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1.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

2.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 333-352, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773687

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the clinical presentation, course, treatment and impact of early treatment in patients with remethylation disorders from the European Network and Registry for Homocystinurias and Methylation Defects (E-HOD) international web-based registry. RESULTS: This review comprises 238 patients (cobalamin C defect n = 161; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency n = 50; cobalamin G defect n = 11; cobalamin E defect n = 10; cobalamin D defect n = 5; and cobalamin J defect n = 1) from 47 centres for whom the E-HOD registry includes, as a minimum, data on medical history and enrolment visit. The duration of observation was 127 patient years. In 181 clinically diagnosed patients, the median age at presentation was 30 days (range 1 day to 42 years) and the median age at diagnosis was 3.7 months (range 3 days to 56 years). Seventy-five percent of pre-clinically diagnosed patients with cobalamin C disease became symptomatic within the first 15 days of life. Total homocysteine (tHcy), amino acids and urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) were the most frequently assessed disease markers; confirmatory diagnostics were mainly molecular genetic studies. Remethylation disorders are multisystem diseases dominated by neurological and eye disease and failure to thrive. In this cohort, mortality, thromboembolic, psychiatric and renal disease were rarer than reported elsewhere. Early treatment correlates with lower overall morbidity but is less effective in preventing eye disease and cognitive impairment. The wide variation in treatment hampers the evaluation of particular therapeutic modalities. CONCLUSION: Treatment improves the clinical course of remethylation disorders and reduces morbidity, especially if started early, but neurocognitive and eye symptoms are less responsive. Current treatment is highly variable. This study has the inevitable limitations of a retrospective, registry-based design.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(6)2018 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861492

RESUMO

The biggest challenge geneticists face when applying next-generation sequencing technology to the diagnosis of rare diseases is determining which rare variants, from the dozens or hundreds detected, are potentially implicated in the patient's phenotype. Thus, variant prioritization is an essential step in the process of rare disease diagnosis. In addition to conducting the usual in-silico analyses to predict variant pathogenicity (based on nucleotide/amino-acid conservation and the differences between the physicochemical features of the amino-acid change), three important concepts should be borne in mind. The first is the "mutation tolerance" of the genes in which variants are located. This describes the susceptibility of a given gene to any functional mutation and depends on the strength of purifying selection acting against it. The second is the "mutational architecture" of each gene. This describes the type and location of mutations previously identified in the gene, and their association with different phenotypes or degrees of severity. The third is the mode of inheritance (inherited vs. de novo) of the variants detected. Here, we discuss the importance of each of these concepts for variant prioritization in the diagnosis of rare diseases. Using real data, we show how genes, rather than variants, can be prioritized by calculating a gene-specific mutation tolerance score. We also illustrate the influence of mutational architecture on variant prioritization using five paradigmatic examples. Finally, we discuss the importance of familial variant analysis as final step in variant prioritization.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Raras/genética
5.
Curr Med Chem ; 25(3): 404-432, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721829

RESUMO

Approximately 25-50 million Americans, 30 million Europeans, and 8% of the Australian population have a rare disease. Rare diseases are thus a common problem for clinicians and account for enormous healthcare costs worldwide due to the difficulty of establishing a specific diagnosis. In this article, we review the milestones achieved in our understanding of rare diseases since the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and analyze how these advances have influenced research and diagnosis. The first half of this review describes how NGS has changed diagnostic workflows and provided an unprecedented, simple way of discovering novel disease-associated genes. We focus particularly on metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. NGS has enabled cheap and rapid genetic diagnosis, highlighted the relevance of mosaic and de novo mutations, brought to light the wide phenotypic spectrum of most genes, detected digenic inheritance or the presence of more than one rare disease in the same patient, and paved the way for promising new therapies. In the second part of the review, we look at the limitations and challenges of NGS, including determination of variant causality, the loss of variants in coding and non-coding regions, and the detection of somatic mosaicism variants and epigenetic mutations, and discuss how these can be overcome in the near future.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doenças Raras , Pesquisa , Humanos , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/terapia
6.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 27(2): 188-192, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040389

RESUMO

We report the case of a newborn with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and severe axial hypotonia without cardiac involvement in which, using a customized targeted next-generation sequencing assay for 64 myopathy-associated genes, we detected a novel homozygous truncating mutation, c.38661_38665del, in exon 197 of the TTN gene that is expressed only in the fetal skeletal isoform. Its pathogenicity is supported by evidence of maternal isodisomy for chromosome 2. Muscle pathology showed fibers with core-like areas devoid of oxidative staining and cytoplasmic bodies. Electron microscopy showed the replacement of the sarcomeric structure with filamentous material. Identification of this mutation expands the phenotypic spectrum of the TTN gene and shows for the first time that a mutation not found in adult TTN isoforms is involved in the development of a neuromuscular disorder. TTN mutations should be considered in all severe congenital myopathies with arthrogryposis without cardiac involvement.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Conectina/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Musculares/congênito , Mutação , Isoformas de Proteínas
7.
J Hum Genet ; 62(2): 185-189, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27535030

