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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 160880, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516922

RESUMO

Commuters in urban settlements are frequently exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants due to their proximity to mobile sources, making exposure to traffic-related air pollutants an important public health issue. Recent trends in urban transport towards zero- and low-tailpipe emission alternatives will likely result in decreased exposure to air pollutants. The TrUST (Urban transformations and health) study offers a unique opportunity to understand the impacts of a new cable car (TransMiCable) in underserved communities within Bogotá, Colombia. The aims of this study are to assess the personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), equivalent Black Carbon (eBC), and Carbon Monoxide (CO) in transport micro-environments and to estimate the inhaled dose per trip during mandatory multimodal trips before and after the implementation of the TransMiCable. We collected personal exposure data for Bus-Rapid-Transit (BRT) feeder buses, regular buses, informal transport, pedestrians, and TransMiCable. TransMiCable showed lower exposure concentration compared to BRT feeder and regular buses (PM2.5: 23.6 vs. 87.0 µg m-3 (P ≤ 0.001) and eBC: 5.2 vs. 28.2 µg m-3 (P ≤ 0.001), respectively). The mean concentration of PM2.5 and eBC inside the TransMiCable cabins were 62 % and 82 % lower than the mean concentrations in buses. Furthermore, using a Monte Carlo simulation model, we found that including the TransMiCable as a feeder is related to a 54.4 µg/trip reduction in PM2.5 inhaled dose and 35.8 µg/trip in eBC per trip. Those changes represent a 27 % and 34 % reduction in an inhaled dose per trip, respectively. Our results show that PM2.5, eBC, and CO inhaled dose for TransMiCable users is reduced due to lower exposure concentration inside its cabins and shorter travel time. The implementation of a cable car in Bogotá is likely to reduce air pollution exposure in transport micro-environments used by vulnerable populations living in semi-informal settlements.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Automóveis , Confiança , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Fuligem , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
2.
Soc Sci Med ; 317: 115526, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Latin America, where climate change and rapid urbanization converge, non-optimal ambient temperatures contribute to excess mortality. However, little is known about area-level characteristics that confer vulnerability to temperature-related mortality. OBJECTIVES: Explore city-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics associated with temperature-related mortality in Latin American cities. METHODS: The dependent variables quantify city-specific associations between temperature and mortality: heat- and cold-related excess death fractions (EDF, or percentages of total deaths attributed to cold/hot temperatures), and the relative mortality risk (RR) associated with 1 °C difference in temperature in 325 cities during 2002-2015. Random effects meta-regressions were used to investigate whether EDFs and RRs associated with heat and cold varied by city-level characteristics, including population size, population density, built-up area, age-standardized mortality rate, poverty, living conditions, educational attainment, income inequality, and residential segregation by education level. RESULTS: We find limited effect modification of cold-related mortality by city-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and several unexpected associations for heat-related mortality. For example, cities in the highest compared to the lowest tertile of income inequality have all-age cold-related excess mortality that is, on average, 3.45 percentage points higher (95% CI: 0.33, 6.56). Higher poverty and higher segregation were also associated with higher cold EDF among those 65 and older. Large, densely populated cities, and cities with high levels of poverty and income inequality experience smaller heat EDFs compared to smaller and less densely populated cities, and cities with little poverty and income inequality. DISCUSSION: Evidence of effect modification of cold-related mortality in Latin American cities was limited, and unexpected patterns of modification of heat-related mortality were observed. Socioeconomic deprivation may impact cold-related mortality, particularly among the elderly. The findings of higher levels of poverty and income inequality associated with lower heat-related mortality deserve further investigation given the increasing importance of urban adaptation to climate change.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Mortalidade , Humanos , Idoso , Temperatura , Cidades/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Demografia
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277441, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378655

