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J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 214-230, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795815


Injuries and lack of motivation are common reasons for discontinuation of running. Real-time feedback from wearables can reduce discontinuation by reducing injury risk and improving performance and motivation. There are however several limitations and challenges with current real-time feedback approaches. We discuss these limitations and challenges and provide a framework to optimise real-time feedback for reducing injury risk and improving performance and motivation. We first discuss the reasons why individuals run and propose that feedback targeted to these reasons can improve motivation and compliance. Secondly, we review the association of running technique and running workload with injuries and performance and we elaborate how real-time feedback on running technique and workload can be applied to reduce injury risk and improve performance and motivation. We also review different feedback modalities and motor learning feedback strategies and their application to real-time feedback. Briefly, the most effective feedback modality and frequency differ between variables and individuals, but a combination of modalities and mixture of real-time and delayed feedback is most effective. Moreover, feedback promoting perceived competence, autonomy and an external focus can improve motivation, learning and performance. Although the focus is on wearables, the challenges and practical applications are also relevant for laboratory-based gait retraining.

Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Retroalimentação , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Motivação , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção , Corrida/lesões
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 39(3): 443-53, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17473770


PURPOSE: We investigated the knee-extensor torque at which reoxygenation (inflow of arterial blood) during an isometric contraction stopped, whether this torque depended on maximal torque capacity (MTC), and whether there were differences among the synergists. METHODS: Isometric knee-extension torque was measured using a dynamometer with 90 degrees angles in the hip and knee. Maximal voluntary activation (established with superimposed nerve stimulation) was > 90% in the 15 healthy male subjects (20-30 yr). Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to measure changes in muscle oxygenation of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscle during submaximal isometric contractions at intensities of 20-45% MTC with 5% increments, applied in randomized order and divided over 2 d. At each torque, a contraction with an inflated pressure cuff (450 mm Hg), inducing full arterial occlusion, was followed (10 min of rest) by a second contraction without the cuff. RESULTS: MTC ranged from 178 to 348 N.m. The torque at which maximal deoxygenation (all oxygen consumed) during contraction without the cuff became similar (P < 0.05) to the maximal deoxygenation reached with the cuff (indicative for complete occlusion of blood flow during the contraction without the cuff) was significantly higher for the RF (35% MTC) than for both vasti (25% MTC). There was no significant relation between MTC and relative (% MTC) torque at which muscle reoxygenation stopped. CONCLUSION: Knee-extensor reoxygenation stopped at lower torques than previously reported for blood flow in this muscle, and this occurred at the same % MTC in subjects of different strength but at different % MTC for the different synergists.

Exercício/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Torque , Adulto , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos