Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
3.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 104-110, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative hypochromia of erythrocytes defined as a reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a surrogate of iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic impact of relative hypochromia in acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: We prospectively characterized 1574 patients presenting with an adjudicated diagnosis of AHF to the emergency department. Relative hypochromia was defined as a MCHC ≤330 g/l and determined at presentation. The presence of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. All-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization were the primary prognostic end-points. RESULTS: Overall, 455 (29%) AHF patients had relative hypochromia. Patients with relative hypochromia had higher hemodynamic cardiac stress as quantified by NT-proBNP concentrations (p < 0.001), more extensive cardiomyocyte injury as quantified by high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations (p < 0.001), and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; p < 0.001) as compared to AHF patients without hypochromia. Cumulative incidences for all-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization at 720-days were 50% and 55% in patients with relative hypochromia as compared to 33% and 39% in patients without hypochromia, respectively (both p < 0.0001). The association between relative hypochromia and increased mortality (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2-0) persisted after adjusting for anemia (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8), and after adjusting for hemodynamic cardiac stress (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.21-1.76) and eGFR (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Relative hypochromia is common and a strong and independent predictor of increased mortality in AHF. Given the direct link to diagnostic (endoscopy) and therapeutic interventions to treat functional iron deficiency, relative hypochromia deserves increased attention as an inexpensive and universally available biomarker.

4.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(4): 248-256, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690646

RESUMO

Background: The MEESSI-AHF (Multiple Estimation of risk based on the Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with AHF) score was developed to predict 30-day mortality in patients presenting with acute heart failure (AHF) to emergency departments (EDs) in Spain. Whether it performs well in other countries is unknown. Objective: To externally validate the MEESSI-AHF score in another country. Design: Prospective cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01831115). Setting: Multicenter recruitment of dyspneic patients presenting to the ED. Participants: The external validation cohort included 1572 patients with AHF. Measurements: Calculation of the MEESSI-AHF score using an established model containing 12 independent risk factors. Results: Among 1572 patients with adjudicated AHF, 1247 had complete data that allowed calculation of the MEESSI-AHF score. Of these, 102 (8.2%) died within 30 days. The score predicted 30-day mortality with excellent discrimination (c-statistic, 0.80). Assessment of cumulative mortality showed a steep gradient in 30-day mortality over 6 predefined risk groups (0 patients in the lowest-risk group vs. 35 [28.5%] in the highest-risk group). Risk was overestimated in the high-risk groups, resulting in a Hosmer-Lemeshow P value of 0.022. However, after adjustment of the intercept, the model showed good concordance between predicted risks and observed outcomes (P = 0.23). Findings were confirmed in sensitivity analyses that used multiple imputation for missing values in the overall cohort of 1572 patients. Limitations: External validation was done using a reduced model. Findings are specific to patients with AHF who present to the ED and are clinically stable enough to provide informed consent. Performance in patients with terminal kidney failure who are receiving long-term dialysis cannot be commented on. Conclusion: External validation of the MEESSI-AHF risk score showed excellent discrimination. Recalibration may be needed when the score is introduced to new populations. Primary Funding Source: The European Union, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Swiss Heart Foundation, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation Basel, the University of Basel, and University Hospital Basel.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(22): e009260, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571502

RESUMO

Background Ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in patients with prior MI in PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events [eg, Death From Heart or Vascular Disease, Heart Attack, or Stroke] in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin). MI can occur in diverse settings and with varying severity; therefore, understanding the types and sizes of MI events prevented is of clinical importance. Methods and Results MIs were adjudicated by a blinded clinical events committee and categorized by subtype and fold elevation of peak cardiac troponin over the upper limit of normal. A total of 1042 MIs occurred in 898 of the 21 162 randomized patients over a median follow-up of 33 months. The majority of the MIs (76%) were spontaneous (Type 1), with demand MI (Type 2) and stent thrombosis (Type 4b) accounting for 13% and 9%, respectively; sudden death (Type 3), percutaneous coronary intervention-related (Type 4a) and coronary artery bypass graft-related (Type 5) each accounted for <1%. Half of MIs (520, 50%) had a peak troponin ≥10x upper limit of normal and 21% of MIs (220) had a peak troponin ≥100× upper limit of normal. A total of 21% (224) were ST-segment-elevation MI STEMI. Overall ticagrelor reduced MI (4.47% versus 5.25%, hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.95, P=0.0055). The benefit was consistent among the subtypes, including a 31% reduction in MIs with a peak troponin ≥100× upper limit of normal (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.92, P=0.0096) and a 40% reduction in ST-segment elevation MI (hazard ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.78, P=0.0002). Conclusions In stable outpatients with prior MI, the majority of recurrent MIs are spontaneous and associated with a high biomarker elevation. Ticagrelor reduces the MI consistently among subtypes and sizes including large MIs and ST-segment elevation MI. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01225562.

7.
Cardiology ; 139(3): 187-196, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408823

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) twist serves as a compensatory mechanism in systolic dysfunction and its degree of reduction may reflect a more advanced stage of disease. AIM: The aim was to investigate twist alterations depending on the degree of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) by speckle-tracking echocardiography. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with symptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were included. Patients were divided according to MR vena contracta width (VCW): group 1 with VCW <7 mm (mild/moderate MR) and group 2 with VCW ≥7 mm (severe MR). RESULTS: There were no differences in LV geometry and function between groups. Group 2 showed lower endocardial basal rotation (BR) (-2.04° ± 1.83° vs. -3.23° ± 1.83°, p = 0.012); epicardial BR (-1.54° ± 1.18° vs. -2.31° ± 1.22°, p = 0.015); endocardial torsion (0.41°/cm ± 0.36°/cm vs. 0.63°/cm ± 0.44°/cm, p = 0.033) and mid-level circumferential strain (CSmid) (-6.12% ± 2.64% vs. -7.75% ± 2.90%, p = 0.028), when compared with group 1. Multivariable linear regression analysis identified endocardial BR, torsion and CSmid, as the best predictors of larger VCW. In the ROC curve analysis, endocardial BR and CSmid values greater than or equal to -3.63° and -9.35%, respectively, can differentiate patients with severe MR. CONCLUSIONS: In DCM patients, torsional profile was more altered in severe MR. Endocardial BR, endocardial torsion, and CSmid, can be used as indicators of advanced structural wall architecture damage.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(5): 489-496, 2018 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) and multivessel coronary disease (MVD) are at high risk for recurrent coronary events. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor versus placebo in patients with MVD in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 54) trial. METHODS: Patients with a history of MI 1 to 3 years before inclusion in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial were stratified in a pre-specified analysis based on the presence of MVD. The effect of ticagrelor (60 mg and 90 mg) on the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke (major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE]), as well as the composite of coronary death, MI, or stent thrombosis (coronary events), and on TIMI major bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and fatal bleeding were evaluated over a median of 33 months. RESULTS: A total of 12,558 patients (59.4%) had MVD. In the placebo arm, compared with patients without MVD, those with MVD were at higher risk for MACE (9.37% vs. 8.57%, adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj]: 1.24; p = 0.026) and for coronary events (7.67% vs. 5.34%, HRadj: 1.49; p = 0.0005). In patients with MVD, ticagrelor reduced the risk of MACE (7.94% vs. 9.37%, HR: 0.82; p = 0.004) and coronary events (6.02% vs. 7.67%, HR: 0.76; p < 0.0001), including a 36% reduction in coronary death (HR: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.48 to 0.85; p = 0.002). In this subgroup, ticagrelor increased the risk of TIMI major bleeding (2.52% vs. 1.08%, HR: 2.67; p < 0.0001), but not ICH or fatal bleeds. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with prior MI and MVD are at increased risk of MACE and coronary events, and experience substantial relative and absolute risk reductions in both outcomes with long-term ticagrelor treatment relative to those without MVD. Ticagrelor increases the risk of TIMI major bleeding, but not ICH or fatal bleeding. For patients with prior MI and MVD, ticagrelor is an effective option for long-term antiplatelet therapy. (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events [e.g., Death From Heart or Vascular Disease, Heart Attack, or Stroke] in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin [PEGASUS]; NCT01225562).