RESUMO

Socioeconomic factors have exacerbated the impact of COVID-19 worldwide. Brazil, already marked by significant economic inequalities, is one of the most affected countries, with one of the highest mortality rates. Understanding how inequality and income segregation contribute to excess mortality by COVID-19 in Brazilian cities is essential for designing public health policies to mitigate the impact of the disease. This paper aims to fill in this gap by analyzing the effect of income inequality and income segregation on COVID-19 mortality in large urban centers in Brazil. We compiled weekly COVID-19 mortality rates from March 2020 to February 2021 in a longitudinal ecological design, aggregating data at the city level for 152 Brazilian cities. Mortality rates from COVID-19 were compared across weeks, cities and states using mixed linear models. We estimated the associations between COVID-19 mortality rates with income inequality and income segregation using mixed negative binomial models including city and week-level random intercepts. We measured income inequality using the Gini index and income segregation using the dissimilarity index using data from the 2010 Brazilian demographic census. We found that 88.2% of COVID-19 mortality rates variability was between weeks, 8.5% between cities, and 3.3% between states. Higher-income inequality and higher-income segregation values were associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rates before and after accounting for all adjustment factors. In our main adjusted model, rate ratios (RR) per 1 SD increases in income inequality and income segregation were associated with 17% (95% CI 9% to 26%) and 11% (95% CI 4% to 19%) higher mortality. Income inequality and income segregation are long-standing hallmarks of large Brazilian cities. Risk factors related to the socioeconomic context affected the course of the pandemic in the country and contributed to high mortality rates. Pre-existing social vulnerabilities were critical factors in the aggravation of COVID-19, as supported by the observed associations in this study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Segregação Social , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Mortalidade
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(9): 96002, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to pesticides is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the literature on pesticide-related health effects in the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) region, an area of intensive agricultural and residential pesticide use, is sparse. We conducted a scoping review to describe the current state of research on the health effects of pesticide exposure in LAC populations with the goal of identifying knowledge gaps and research capacity building needs. METHODS: We searched PubMed and SciELO for epidemiological studies on pesticide exposure and human health in LAC populations published between January 2007 and December 2021. We identified 233 publications from 16 countries that met our inclusion criteria and grouped them by health outcome (genotoxicity, neurobehavioral outcomes, placental outcomes and teratogenicity, cancer, thyroid function, reproductive outcomes, birth outcomes and child growth, and others). RESULTS: Most published studies were conducted in Brazil (37%, n=88) and Mexico (20%, n=46), were cross-sectional in design (72%, n=167), and focused on farmworkers (45%, n=105) or children (21%, n=48). The most frequently studied health effects included genotoxicity (24%, n=62) and neurobehavioral outcomes (21%, n=54), and organophosphate (OP) pesticides were the most frequently examined (26%, n=81). Forty-seven percent (n=112) of the studies relied only on indirect pesticide exposure assessment methods. Exposure to OP pesticides, carbamates, or to multiple pesticide classes was consistently associated with markers of genotoxicity and adverse neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly among children and farmworkers. DISCUSSION: Our scoping review provides some evidence that exposure to pesticides may adversely impact the health of LAC populations, but methodological limitations and inconsistencies undermine the strength of the conclusions. It is critical to increase capacity building, integrate research initiatives, and conduct more rigorous epidemiological studies in the region to address these limitations, better inform public health surveillance systems, and maximize the impact of research on public policies. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9934.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Carbamatos , Região do Caribe , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Organofosfatos , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Placenta/química , Gravidez
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275212, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capacity strain negatively impacts patient outcome, and the effects of patient surge are a continuous threat during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evaluating changes in mortality over time enables evidence-based resource planning, thus improving patient outcome. Our aim was to describe baseline risk factors associated with mortality among COVID-19 hospitalized patients and to compare mortality rates over time. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in the largest referral hospital for COVID-19 patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We investigated risk factors associated with mortality during hospitalization. Independent variables included age group, sex, the Charlson Comorbidity Index, admission period according to the stage of the first wave of the epidemic (early, peak, and late), and intubation. RESULTS: We included 2949 consecutive COVID-19 patients. 1895 of them were admitted to the ICU, and 1473 required mechanical ventilation. Median length of stay in the ICU was 10 (IQR 5-17) days. Overall mortality rate was 35%, and the adjusted odds ratios for mortality increased with age, male sex, higher Charlson Comorbidity index, need for mechanical ventilation, and being admitted to the hospital during the wave peak of the epidemic. Being admitted to the hospital during the wave peak was associated with a 33% higher risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality was independently affected by the epidemic period. The recognition of modifiable operational variables associated with patient outcome highlights the importance of a preparedness plan and institutional protocols that include evidence-based practices and allocation of resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05029, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939273

