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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513140

RESUMO

Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma (MSSE, Ferguson-Smith disease) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) are allelic conditions associated with pathogenic variants in the transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 gene (TGFBR1). We describe a patient with a novel missense variant in this gene: c.664G > A, p.[Gly222Arg], who clinically presents with both syndromes. The patient also has a history of gastric antral vascular ectasia, which has not been reported previously in LDS.

3.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

4.
J Endocr Soc ; 2(7): 806-816, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978154

RESUMO

Germline SDHA mutations are reported in a minority of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL) cases but are associated with an increased risk of malignancy, leading some to advocate cascade genetic testing and surveillance screening of "at-risk" first-degree relatives. However, such approaches rely on accurate estimates of variant pathogenicity and disease penetrance, which may have been subject to ascertainment and reporting biases, although the recent provision of large population-based DNA sequence data sets may provide a potentially unbiased resource to aid variant interpretation. Thus, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the pathogenicity and penetrance of SDHA variants reported in literature-based PPGL cases by comparing their frequency to those occurring in the Genome Aggregation Database (GnomAD) data set, which provides high-quality DNA sequence data on 138,632 individuals. In total, 39 different missense or loss-of-function (LOF) SDHA variants were identified in 95 PPGL index cases. Notably, many of the PPGL-associated SDHA alleles were observed at an unexpectedly high frequency in the GnomAD cohort, with ~1% and ~0.1% of the background population harboring a rare missense or LOF variant, respectively. Although the pathogenicity of several SDHA alleles was supported by significant enrichment in PPGL cases relative to GnomAD controls, calculations of disease penetrance based on allele frequencies in the respective cohorts resulted in much lower estimates than previously reported, ranging from 0.1% to 4.9%. Thus, although this study provides support for the etiological role of SDHA in PPGL formation, it suggests that most variant carriers will not manifest PPGLs and are unlikely to benefit from periodic surveillance screening.

5.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900417

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS; OMIM 615879), also known as the DNMT3A-overgrowth syndrome, is an overgrowth intellectual disability syndrome first described in 2014 with a report of 13 individuals with constitutive heterozygous DNMT3A variants. Here we have undertaken a detailed clinical study of 55 individuals with de novoDNMT3A variants, including the 13 previously reported individuals. An intellectual disability and overgrowth were reported in >80% of individuals with TBRS and were designated major clinical associations. Additional frequent clinical associations (reported in 20-80% individuals) included an evolving facial appearance with low-set, heavy, horizontal eyebrows and prominent upper central incisors; joint hypermobility (74%); obesity (weight ³2SD, 67%); hypotonia (54%); behavioural/psychiatric issues (most frequently autistic spectrum disorder, 51%); kyphoscoliosis (33%) and afebrile seizures (22%). One individual was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia in teenage years. Based upon the results from this study, we present our current management for individuals with TBRS.

7.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 384-394, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline pathogenic variants in SDHB/SDHC/SDHD are the most frequent causes of inherited phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Insufficient information regarding penetrance and phenotypic variability hinders optimum management of mutation carriers. We estimate penetrance for symptomatic tumours and elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large cohort of SDHB/SDHC/SDHD mutation carriers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 1832 individuals referred for genetic testing due to a personal or family history of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma. 876 patients (401 previously reported) had a germline mutation in SDHB/SDHC/SDHD (n=673/43/160). Tumour risks were correlated with in silico structural prediction analyses. RESULTS: Tumour risks analysis provided novel penetrance estimates and genotype-phenotype correlations. In addition to tumour type susceptibility differences for individual genes, we confirmed that the SDHD:p.Pro81Leu mutation has a distinct phenotype and identified increased age-related tumour risks with highly destabilising SDHB missense mutations. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the penetrance (cumulative risk of clinically apparent tumours) in SDHB and (paternally inherited) SDHD mutation-positive non-probands (n=371/67 with detailed clinical information) by age 60 years was 21.8% (95% CI 15.2% to 27.9%) and 43.2% (95% CI 25.4% to 56.7%), respectively. Risk of malignant disease at age 60 years in non-proband SDHB mutation carriers was 4.2%(95% CI 1.1% to 7.2%). With retrospective cohort analysis to adjust for ascertainment, cumulative tumour risks for SDHB mutation carriers at ages 60 years and 80 years were 23.9% (95% CI 20.9% to 27.4%) and 30.6% (95% CI 26.8% to 34.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall risks of clinically apparent tumours for SDHB mutation carriers are substantially lower than initially estimated and will improve counselling of affected families. Specific genotype-tumour risk associations provides a basis for novel investigative strategies into succinate dehydrogenase-related mechanisms of tumourigenesis and the development of personalised management for SDHB/SDHC/SDHD mutation carriers.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(4): 599-603, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335492