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(2): 193-198, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169605

RESUMO

In the EdoxabaN versus warfarin in subjectS UndeRgoing cardiovErsion of Atrial Fibrillation (ENSURE-AF) study, edoxaban was compared with enoxaparin-warfarin in patients who underwent electrical cardioversion of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, showing comparable low rates of bleeding and thromboembolism. The present study is an ancillary analysis investigating differences in relation to stroke and bleeding risk profiles. It also determined the relation of patients' clinical risk profiles to the quality of anticoagulation control in the warfarin arm. Primary efficacy (composite of stroke, systemic embolic event, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) and safety (composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding) outcomes and time to therapeutic range (TtTR) and time in therapeutic range (TiTR) were analyzed in relation to CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years (2 points), diabetes mellitus, stroke (2 points), vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category) and HAS-BLED (hypertension, age, stroke, bleeding tendency/predisposition, labile INRs, elderly age/frailty, drugs such as concomitant aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or alcohol excess) scores. A total of 1,095 patients were randomized to edoxaban and 1,104 received enoxaparin-warfarin. Mean age was 64.3 ± 10 and 64.2 ± 11 years, respectively. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2.6 (standard deviation [SD] 1.5 and 1.4, respectively) and mean HAS-BLED score was 0.9 (SD 0.8) in both arms. There were nonsignificant trends toward lower odds ratios (ORs) for the efficacy end point in patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores >2 and higher ORs with HAS-BLED score ≥3. Mean TiTR was >67%, with no differences between stroke or bleeding risk strata. The correlation between CHA2DS2-VASc and TtTR (p = 0.0286) and HAS-BLED and TiTR (p = 0.0286) were statistically significant. In patients who were at high risk of stroke, edoxaban had numerically lower primary efficacy end-point events and showed a trend for higher ORs, with HAS-BLED scores ≥3 compared with enoxaparin-warfarin. TtTR was shorter with higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores, whereas bleeding risk was inversely correlated with quality of anticoagulation control.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(11): 1368-1375, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor reduces ischemic risk in patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). It remains unclear whether ischemic risk and the benefits of prolonged P2Y12 inhibition in this population remain consistent over time. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to investigate the pattern of ischemic risk over time and whether the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor were similar early and late after randomization. METHODS: The PEGASUS-TIMI (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) 54 trial randomized patients with prior MI (median 1.7 years prior) to ticagrelor 90 mg, ticagrelor 60 mg, or placebo on a background of aspirin. The rates of cardiovascular (CV) death, MI, and stroke as well as TIMI major bleeding were analyzed at yearly landmarks (years 1, 2, and 3). RESULTS: A total of 21,162 patients were randomized and followed for 33 months (median), with 28% of patients ≥5 years from MI at trial conclusion. The risk of CV death, MI, or stroke in the placebo arm remained roughly constant over the trial at an ∼3% annualized rate. The benefit of ticagrelor 60 mg was consistent at each subsequent landmark (year 1 hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67 to 0.99; year 2 HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.11; and year 3 HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00). TIMI major bleeding was increased with ticagrelor 60 mg at each landmark, but with the greatest hazard in the first year (year 1 HR: 3.22; year 2 HR: 2.07; year 3 HR: 1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of MI remain at persistent high risk for CVD, MI, and stroke as late as 5 years after MI. The efficacy of low-dose ticagrelor is consistent over time with a trend toward less excess bleeding. (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin [PEGASUS]; NCT01225562).


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Ticagrelor , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Vnitr Lek ; 63(1): 25-30, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225288

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite great recent progress, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is still underestimated, under-diagnosed and thus undertreated worldwide. We have very little information on exact prevalence of patients with FH in the Central, Eastern and Southern Europe (CESE) region. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiological situation in the CESE region from data available. METHODS: All local leaders of the ScreenPro FH project were asked to provide local data on (a) expert guess of FH prevalence (b) the medical facilities focused on FH already in place (c) the diagnostic criteria used (d) the number of patients already evidenced in local database and (e) the availability of therapeutic options (especially plasma apheresis). RESULTS: With the guess prevalence of FH around 1 : 500, we estimate the overall population of 588 363 FH heterozygotes in the CESE region. Only 14 108 persons (2.4 %) were depicted in local databases; but the depiction rate varied between 0.1 % and 31.6 %. Only four out of 17 participating countries reported the the LDL apheresis availability. CONCLUSION: Our data point to the large population of heterozygous FH patients in the CESE region but low diagnostic rate. However structures through the ScreenPro FH project are being created and we can hope that the results will appear soon.Key words: diagnosis - epidemiology - familial hypercholesterolemia - screening.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência
13.
Vnitr Lek ; 63(1): 43-48, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225290