RESUMO

Background: Sociodemographic and environmental factors are associated with incidence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. However, little is known about the role of such factors in persisting symptoms among recovering patients. We designed a cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors to describe persistent symptoms and identify factors associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome. Methods: We included patients hospitalized between March to August 2020 who were alive six months after hospitalization. We collected individual and clinical characteristics during hospitalization and at follow-up assessed ten symptoms with standardized scales, 19 yes/no symptoms, a functional status and a quality-of-life scale and performed four clinical tests. We examined individual exposure to greenspace and air pollution and considered neighbourhood´s population density and socioeconomic conditions as contextual factors in multilevel regression analysis. Results: We included 749 patients with a median follow-up of 200 (IQR = 185-235) days, and 618 (83%) had at least one of the ten symptoms measured with scales. Pain (41%), fatigue (38%) and posttraumatic stress disorder (35%) were the most frequent. COVID-19 severity, comorbidities, BMI, female sex, younger age, and low socioeconomic position were associated with different symptoms. Exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with higher dyspnoea and fatigue scores and lower functional status. Conclusions: We identified a high frequency of persistent symptoms among COVID-19 survivors that were associated with clinical, sociodemographic, and environmental variables. These findings indicate that most patients recovering from COVID-19 will need post-discharge care, and an additional burden to health care systems, especially in LMICs, should be expected.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência ao Convalescente , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco
7.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 1): 113738, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently a scarcity of air pollution epidemiologic data from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to the lack of air quality monitoring in these countries. Additionally, there is limited capacity to assess the health effects of wildfire smoke events in wildfire-prone regions like Brazil's Amazon Basin. Emerging low-cost air quality sensors may have the potential to address these gaps. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the potential of PurpleAir PM2.5 sensors for conducting air pollution epidemiologic research leveraging the United States Environmental Protection Agency's United States-wide correction formula for ambient PM2.5. METHODS: We obtained raw (uncorrected) PM2.5 concentration and humidity data from a PurpleAir sensor in Rio Branco, Brazil, between 2018 and 2019. Humidity measurements from the PurpleAir sensor were used to correct the PM2.5 concentrations. We established the relationship between ambient PM2.5 (corrected and uncorrected) and daily all-cause respiratory hospitalization in Rio Branco, Brazil, using generalized additive models (GAM) and distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM). We used linear regression to assess the relationship between daily PM2.5 concentrations and wildfire reports in Rio Branco during the wildfire seasons of 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: We observed increases in daily respiratory hospitalizations of 5.4% (95%CI: 0.8%, 10.1%) for a 2-day lag and 5.8% (1.5%, 10.2%) for 3-day lag, per 10 µg/m3 PM2.5 (corrected values). The effect estimates were attenuated when the uncorrected PM2.5 data was used. The number of reported wildfires explained 10% of daily PM2.5 concentrations during the wildfire season. DISCUSSION: Exposure-response relationships estimated using corrected low-cost air quality sensor data were comparable with relationships estimated using a validated air quality modeling approach. This suggests that correcting low-cost PM2.5 sensor data may mitigate bias attenuation in air pollution epidemiologic studies. Low-cost sensor PM2.5 data could also predict the air quality impacts of wildfires in Brazil's Amazon Basin.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Brasil , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Material Particulado , Estados Unidos
8.
Nat Med ; 28(8): 1700-1705, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760859

RESUMO

Climate change and urbanization are rapidly increasing human exposure to extreme ambient temperatures, yet few studies have examined temperature and mortality in Latin America. We conducted a nonlinear, distributed-lag, longitudinal analysis of daily ambient temperatures and mortality among 326 Latin American cities between 2002 and 2015. We observed 15,431,532 deaths among ≈2.9 billion person-years of risk. The excess death fraction of total deaths was 0.67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.74%) for heat-related deaths and 5.09% (95% CI 4.64-5.47%) for cold-related deaths. The relative risk of death was 1.057 (95% CI 1.046-1.067%) per 1 °C higher temperature during extreme heat and 1.034 (95% CI 1.028-1.040%) per 1 °C lower temperature during extreme cold. In Latin American cities, a substantial proportion of deaths is attributable to nonoptimal ambient temperatures. Marginal increases in observed hot temperatures are associated with steep increases in mortality risk. These risks were strongest among older adults and for cardiovascular and respiratory deaths.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Temperatura
9.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 9(2): 152-164, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35146705