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is a common indication for referral to clinical genetics services. UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines use family history (FH) to stratify by 10-year risk of breast cancer from age 40. Patients are stratified into population risk (PR, 10-year risk <3%), moderate (MR, 3-8%) and high risk (HR, >8%). Women at increased risk are offered screening at or prior to age 40. To assess the clinical effectiveness of current risk stratification, FH data were obtained for all unaffected women with a FH of breast cancer aged <50, referred to cancer genetics from 2000-2010. Patients were risk stratified by NICE criteria, identifying patients who subsequently developed breast cancer. A total of 1409 women had 15,414 patient years of follow-up. Thirty invasive breast cancers developed, 13 in MR and 13 in HR women. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the rate of breast cancer development between PR and MR women from ages 40 to 49 (Log rank p = 0.431). There was a significant difference between ages 40 and 49 years between PR and HR women (p = 0.036), but not on exclusion of BRCA mutation carriers (p = 0.136). NICE absolute 10-year risk thresholds between ages 40 and 49 were not met in any risk group, when risk was estimated using the guidelines (PR = 0.82%, MR = 1.68%, HR = 3.56%). Our data suggest that improved criteria are required for risk assessment prior to age 50 and screening resources may be best focussed on those with highly penetrant mutations in cancer risk genes.

9.
J Med Genet ; 53(11): 735-742, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders have challenged clinical genetics for decades, with over 700 genes implicated and many whose function remains unknown. The application of whole-exome sequencing is proving pivotal in closing the genotype/phenotype gap through the discovery of new genes and variants that help to unravel the pathogenic mechanisms driving neuropathogenesis. One such discovery includes TRIO, a gene recently implicated in neurodevelopmental delay. Trio is a Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and a major regulator of neuronal development, controlling actin cytoskeleton dynamics by activating the GTPase Rac1. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was undertaken on a family presenting with global developmental delay, microcephaly and mild dysmorphism. Father/daughter exome analysis was performed, followed by confirmatory Sanger sequencing and segregation analysis on four individuals. Three further patients were recruited through the deciphering developmental disorders (DDD) study. Functional studies were undertaken using patient-specific Trio protein mutations. RESULTS: We identified a frameshift deletion in TRIO that segregated autosomal dominantly. By scrutinising data from DDD, we further identified three unrelated children with a similar phenotype who harboured de novo missense mutations in TRIO. Biochemical studies demonstrated that in three out of four families, the Trio mutations led to a markedly reduced Rac1 activation. CONCLUSIONS: We describe an inherited global developmental delay phenotype associated with a frameshift deletion in TRIO. Additionally, we identify pathogenic de novo missense mutations in TRIO associated with the same consistent phenotype, intellectual disability, microcephaly and dysmorphism with striking digital features. We further functionally validate the importance of the GEF domain in Trio protein function. Our study demonstrates how genomic technologies are yet again proving prolific in diagnosing and advancing the understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders.