RESUMO

The KCNQ2 gene codifies a subunit of the voltage-gated potassium M channel underlying the neuronal M-current. Classically, mutations in this gene have been associated with benign familial neonatal seizures, however, in recent years KCNQ2 mutations have been reported associated to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. In this work, detailed familiar, clinical and genetic data were collected for 13 KCNQ2-positive patients revealed among a cohort of 80 epileptic pediatric probands from Spain who were analyzed through a targeted next-generation sequencing assay for 155 epilepsy-associated genes. This work shows for the first time the association between KCNQ2 mutations and startle attacks in 38% of patients, which opens the possibility to define electroclinical phenotypes associated to KCNQ2 mutations. It also demonstrates that KCNQ2 mutations contribute to an important percentage of Spanish patients with epilepsy. The study confirm the high genetic heterogeneity of this gene with 13 different mutations found, 10 of them novel and the better outcome of patients treated with sodium channel blockers.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/genética , Reflexo de Sobressalto/genética , Sequência de Bases , Família , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mutação , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 9: 59, 2014 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24767253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With over 50 different disorders and a combined incidence of up to 1/3000 births, lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) constitute a major public health problem and place an enormous burden on affected individuals and their families. Many factors make LSD diagnosis difficult, including phenotype and penetrance variability, shared signs and symptoms, and problems inherent to biochemical diagnosis. Developing a powerful diagnostic tool could mitigate the protracted diagnostic process for these families, lead to better outcomes for current and proposed therapies, and provide the basis for more appropriate genetic counseling. METHODS: We have designed a targeted resequencing assay for the simultaneous testing of 57 lysosomal genes, using in-solution capture as the enrichment method and two different sequencing platforms. A total of 84 patients with high to moderate-or low suspicion index for LSD were enrolled in different centers in Spain and Portugal, including 18 positive controls. RESULTS: We correctly diagnosed 18 positive blinded controls, provided genetic diagnosis to 25 potential LSD patients, and ended with 18 diagnostic odysseys. CONCLUSION: We report the assessment of a next-generation-sequencing-based approach as an accessory tool in the diagnosis of LSDs, a group of disorders which have overlapping clinical profiles and genetic heterogeneity. We have also identified and quantified the strengths and limitations of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology applied to diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Humanos , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/genética
9.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(9): 733-738, Dec. 2013. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-696920

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Caracterizar uma população de pacientes com diabetes melito tipo 1 (DMT1) relativamente à presença de outras entidades autoimunes que permitam estabelecer o diagnóstico de síndrome poliglandular autoimune (SPGA). SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Incluímos 151 pacientes com DMT1. Analisamos os seguintes parâmetros clínicos: gênero, idade atual, duração da doença, antecedentes pessoais de patologia autoimune e antecedentes familiares de diabetes melito. Submetemos cada doente a um estudo laboratorial com o objetivo de detectar a presença de marcadores imunológicos para a tireoidite, insuficiência adrenocortical, gastrite e doença celíaca, e eventual disfunção associada. RESULTADOS: Coorte com 51,7% homens, idade média atual de 33,4 ± 13 anos e duração da doença de 14,4 ± 9,6 anos. Antecedentes pessoais de autoimunidade presentes em 2% da amostra e história familiar de diabetes melito em 31,1%. A frequência de marcadores imunológicos foi de 24% para a tireoidite, 9,4% para a insuficiência adrenocortical, 17,2% para a gastrite e 2% para a doença celíaca. Foi diagnosticada SPGA em 25,2% dos pacientes. O risco de SPGA e tireoidite autoimune foi superior em mulheres. A duração da doença correlacionou-se diretamente com a presença de autoanticorpos gástricos e inversamente com a positividade dos anticorpos anti-ilhota, antiglutamato descarboxilase e antitirosina fosfatase. Constatou-se a existência de uma associação entre os marcadores imunológicos da tireoidite e gastrite, bem como entre a doença celíaca e insuficiência adrenocortical. CONCLUSÃO: Atendendo à frequência e ao prognóstico inerente à SPGA, a necessidade de realizar rastreio em pacientes com DMT1 é enfatizada. O diagnóstico atempado de outras doenças autoimunes permitirá individualizar o tratamento e seguimento do doente.