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Air pollution in Latin America is a major environmental threat, yet few studies have focused on aspects of environmental justice with regard to air pollution in the region. We examined the scientific literature and described whether and how this issue has been addressed, identify possible gaps in knowledge, and offer suggestions for future research to contribute to policies that seek greater equity concerning air pollution impacts in Latin America. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a limited literature that has addressed issues of environmental justice or environmental health inequalities about air pollution in Latin America, with studies concentrated in Brazil, Mexico, and Chile. Studies that examined disparities in exposure to air pollution found a clear pattern of higher exposure in socially deprived areas. Studies that examined disparities in health impacts associated with air pollution have mixed results, but many found a clear modification of effect with those in the lower socioeconomic groups presenting greater effects. Despite Latin America's colonial and slavery history, no studies have considered ethnicity or minority populations. The literature shows that health risks (exposure and susceptibility) associated with air pollution are unevenly distributed among Latin American populations. Methodological approaches varied and can be improved in future studies, especially for exposure assessment to air pollution, as well as for assigning socioeconomic position to individuals. Using smaller geographic units and spatial regression techniques will allow a reduction in measurement error. Attempts should be made to include both individual and contextual socioeconomic indicators in the analysis. Better quality information will help understand these differential exposures and effects and provide inputs to policies to tackle these inequalities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Saúde Ambiental , Justiça Ambiental , Humanos , América Latina , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(2): 27010, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Features of the urban physical environment may be linked to the development of high blood pressure, a leading risk factor for global burden of disease. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of urban physical environment features with hypertension and blood pressure measures in adults across 230 Latin American cities. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we used health, social, and built environment data from the SALud URBana en América Latina (SALURBAL) project. The individual-level outcomes were hypertension and levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The exposures were city and subcity built environment features, mass transit infrastructure, and green space. Odds ratios (ORs) and mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multilevel logistic and linear regression models, with single- and multiple-exposure models adjusted for individual-level age, sex, education, and subcity educational attainment. RESULTS: A total of 109,176 participants from 230 cities and eight countries were included in the hypertension analyses and 50,228 participants from 194 cities and seven countries were included in the blood pressure measures analyses. Participants were 18-97 years of age. In multiple-exposure models, higher city fragmentation was associated with higher odds of having hypertension (OR per standard deviation (SD) increase=1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21); presence (vs. no presence) of mass transit in the city was associated with higher odds of having hypertension (OR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.54); higher subcity population density was associated with lower odds of having hypertension (OR per SD increase=0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.94); and higher subcity intersection density was associated with higher odds of having hypertension [OR per SD increase=1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15). The presence of mass transit was also associated with slightly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure in multiple-exposure models adjusted for treatment. Except for the association between intersection density and hypertension, associations were attenuated after adjustment for country. An inverse association of greenness with continuous blood pressure emerged after country adjustment. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that urban physical environment features-such as fragmentation, mass transit, population density, and intersection density-may be related to hypertension in Latin American cities. Reducing chronic disease risks in the growing urban areas of Latin America may require attention to integrated management of urban design and transport planning. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7870.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149790, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether air pollution is associated with adverse births outcomes, but it is not clear if socioeconomic status (SES) modifies this relationship. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if maternal education and area-level socioeconomic status modified the relationship between ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) on preterm births (PTB; gestational age <37 weeks) and term low birth weight (TLBW; weight < 2500 g on term deliveries). METHODS: Analyses were based on almost 1 million singleton live births in São Paulo municipality between 2011 and 2016. The final sample included 979,306 births for PTB analysis and 888,133 for TLBW analysis. Exposure to PM10, NO2 and O3 were based on date of birth and estimated for the entire gestation and for each trimester. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to examine the effect of air pollutants on both adverse birth outcomes and whether it was modified by individual and area-level SES. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, over the entire pregnancy, a 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 and PM10 was associated with increased chance of PTB (odds ratio; OR = 1.14 CI 1.13, 1.16 and 1.08 CI = 1.02, 1.15 respectively) and PM10 with TLBW (OR = 1.08 CI 1.03, 1.14). Associations were modified by maternal educational and area-level SES for both outcomes. Mothers of lower education had an additional chance of PTB and TLBW due to PM10 exposure (OR = 1.04 CI 1.04, 1.05 and 1.10 CI 1.08, 1.14 respectively), while mothers living in low SES areas have an additional chance for TLBW (OR = 1.05 CI 1.03, 1.06). Similar modification effects were found for O3 exposure. Trimester specific associations were weaker but followed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status modifies the effect of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes. Results indicate that mothers with lower SES may be more susceptible to air pollution effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Classe Social
12.
Health Place ; 72: 102703, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies highlight the equigenic potential of greenspaces by showing narrower socioeconomic health inequalities in greener areas. However, results to date have been inconsistent and derived from high-income countries. We examined whether urban greenness modifies the associations between area-level education, as a proxy for socioeconomic status, and life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in Latin American cities. METHODS: We included 28 large cities, >137 million inhabitants, in nine Latin American countries, comprising 671 sub-city units, for 2012-2016. Socioeconomic status was assessed through a composite index of sub-city level education, and greenness was calculated using the normalized difference vegetation index. We fitted multilevel models with sub-city units nested in cities, with life expectancy or log(mortality) as the outcome. FINDINGS: We observed a social gradient, with higher levels of education associated with higher life expectancy and lower cause-specific mortality. There was weak evidence supporting the equigenesis hypothesis as greenness differentially modified the association between education and mortality outcomes. We observed an equigenic effect, with doubling magnitudes in the violence-related mortality reduction by education in areas with low greenness compared to medium-high greenness areas among men (16% [95% CI 12%-20%] vs 8% [95% CI 4%-11%] per 1 SD increase in area-level education). However, in contradiction to the equigenesis hypothesis, the magnitude in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality reduction by education was stronger in areas with medium-high greenness compared to areas with low greenness (6% [95% CI 4%-7%] vs 1% [95% CI -1%-3%] and 5% [95% CI 3%-7%] vs 1% [95% CI -1%-3%] per 1 SD increase in area-level education, in women and men, respectively). Similarly, each 1-SD increase in greenness widened the educational inequality in life expectancy by 0.15 years and 0.20 years, in women and men, respectively. The equigenic effect was not observed in violence-related mortality among women and in mortality due to communicable diseases, maternal, neonatal and nutritional conditions (CMNN). INTERPRETATION: Our results confirm socioeconomic health inequalities in Latin American cities and show that the equigenic properties of greenspace vary by health outcome. Although mixed, our findings suggest that future greening policies should account for local social and economic conditions to ensure that greenspaces provide health benefits for all, and do not further exacerbate existing health inequalities in the region. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust (Grant, 205177/Z/16/Z).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Expectativa de Vida , Cidades , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino
13.
Environ Res Lett ; 16(10): 104052, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691242