10.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153757, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124303

RESUMO

We report molecular genetic analysis of 42 affected individuals referred with a diagnosis of aniridia who previously screened as negative for intragenic PAX6 mutations. Of these 42, the diagnoses were 31 individuals with aniridia and 11 individuals referred with a diagnosis of Gillespie syndrome (iris hypoplasia, ataxia and mild to moderate developmental delay). Array-based comparative genomic hybridization identified six whole gene deletions: four encompassing PAX6 and two encompassing FOXC1. Six deletions with plausible cis-regulatory effects were identified: five that were 3' (telomeric) to PAX6 and one within a gene desert 5' (telomeric) to PITX2. Sequence analysis of the FOXC1 and PITX2 coding regions identified two plausibly pathogenic de novo FOXC1 missense mutations (p.Pro79Thr and p.Leu101Pro). No intragenic mutations were detected in PITX2. FISH mapping in an individual with Gillespie-like syndrome with an apparently balanced X;11 reciprocal translocation revealed disruption of a gene at each breakpoint: ARHGAP6 on the X chromosome and PHF21A on chromosome 11. In the other individuals with Gillespie syndrome no mutations were identified in either of these genes, or in HCCS which lies close to the Xp breakpoint. Disruption of PHF21A has previously been implicated in the causation of intellectual disability (but not aniridia). Plausibly causative mutations were identified in 15 out of 42 individuals (12/32 aniridia; 3/11 Gillespie syndrome). Fourteen of these mutations presented in the known aniridia genes; PAX6, FOXC1 and PITX2. The large number of individuals in the cohort with no mutation identified suggests greater locus heterogeneity may exist in both isolated and syndromic aniridia than was previously appreciated.


Assuntos
Aniridia/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Neurology ; 84(5): 480-9, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25568300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the phenotype associated with SCN8A mutations. METHODS: We used high-throughput sequence analysis of the SCN8A gene in 683 patients with a range of epileptic encephalopathies. In addition, we ascertained cases with SCN8A mutations from other centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained together with a review of EEG and imaging data. RESULTS: Seventeen patients with de novo heterozygous mutations of SCN8A were studied. Seizure onset occurred at a mean age of 5 months (range: 1 day to 18 months); in general, seizures were not triggered by fever. Fifteen of 17 patients had multiple seizure types including focal, tonic, clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures, and epileptic spasms; seizures were refractory to antiepileptic therapy. Development was normal in 12 patients and slowed after seizure onset, often with regression; 5 patients had delayed development from birth. All patients developed intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. Motor manifestations were prominent including hypotonia, dystonia, hyperreflexia, and ataxia. EEG findings comprised moderate to severe background slowing with focal or multifocal epileptiform discharges. CONCLUSION: SCN8A encephalopathy presents in infancy with multiple seizure types including focal seizures and spasms in some cases. Outcome is often poor and includes hypotonia and movement disorders. The majority of mutations arise de novo, although we observed a single case of somatic mosaicism in an unaffected parent.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Internacionalidade , Masculino
12.
Health Expect ; 18(5): 1735-43, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24386893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal and family data forms, completed by women referred to breast cancer genetics clinics, are valuable tools for verification and extension of family history, crucial steps in accurate risk evaluation. A significant minority of women do not complete and return these forms, despite reminders, even when completion is a pre-requisite for a clinic appointment. OBJECTIVE: To facilitate access of women at increased familial risk of breast cancer to screening and counselling services by investigating reasons for non-return of the forms. PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN: Based on a single regional 'breast cancer family' service in the UK, Analysis of quantitative data comparing women who did not return forms (n = 55) with those who had done so (n = 59), together with qualitative evaluation of potential barriers to form-completion through semi-structured telephone interviews with a random subset of 'non-returners' (n = 23). RESULTS: Non-returners have higher proportions of the very young (below the age at which surveillance could be offered) and of women from lower social deprivation categories. Interviews revealed that the majority of non-returners are anxious, rather than unconcerned about their breast cancer risk and circumstances and attitudes contributed to non-compliance. Twenty-one participants confirmed that they would welcome an appointment at a 'breast cancer family' clinic, but nine did not attend for the appointment. They were significantly younger than those who attend, but were not at lower familial risk. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Many women who fail to complete and return a family history form would benefit from risk assessment and genetic counselling. Several steps are suggested that might help them access the relevant services.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
13.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 53: 520-5, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24747516

RESUMO

Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma (MSSE) is a rare familial skin cancer in which multiple tumours resembling crateriform squamous carcinomas are locally invasive but regress spontaneously after several months, leaving deep disfiguring facial scars and shallower scars on the limbs. First identified in a number of Scottish families, the condition has since been reported more widely. We review here the investigations leading to the discovery of loss of function mutations in TGFBR1 that are responsible for the disease. Loss of heterozygosity in tumours reveals that TGFBR1 acts as a tumour suppressor gene. TGFBR1 was initially excluded as the MSSE gene because it lies outside an extensive chromosome 9 haplotype shared by Scottish families. MSSE can now be regarded as a digenic/multilocus disease in view of the evidence of a second linked locus necessary for pathogenesis located within the Scottish haplotype. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Rare Cancers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Ceratoacantoma/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Carcinoma/etiologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Cicatriz/genética , Cicatriz/patologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Ceratoacantoma/etiologia , Ceratoacantoma/patologia , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Mutação , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
14.
Nat Genet ; 46(4): 385-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24614070

RESUMO

Overgrowth disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by increased growth parameters and other variable clinical features such as intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we performed exome sequencing in ten proband-parent trios and detected two de novo DNMT3A mutations. We identified 11 additional de novo mutations by sequencing DNMT3A in a further 142 individuals with overgrowth. The mutations alter residues in functional DNMT3A domains, and protein modeling suggests that they interfere with domain-domain interactions and histone binding. Similar mutations were not present in 1,000 UK population controls (13/152 cases versus 0/1,000 controls; P < 0.0001). Mutation carriers had a distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and greater height. DNMT3A encodes a DNA methyltransferase essential for establishing methylation during embryogenesis and is commonly somatically mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, DNMT3A joins an emerging group of epigenetic DNA- and histone-modifying genes associated with both developmental growth disorders and hematological malignancies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Sequência de Bases , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/química , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Componentes do Gene , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Síndrome , Reino Unido
15.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 18(4): 529-31, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24657013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aicardi syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the triad of corpus callosum agenesis, chorioretinal lacunae, and infantile spasms. Most patients with AS also have intractable epilepsy, moderate to severe learning disability, and a reduced life expectancy. An X-linked dominant inheritance caused by de novo mutations pattern, lethal in males, is postulated, but the gene has not yet been isolated. There are three case reports of 47 XXY males with classic features of AS who all had severe developmental disability. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 3.5-year old 47 XXY male with the classic triad of Aicardi syndrome but with good seizure control and mild learning disability.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Aicardi/genética , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Síndrome de Aicardi/patologia , Síndrome de Aicardi/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
16.
J Child Neurol ; 29(5): 666-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24453141