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with well-known genetic transmission and clinical course. Despite great recent progress, FH is still underestimated, under-diagnosed and thus undertreated. Furthermore it represents a significant healthcare challenge as a common risk factor for the premature development of coronary heart disease. The ScreenPro FH Project is an international network project aiming at improving complex care - from timely screening, through diagnosis to up-to-date treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe. An important task for the project is to harmonise and unify diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in participating countries, where the situation differs from country to country. Countries with more experience should serve as a model for countries developing the FH network.Key words: diagnosis - familial hypercholesterolemia - screening - treatment optimization.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores de Risco
14.
Lancet ; 388(10062): 2895-2903, 2016 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired contractility is a feature of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We assessed the pharmacokinetics and effects on cardiac function and structure of the cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind study, done at 87 sites in 13 countries, we recruited patients with stable, symptomatic chronic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction 40% or lower. Patients were randomly assigned equally, via an interactive web response system, to receive 25 mg oral omecamtiv mecarbil twice daily (fixed-dose group), 25 mg twice daily titrated to 50 mg twice daily guided by pharmacokinetics (pharmacokinetic-titration group), or placebo for 20 weeks. We assessed the maximum concentration of omecamtiv mecarbil in plasma (primary endpoint) and changes in cardiac function and ventricular diameters. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01786512. FINDINGS: From March 17, 2014, to March 5, 2015, we enrolled 150 patients in the fixed-dose omecamtiv mecarbil group and 149 in the pharmacokinetic-titration and placebo groups. Mean maximum concentration of omecamtiv mecarbil at 12 weeks was 200 (SD 71) ng/mL in the fixed-dose group and 318 (129) ng/mL in the pharmacokinetic-titration group. For the pharmacokinetic-titration group versus placebo group at 20 weeks, least square mean differences were as follows: systolic ejection time 25 ms (95% CI 18-32, p<0·0001), stroke volume 3·6 mL (0·5-6·7, p=0·0217), left ventricular end-systolic diameter -1·8 mm (-2·9 to -0·6, p=0·0027), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter -1·3 mm, (-2·3 to 0·3, p=0·0128), heart rate -3·0 beats per min (-5·1 to -0·8, p=0·0070), and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentration in plasma -970 pg/mL (-1672 to -268, p=0·0069). The frequency of adverse clinical events did not differ between groups. INTERPRETATION: Omecamtiv mecarbil dosing guided by pharmacokinetics achieved plasma concentrations associated with improved cardiac function and decreased ventricular diameter. FUNDING: Amgen.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Miosinas Cardíacas/farmacocinética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Miosinas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sístole , Ureia/administração & dosagem , Ureia/farmacocinética , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Eur Heart J ; 37(4): 400-8, 2016 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26443023

RESUMO

AIMS: We evaluated the relationship of renal function and ischaemic and bleeding risk as well as the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor in stable patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with a history of MI 1-3 years prior from PEGASUS-TIMI 54 were stratified based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), with <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) pre-specified for analysis of the effect of ticagrelor on the primary efficacy composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke (major adverse cardiovascular events, MACE) and the primary safety endpoint of TIMI major bleeding. Of 20 898 patients, those with eGFR <60 (N = 4849, 23.2%) had a greater risk of MACE at 3 years relative to those without, which remained significant after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, HRadj 1.54, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.27-1.85, P < 0.001). The relative risk reduction in MACE with ticagrelor was similar in those with eGFR <60 (ticagrelor pooled vs. placebo: HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.68-0.96) vs. ≥60 (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.77-1.00, Pinteraction = 0.44). However, due to the greater absolute risk in the former group, the absolute risk reduction with ticagrelor was higher: 2.7 vs. 0.63%. Bleeding tended to occur more frequently in patients with renal dysfunction. The absolute increase in TIMI major bleeding with ticagrelor was similar in those with and without eGFR <60 (1.19 vs. 1.43%), whereas the excess of minor bleeding tended to be more pronounced (1.93 vs. 0.69%). CONCLUSION: In patients with a history of MI, patients with renal dysfunction are at increased risk of MACE and consequently experience a particularly robust absolute risk reduction with long-term treatment with ticagrelor.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Trombose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Trombose Coronária/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Ticagrelor , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Arch Med Sci ; 11(1): 1-23, 2015 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25861286

RESUMO

Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term 'statin intolerance'. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10-15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented.