RESUMO

The characteristics of urban green space have context-dependent associations with socioeconomic status (SES). Latin American cities provide a unique but understudied context to assess the green space-SES associations. We measured the quantity and quality of green space as greenness from satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and we modeled the relationship between greenness and SES in 371 major Latin American cities between 2000 and 2010. We found that SES was negatively associated with average greenness at city and sub-city scales, which could be explained by urbanization generally improving SES while reducing the provision of green space. About 82% of the cities and 64% of the sub-cities experienced greening or increases in greenness over time. Although with lower average greenness, cities with higher SES had greater greening; however, it was the opposite for sub-cities. We suggest that greening is more likely to take place in peripheral sub-cities where SES tends to be lower. The findings challenge the belief that places with higher SES have better access to environmental resources and amenities; instead, this relationship is context dependent.

15.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 53, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effectively bridging the knowledge-policy gap to support the development of evidence-based policies that promote health and well-being remains a challenge for both the research and policy communities. Community-based system dynamics (CBSD) is a participatory modelling approach that aims to build stakeholders' capacity to learn and address complex problems collaboratively. However, limited evidence is available about the contributions of CBSD to knowledge-generating and policy processes across sectors and policy spheres. In the context of a multi-country research project focused on creating an evidence base to inform urban health policies across Latin America, a series of CBSD workshops convened stakeholders from research, policy-making, and other backgrounds working in food and transportation systems. Diverse participants were selected aiming to incorporate multiple perspectives relevant to understanding complex urban systems linked to food and transportation. This study focuses on one of these workshops, whose avenue was São Paulo, Brazil, assembling country-based participants representing local, regional, national, and international institutions with multidisciplinary backgrounds linked to food and transportation systems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case study is to explore the perceived influence of one of these workshops on attendees' understandings of food and transportation systems and their relationship to healthy urban environments, with attention to the role of the workshop in supporting knowledge to policy translation for urban health. METHODS: We conducted 18 semi-structured qualitative interviews with attendees one year after their participation in a CBSD workshop held in São Paulo, Brazil. A framework method approach was used to code participants' responses and identify emerging themes. RESULTS: Participants reported that the workshop's group model-building activities influenced their understanding of the knowledge-policy process as it relates to food and transport systems. Workshop contributed to participants' (1) abilities to engage with multisectoral stakeholders, (2) construct a shared language and understanding of urban challenges, (3) improve understanding of the interconnectedness across food and transportation systems, (4) facilitate dialogue across sectors, and (5) apply a systems thinking approach within their sector and professional context. Participants continued to draw on the tools developed during the workshop, and to apply systems thinking to their research and policy-making activities. CONCLUSIONS: CBSD may offer valuable opportunities to connect the research sector to the policy-making process. This possibility may contribute to knowledge to policy translation in the interconnection between the urban context, food and transportation systems, and health.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Saúde da População Urbana , Brasil , Política de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926892