OBJECTIVE: To characterize a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on the presence of other autoimmune disorders that could establish the diagnosis of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included 151 patients with T1DM. The following clinical parameters were analyzed: gender, current age, disease duration, previous history of autoimmune disorders, and familial history for diabetes mellitus. Each patient was analyzed to detect autoimmune markers of thyroiditis, adrenocortical insufficiency, gastritis, and celiac disease, as well as possible associated dysfunctions. RESULTS: A cohort with 51.7% males, average current age of 33.4 ± 13 years and disease duration of 14.4 ± 9.6 years was analyzed. Previous history of autoimmunity was found in 2%, and familial history for diabetes mellitus in 31.1% of the cohort. Frequency of autoimmune markers was 24% for thyroiditis, 9.4% for adrenocortical insufficiency, 17.2% for gastritis, and 2% for celiac disease. APS was diagnosed on 25.2% of the patients. APS and autoimmune thyroiditis risk was higher in females. Disease duration correlated directly with gastric autoantibodies, and inversely with positive islet cell, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and tyrosine phosphatase antibodies. We noticed a correlation between autoimmune markers for thyroiditis and gastritis, as well as between celiac disease and adrenocortical insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Considering APS prevalence and prognosis, the need for APS screening in patients with T1DM is emphasized. Early diagnosis of other autoimmune disorders will enable us to adjust each patient treatment and follow-up.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doença de Addison/imunologia , Anemia/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diagnóstico Precoce , Gastrite/imunologia , Ferro/deficiência , Programas de Rastreamento , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/complicações , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Tireoidite/imunologia , /imunologia
10.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol ; 57(9): 733-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24402020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on the presence of other autoimmune disorders that could establish the diagnosis of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included 151 patients with T1DM. The following clinical parameters were analyzed: gender, current age, disease duration, previous history of autoimmune disorders, and familial history for diabetes mellitus. Each patient was analyzed to detect autoimmune markers of thyroiditis, adrenocortical insufficiency, gastritis, and celiac disease, as well as possible associated dysfunctions. RESULTS: A cohort with 51.7% males, average current age of 33.4 ± 13 years and disease duration of 14.4 ± 9.6 years was analyzed. Previous history of autoimmunity was found in 2%, and familial history for diabetes mellitus in 31.1% of the cohort. Frequency of autoimmune markers was 24% for thyroiditis, 9.4% for adrenocortical insufficiency, 17.2% for gastritis, and 2% for celiac disease. APS was diagnosed on 25.2% of the patients. APS and autoimmune thyroiditis risk was higher in females. Disease duration correlated directly with gastric autoantibodies, and inversely with positive islet cell, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and tyrosine phosphatase antibodies. We noticed a correlation between autoimmune markers for thyroiditis and gastritis, as well as between celiac disease and adrenocortical insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Considering APS prevalence and prognosis, the need for APS screening in patients with T1DM is emphasized. Early diagnosis of other autoimmune disorders will enable us to adjust each patient treatment and follow-up.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doença de Addison/imunologia , Adulto , Anemia/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Gastrite/imunologia , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/complicações , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Tireoidite/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol ; 56(6): 393-403, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22990645

RESUMO

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder that mainly affects middle-aged women. Patients are usually asymptomatic. The disease might be ascribable to hyperplasia, carcinoma, and single or multiple adenomas. PHPT may be sporadic or familial, the latter comprising multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 2A, familial benign hypocalciuria hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The most common causes for persistent PHPT are multiglandular disease, and missed abnormal ectopic or orthotopic parathyroid glands. Imaging localization studies should precede a new surgical intervention. Ectopic parathyroid glands are rarely located at the aortopulmonary window. For diagnosis confirmation, (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT seems to be an advantageous test. Another possibility is to perform (99m)Tc-sestamibi followed by thoracic CT or MRI. Parathyroidectomy may be performed by means of median sternotomy, thoracotomy, or video-assisted thoracoscopy. We describe a case of persistent primary hyperparathyroidism due to the presence of an ectopic parathyroid gland found at the aortopulmonary window. As the investigation necessary to clarify the etiology of recurrent nephrolithiasis proceeded, the diagnosis of PHPT was determined. The patient underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy; nevertheless, PHPT persisted. Genetic syndromes that could account for this condition were excluded. Imaging studies available at that time were not able to locate abnormal glands; moreover, the patient refused to undergo surgical exploration. Later, the patient underwent (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT, which revealed a parathyroid gland at the aortopulmonary window.