17.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 14(6): 935-55, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25907232

RESUMO

Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term 'statin intolerance'. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10 - 15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia
18.
Open Cardiovasc Med J ; 8: 35-42, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24847388

RESUMO

Post-marketing observational studies are valuable for establishing the real-world effectiveness of treatment regimens in routine clinical practice as they typically monitor a diverse population of patients over many months. This article reviews recent observational studies of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for the management of hypertension: the 6-month eprosartan POWER study (n~29,400), the 3-month valsartan translational research programme (n~19,500), the 9-month irbesartan Treat to Target study (n=14,200), the 6-month irbesartan DO-IT survey (n~3300) and the 12-week candesartan CHILI survey programme (n=4600). Reduction in blood pressure with ARBs reported across these studies appears to be comparable for the different agents, although direct comparisons between studies cannot be made owing to different treatment durations and baseline patient demographics. Of these studies, the eprosartan POWER study, 2 of the 7 studies in the valsartan translational research programme, and the candesartan CHILI Triple T study measured total cardiovascular risk, as recommended in the 2013 European Society of Cardiology-European Society of Hypertension guidelines. The POWER study confirmed the value of the Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) to accurately assess total cardiovascular risk. With the advent of new healthcare practices, such as the use of electronic health records (EHRs), observational studies in larger patient populations will become possible. In the future, algorithms embedded in EHR systems could evolve as decision support tools to inform on patient care.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 370(18): 1702-11, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24678955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity promotes the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, and elevated plasma levels of this enzyme are associated with an increased risk of coronary events. Darapladib is a selective oral inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. METHODS: In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 15,828 patients with stable coronary heart disease to receive either once-daily darapladib (at a dose of 160 mg) or placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included the components of the primary end point as well as major coronary events (death from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or urgent coronary revascularization for myocardial ischemia) and total coronary events (death from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or any coronary revascularization). RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 3.7 years, the primary end point occurred in 769 of 7924 patients (9.7%) in the darapladib group and 819 of 7904 patients (10.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the darapladib group, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.03; P=0.20). There were also no significant between-group differences in the rates of the individual components of the primary end point or in all-cause mortality. Darapladib, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of major coronary events (9.3% vs. 10.3%; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.00; P=0.045) and total coronary events (14.6% vs. 16.1%; hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.98; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable coronary heart disease, darapladib did not significantly reduce the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; STABILITY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00799903.).


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos/administração & dosagem , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Benzaldeídos/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Oximas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Falha de Tratamento
20.
Int J Hypertens ; 2013: 165789, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23997946

RESUMO

Background. High blood pressure is a substantial risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Design & Methods. The Physicians' Observational Work on patient Education according to their vascular Risk (POWER) survey was an open-label investigation of eprosartan-based therapy (EBT) for control of high blood pressure in primary care centers in 16 countries. A prespecified element of this research was appraisal of the impact of EBT on estimated 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular event as determined by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) model. Results. SCORE estimates of CVD risk were obtained at baseline from 12,718 patients in 15 countries (6504 men) and from 9577 patients at 6 months. During EBT mean (±SD) systolic/diastolic blood pressures declined from 160.2 ± 13.7/94.1 ± 9.1 mmHg to 134.5 ± 11.2/81.4 ± 7.4 mmHg. This was accompanied by a 38% reduction in mean SCORE-estimated CVD risk and an improvement in SCORE risk classification of one category or more in 3506 patients (36.6%). Conclusion. Experience in POWER affirms that (a) effective pharmacological control of blood pressure is feasible in the primary care setting and is accompanied by a reduction in total CVD risk and (b) the SCORE instrument is effective in this setting for the monitoring of total CVD risk.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA