA). However, data collection and processing criteria, such as non-wear time rules might affect the assessment of total PA and sedentary time and the associations with health variables. The study aimed to investigate whether the choice of different non-wear time definitions would affect the outcomes of PA levels in youth. METHODS: Seventy-seven healthy youngsters (44 boys), aged 10-17 years, wore an accelerometer and kept a non-wear log diary during 4 consecutives days. We compared 7 published algorithms (10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min of continuous zeros, Choi, and Troiano algorithms). Agreements of each algorithm with the log diary method were assessed using Bland-Altmans plots and by calculating the concordance correlation coefficient for repeated measures. RESULTS: Variations in time spent in sedentary and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) were 30 and 3.7%. Compared with the log diary method, greater discrepancies were found for the algorithm 10 min (p < 0.001). For the time assessed in sedentary, the agreement with diary was excellent for the 4 algorithms (Choi, r = 0.79; Troiano, r = 0.81; 30 min, r = 0.79; 60 min, r = 0.81). Concordance for each method was excellent for the assessment of time spent in MVPA (> 0.86). The agreement for the wear time assessment was excellent for 5 algorithms (Choi r = 0.79; Troiano r = 0.79; 20 min r = 0.77; 30 min r = 0.80; 60 min r = 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: The choice of non-wear time rules may considerably affect the sedentary time assessment in youth. Using of appropriate data reduction decision in youth is needed to limit differences in associations between health outcomes and sedentary behaviors and may improve comparability for future studies. Based on our results, we recommend the use of the algorithm of 30 min of continuous zeros for defining non-wear time to improve the accuracy in assessing PA levels in youth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02844101 (retrospectively registered at July 13th 2016).

15.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(5): 655-661, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In therapeutic trials for infant gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ways to define GERD and measure and report study outcomes vary widely. The aim of this study was to develop a core outcome set (COS) for infant GERD. METHODS: The COS was developed using the Delphi technique, adhering to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Initiative 2.0 recommendations. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) (predominantly pediatric gastroenterologists and general pediatricians) and parents of infants (age 0-12 months) with GERD, listed up to 5 primary goals of therapy from their perspective and up to 5 persistent signs or symptoms that would signify inadequate treatment. Outcomes mentioned by >10% of participants were included in 2 shortlists. Next, HCPs and parents rated and prioritized outcomes on these shortlists. Outcomes with the highest rank formed the draft COS. The final COS was created after 2 consensus meetings between an expert panel and patient representatives. RESULTS: In total, 125 of 165 HCPs (76%) and 139 of 143 parents (97%) of infants with GERD completed the first phase. The second phase was completed by 83 of 139 HCPs (60%) and 127 of 142 different parents (89%). Outcomes of these phases were discussed during the consensus meetings and a 9-item COS was formed: "Adequate Growth," "Adequate Relief," "Adverse events,", "Crying," "Evidence of Esophagitis," "Feeding Difficulties," "Hematemesis," "No Escalation of Therapy," and "Sleep Problems." CONCLUSIONS: We developed a COS for infant GERD consisting of 9 items that should minimally be measured in future therapeutic trials to decrease study heterogeneity and ease comparability of results.

16.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 26, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000707

RESUMO

Oesophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital abnormality of the oesophagus that is caused by incomplete embryonic compartmentalization of the foregut. EA commonly occurs with a tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TEF). Associated birth defects or anomalies, such as VACTERL association, trisomy 18 or 21 and CHARGE syndrome, occur in the majority of patients born with EA. Although several studies have revealed signalling pathways and genes potentially involved in the development of EA, our understanding of the pathophysiology of EA lags behind the improvements in surgical and clinical care of patients born with this anomaly. EA is treated surgically to restore the oesophageal interruption and, if present, ligate and divide the TEF. Survival is now ~90% in those born with EA with severe associated anomalies and even higher in those born with EA alone. Despite these achievements, long-term gastrointestinal and respiratory complications and comorbidities in patients born with EA are common and lead to decreased quality of life. Oesophageal motility disorders are probably ubiquitous in patients after undergoing EA repair and often underlie these complications and comorbidities. The implementation of several new diagnostic and screening tools in clinical care, including high-resolution impedance manometry, pH-multichannel intraluminal impedance testing and disease-specific quality of life questionnaires now provide better insight into these problems and may contribute to better long-term outcomes in the future.