RESUMO

The NKX2-1 (TTF-1 or TITF-1) gene on chromosome 14q13 codes for the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1). It is expressed in the developing brain, lung, and thyroid. Defects have been associated with chorea, hypothyroidism, and lung disease, comprising the "brain-thyroid-lung syndrome." We describe here 3 cases of novel missense mutation (c.626G>C; p.Arg209Pro) in NKX2-1 in 2 generations of a nonconsanguinous family. Firstly 2 sons were affected by childhood-onset hypothyroidism and a movement disorder characterized by ataxia in the early years followed by the emergence of a superimposed chorea. The mutation was also found in the granddaughter, when she presented with the same clinical features. We hypothesize that the mutation arose as a result of gonadal mosaicism, as the mutation was not detected in leucocyte DNA from either grandparent. The features are consistent with a diagnosis of Brain-thyroid-lung syndrome, which previously could have been classified as benign hereditary chorea with hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Atetose/genética , Coreia/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Saúde da Família , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fator Nuclear 1 de Tireoide , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Behav Med ; 20(4): 514-21, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22976351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle influences breast cancer risk. Women at increased familial risk may benefit from modifying behaviour, but it is not known to what extent they do so. PURPOSE: This study aims to measure changes that UK (Scottish) women make in response to increased familial risk of breast cancer and attitudes to a risk-reduction trial. METHODS: A questionnaire, completed by 140 "breast cancer family" clinic patients, generated data on habitual diet, alcohol consumption and exercise, changes made after learning of breast cancer risk and attitudes to possible further changes. Subgroups of patients were defined by criteria likely to influence changes in behaviour. Between-group differences were analysed by Fisher's exact test and overall correlations by linear regression. RESULTS: Thirty-six subjects (26 %) reported no behavioural change but, overall, around 25 % of diet, exercise and alcohol items had been changed. Women perceiving their lifetime cancer risk to be high (>50 %) and those who were obese (BMI >25) had made significantly more changes than others. Younger women (<40 years) and those with daughters had made fewer changes. Almost all suggested elements of a risk-reduction trial were strongly supported. CONCLUSIONS: Scottish women at increased risk of breast cancer have scope for protective changes in lifestyle and support a risk-reduction trial. The needs of younger women and of those with daughters should be addressed in its design.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Controle Interno-Externo , Estilo de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mulheres
19.
Nat Genet ; 44(11): 1272-6, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23064416

RESUMO

Palmoplantar keratodermas (PPKs) are a group of disorders that are diagnostically and therapeutically problematic in dermatogenetics. Punctate PPKs are characterized by circumscribed hyperkeratotic lesions on the palms and soles with considerable heterogeneity. In 18 families with autosomal dominant punctate PPK, we report heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AAGAB, encoding α- and γ-adaptin-binding protein p34, located at a previously linked locus at 15q22. α- and γ-adaptin-binding protein p34, a cytosolic protein with a Rab-like GTPase domain, was shown to bind both clathrin adaptor protein complexes, indicating a role in membrane trafficking. Ultrastructurally, lesional epidermis showed abnormalities in intracellular vesicle biology. Immunohistochemistry showed hyperproliferation within the punctate lesions. Knockdown of AAGAB in keratinocytes led to increased cell division, which was linked to greatly elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation. We hypothesize that p34 deficiency may impair endocytic recycling of growth factor receptors such as EGFR, leading to increased signaling and cellular proliferation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Poroceratose/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citosol/ultraestrutura , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Linhagem , Poroceratose/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo
20.
Nat Genet ; 43(4): 365-9, 2011 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21358634

RESUMO

Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma (MSSE), also known as Ferguson-Smith disease (FSD), is an autosomal-dominant skin cancer condition characterized by multiple squamous-carcinoma-like locally invasive skin tumors that grow rapidly for a few weeks before spontaneously regressing, leaving scars. High-throughput genomic sequencing of a conservative estimate (24.2 Mb) of the disease locus on chromosome 9 using exon array capture identified independent mutations in TGFBR1 in three unrelated families. Subsequent dideoxy sequencing of TGFBR1 identified 11 distinct monoallelic mutations in 18 affected families, firmly establishing TGFBR1 as the causative gene. The nature of the sequence variants, which include mutations in the extracellular ligand-binding domain and a series of truncating mutations in the kinase domain, indicates a clear genotype-phenotype correlation between loss-of-function TGFBR1 mutations and MSSE. This distinguishes MSSE from the Marfan syndrome-related disorders in which missense mutations in TGFBR1 lead to developmental defects with vascular involvement but no reported predisposition to cancer.


Assuntos
Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Códon sem Sentido , Sequência Conservada , Primers do DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Estudos de Associação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Ceratoacantoma/genética , Ceratoacantoma/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/química , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo
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