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little evidence exists on the differential health effects of COVID-19 on disadvantaged population groups. Here we characterise the differential risk of hospitalisation and death in São Paulo state, Brazil, and show how vulnerability to COVID-19 is shaped by socioeconomic inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using hospitalised severe acute respiratory infections notified from March to August 2020 in the Sistema de Monitoramento Inteligente de São Paulo database. We examined the risk of hospitalisation and death by race and socioeconomic status using multiple data sets for individual-level and spatiotemporal analyses. We explained these inequalities according to differences in daily mobility from mobile phone data, teleworking behaviour and comorbidities. RESULTS: Throughout the study period, patients living in the 40% poorest areas were more likely to die when compared with patients living in the 5% wealthiest areas (OR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.74) and were more likely to be hospitalised between April and July 2020 (OR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). Black and Pardo individuals were more likely to be hospitalised when compared with White individuals (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.46; OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.28, respectively), and were more likely to die (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19; 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.10, respectively) between April and July 2020. Once hospitalised, patients treated in public hospitals were more likely to die than patients in private hospitals (OR: 1.40%, 95% CI 1.34% to 1.46%). Black individuals and those with low education attainment were more likely to have one or more comorbidities, respectively (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.39; 1.36, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Low-income and Black and Pardo communities are more likely to die with COVID-19. This is associated with differential access to quality healthcare, ability to self-isolate and the higher prevalence of comorbidities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral , Áreas de Pobreza , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 273: 113773, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609968

RESUMO

The rapid spread of COVID-19 across the world has raised concerns about the responsiveness of cities and healthcare systems during pandemics. Recent studies try to model how the number of COVID-19 infections will likely grow and impact the demand for hospitalization services at national and regional levels. However, less attention has been paid to the geographic access to COVID-19 healthcare services and to hospitals' response capacity at the local level, particularly in urban areas in the Global South. This paper shows how transport accessibility analysis can provide actionable information to help improve healthcare coverage and responsiveness. It analyzes accessibility to COVID-19 healthcare at high spatial resolution in the 20 largest cities of Brazil. Using network-distance metrics, we estimate the vulnerable population living in areas with poor access to healthcare facilities that could either screen or hospitalize COVID-19 patients. We then use a new balanced floating catchment area (BFCA) indicator to estimate spatial, income, and racial inequalities in access to hospitals with intensive care unit (ICU) beds and mechanical ventilators while taking into account congestion effects. Based on this analysis, we identify substantial social and spatial inequalities in access to health services during the pandemic. The availability of ICU equipment varies considerably between cities, and it is substantially lower among black and poor communities. The study maps territorial inequalities in healthcare access and reflects on different policy lessons that can be learned for other countries based on the Brazilian case.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Área Programática de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Brasil , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145035, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Yet few studies have examined patterns of population exposure and investigated the predictors of PM2.5 across the rapidly growing cities in lower- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: Characterize PM2.5 levels, describe patterns of population exposure, and investigate urban factors as predictors of PM2.5 levels. METHODS: We used data from the Salud Urbana en America Latina/Urban Health in Latin America (SALURBAL) study, a multi-country assessment of the determinants of urban health in Latin America, to characterize PM2.5 levels in 366 cities comprising over 100,000 residents using satellite-derived estimates. Factors related to urban form and transportation were explored. RESULTS: We found that about 172 million or 58% of the population studied lived in areas with air pollution levels above the defined WHO-AQG of 10 µg/m3 annual average. We also found that larger cities, cities with higher GDP, higher motorization rate and higher congestion tended to have higher PM2.5. In contrast cities with higher population density had lower levels of PM2.5. In addition, at the sub-city level, higher intersection density was associated with higher PM2.5 and more green space was associated with lower PM2.5. When all exposures were examined adjusted for each other, higher city per capita GDP and higher sub-city intersection density remained associated with higher PM2.5 levels, while higher city population density remained associated with lower levels. The presence of mass transit was also associated with lower PM2.5 after adjustment. The motorization rate also remained associated with PM2.5 and its inclusion attenuated the effect of population density. DISCUSSION: These results show that PM2.5 exposures remain a major health risk in Latin American cities and suggest that urban planning and transportation policies could have a major impact on ambient levels.

20.
Epidemiology ; 32(1): 144-145, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122557
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