Assuntos
Atresia Esofágica/genética , Comorbidade , Anormalidades Congênitas , Atresia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Atresia Esofágica/fisiopatologia , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/genética , Ultrassonografia/métodos
17.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 152(2): 167-174, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030254

RESUMO

The nose is a complex organ that filters and warms breathing airflow. The nasal epithelium is the first barrier between the host and the external environment and is covered by a mucus gel that is poorly documented. Mucins are large, heavily O-glycosylated polymeric molecules secreted in the nose lumen by specialized cells, and they are responsible for the biochemical properties of the mucus gel. The mucus traps particles and clears them, and it also bathes microbiota, host molecules, and receptors that are all essential for odor perception in the olfactory epithelium. We used histology and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of the two main airway polymeric mucins, Muc5ac and Muc5b, in wild-type, green fluorescent protein-reporter Muc5b, and in genetically Muc5b-deficient mice. We report that Muc5ac is produced by goblet cells at the cell surface in the respiratory epithelium but is not expressed in the olfactory epithelium, whereas Muc5b is secreted by Bowman's glands situated in the lamina propria beneath the olfactory epithelium and also by goblet cells in the distal part of the respiratory epithelium. We also observed that Muc5b-deficient mice exhibited depletion of Bowman's glands. Using lectins, we found that terminally O-glycosylated chains of Muc5b were sialylated but not fucosylated, whereas Muc5ac was fucosylated but not sialylated. Specific localization and specific terminal glycosylation of the two mucins suggest different functions of the mucins.


Assuntos
Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Mucina-5B/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Animais , Glicosilação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mucina-5AC/análise , Mucina-5AC/genética , Mucina-5B/análise , Mucina-5B/deficiência , Mucosa Nasal/química , Mucosa Nasal/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/química , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903362

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of polyphenol intake during adolescence to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS) is little explored. This study aimed to evaluate the association between intake of total polyphenols, polyphenol classes and the 10 most consumed individual polyphenols with MetS risk in European adolescents. METHODS: Of the cross-sectional HELENA study, 657 adolescents (54% girls; 14.8% overweight; 12.5-17.5 year) had a fasting blood sample and polyphenol intake data from two non-consecutive 24-h recalls matched with the Phenol-Explorer database. MetS was defined via the pediatric American Heart Association definition. Multilevel linear regressions examined the associations of polyphenol quartiles with MetS components, while logistic regression examined the associations with MetS risk. RESULTS: After adjusting for all potential confounders (socio-demographics and nine nutrients), total polyphenol intake, polyphenol classes and individual polyphenols were not associated with MetS risk. From all MetS components, only BMI z-score was modestly inversely associated with total polyphenol intake. Further sub analyses on polyphenol classes revealed that flavonoid intake was significantly associated with higher diastolic blood pressure and lower BMI, and phenolic acid intake was associated with higher low-density cholesterol. For individual polyphenols, the above BMI findings were often confirmed (not independent from dietary intake) and a few associations were found with insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Higher intakes of total polyphenols and flavonoids were inversely associated with BMI. No consistent associations were found for other MetS components.

19.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(4): 585-590, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The use of semielemental diets concerns a small proportion of children on enteral nutrition whose characteristics have never been reported. Our aim was to describe a cohort of patients on home enteral nutrition with Peptamen Junior, including the tolerance and nutritional efficacy of this product. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter survey on a cohort of patients receiving this semielemental diet at home between 2010 and 2015 in 14 tertiary pediatric French centers. We recorded at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then every year the anthropometric characteristics of the patients, indications and modalities of administration of the diet, and the tolerance and adverse events. RESULTS: We recruited 136 patients ages 9.8 ±â€Š4.4 years at baseline. Mean body mass index z score was -1.0 ±â€Š1.8; mean height z score was -1.1 ±â€Š1.9. The main underlying diseases were digestive (35.3%), neurological (33.1%), and hematological (19.9%). The indications for a semielemental diet were failure of another diet in 70 patients (51.9%), severe malnutrition in 19 (14.1%), cystic fibrosis in 11 (8.1%), and switch from parenteral nutrition in 11 (8.1%). Side effects were observed in 39.2% of the patients, and required medical attention in 8.2%. Body mass index improved or remained normal in 88.3% of children. CONCLUSIONS: This semielemental diet seems to be well tolerated and efficient in the setting of home enteral nutrition in children with complex diseases featuring malabsorption and/or after failure of polymeric diet.

20.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(5): 642-647, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold standard for diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders. However, clinical signs associated with these disorders are nonspecific, and it is difficult to correlate clinical signs with HRM data. The main objective of our study was to assess the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of each clinical sign, as well as their sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders. METHODS: This is a bicentric retrospective cohort study based on HRM data collected between May 2012 and May 2016. The studied symptoms were weight loss, feeding difficulties, swallowing disorders, dysphagia, food blockages, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), belching, and respiratory symptoms. HRM data were analyzed according to the Chicago Classification (3.0). RESULTS: In total, 271 HRM data were analyzed, of which 90.4% showed abnormal results. HRM was well tolerated in 91% of the cases. The most common esophageal motility disorder was ineffective esophageal motility (38%). Weight loss was significantly associated (P = 0.003) with an abnormal HRM with a 96% PPV. CONCLUSIONS: With nonspecific clinical signs suggesting an esophageal motility disorder, weight loss was a predictive sign of abnormal HRM results. HRM was well tolerated in pediatric patients, and ineffective esophageal motility appears to be the most frequent motility disorder in our cohort, as already observed in adult patient studies.

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