Assuntos
Coristoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Paratireoides , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Coristoma/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/etiologia , Cintilografia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações
12.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(6): 393-403, ago. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-649282

RESUMO

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder that mainly affects middle-aged women. Patients are usually asymptomatic. The disease might be ascribable to hyperplasia, carcinoma, and single or multiple adenomas. PHPT may be sporadic or familial, the latter comprising multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 2A, familial benign hypocalciuria hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The most common causes for persistent PHPT are multiglandular disease, and missed abnormal ectopic or orthotopic parathyroid glands. Imaging localization studies should precede a new surgical intervention. Ectopic parathyroid glands are rarely located at the aortopulmonary window. For diagnosis confirmation, 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT seems to be an advantageous test. Another possibility is to perform 99mTc-sestamibi followed by thoracic CT or MRI. Parathyroidectomy may be performed by means of median sternotomy, thoracotomy, or video-assisted thoracoscopy. We describe a case of persistent primary hyperparathyroidism due to the presence of an ectopic parathyroid gland found at the aortopulmonary window. As the investigation necessary to clarify the etiology of recurrent nephrolithiasis proceeded, the diagnosis of PHPT was determined. The patient underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy; nevertheless, PHPT persisted. Genetic syndromes that could account for this condition were excluded. Imaging studies available at that time were not able to locate abnormal glands; moreover, the patient refused to undergo surgical exploration. Later, the patient underwent 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT, which revealed a parathyroid gland at the aortopulmonary window.


O hiperparatiroidismo primário (HPP) é uma endocrinopatia frequente que afeta maioritariamente mulheres de meia-idade e é geralmente assintomática. A doença pode ser atribuível a hiperplasia, carcinoma, adenomas únicos ou múltiplos. O HPP inclui formas esporádicas e familiares. As formas familiares englobam neoplasia endócrina múltipla tipo 1 ou 2A, hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar e síndrome hiperparatiroidismo/tumor mandibular-maxilar. As causas mais frequentes de HPP persistente são a presença de doença multiglandular ou de paratiroide anômala ectópica ou ortotópica não identificada previamente. É recomendável que a localização imagiológica preceda a reintervenção cirúrgica. A janela aortopulmonar é uma localização ectópica rara, sendo o 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/TC um exame de confirmação vantajoso ou, alternativamente o 99mTc-sestamibi seguido de TC ou RM torácica. A paratiroidectomia pode ser efetuada por meio de esternotomia mediana, toracotomia ou toracoscopia videoassistida. Descrevemos um caso de HPP persistente atribuível à presença de uma glândula paratiroide ectópica localizada à janela aortopulmonar. O diagnóstico de HPP foi estabelecido na sequência da investigação requisitada para esclarecimento etiológico da nefrolitíase recidivante constatada nessa doente. Foi submetida à paratiroidectomia subtotal; não obstante, o HPP persistiu. Excluíram-se síndromes genéticas que pudessem justificar esse quadro clínico. Os exames imagiológicos disponíveis (à época) revelaram-se infrutíferos na detecção de paratiroides anômalas; adicionalmente, a doente recusou exploração cirúrgica. Posteriormente, a doente foi submetida a 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/TC, que revelou a presença de uma paratiroide na janela aortopulmonar.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Coristoma , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Glândulas Paratireoides , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Coristoma/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/etiologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações
13.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 30(11): 849-54, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22054808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare malformation, with an estimated incidence of 0.003 to 0.043% of all congenital heart disease. It usually appears as an isolated congenital anomaly, but may also be associated with other malformations, the most common being coronary artery anomalies. Current technology enables noninvasive diagnosis in most cases. This entity's natural history is progression to valve regurgitation, which is rare before adulthood. OBJECTIVE: Case review of quadricuspid aortic valve patients diagnosed in the last 10 years in a tertiary pediatric cardiology center. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with quadricuspid aortic valve between January 2000 and December 2009. RESULTS: Over the past 10 years, four cases of quadricuspid aortic valve were diagnosed in children aged between 6 months and 8 years, two male. In three cases, the four leaflets were of similar size, which is the most common finding. Two of the valves functioned normally and two had minimal regurgitation. All patients had associated cardiac malformations (one atrial and two ventricular septal defects, one supravalvular aortic stenosis and one quadricuspid pulmonary valve). One patient was also diagnosed with Williams syndrome. During a median follow-up of 2 years (0-9), all patients remained asymptomatic and none required medical or surgical treatment of the aortic valve. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of quadricuspid aortic valve is rare, especially in children, since most patients are asymptomatic and have normally functioning valves. In this study, half the patients had minimal aortic regurgitation. Contrary to what is described in the literature, all patients had concomitant cardiac malformations. We provide the first description of this entity's association with Williams syndrome. Clinical follow-up should be maintained in these patients in order to promptly detect the onset or worsening of functional alterations and to enable appropriate therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia
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