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1.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 394-399, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557652

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to examine the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. in the tonsils of slaughtered pigs in a regional slaughterhouse in Greece, the antibiotic resistance of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates, and the enteroxigenicity of the S. aureus isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated in 70 (48·61%) out of the total 144 tonsil samples. The predominant species was S. aureus in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS), while the predominant species were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Staphylococcus spp. isolates presented high antibiotic resistance frequencies to tetracycline (97·1%) or clindamycin (80·0%) and low antibiotic resistance frequencies to fusidic acid (14·3%). No methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, and all Staphylococcus spp. isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Among the 26 S. aureus isolates, 21 (80·76%) possessed staphylococcal enterotoxin genes with seven different enterotoxin gene profiles. The predominant enterotoxin profile was seg, sei and sej with seven S. aureus isolates. The occurrence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus spp. in pig tonsils indicate public health risk to pork consumers and handlers in developing antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
2.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 62(6): 472-9, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27116619

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The microbiological quality of pasteurized milk samples (n = 39) collected during 13 weekly intervals from three automatic vending machines (AVM) in Greece was investigated. Microbiological counts (total aerobic (TAC), total psychrotrophic (TPC), Enterobacteriaceae (EC), and psychrotrophic aerobic bacterial spore counts (PABSC)) were obtained at the time of sampling and at the end of shelf-life (3 days) after storage of the samples at 4 or 8°C. TAC were found to be below the 10(7 ) CFU ml(-1) limit of pasteurized milk spoilage both during sampling as well as when milk samples were stored at either storage temperature for 3 days. Enterobacteriaceae populations were below 1 CFU ml(-1) in 69·2% of the samples tested at the time of sampling, whereas the remaining samples contained low numbers, typically less than 10 CFU ml(-1) . All samples tested negative for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. Analogous microbiological data were also obtained by sampling and testing prepackaged, retail samples of pasteurized milk from two dairy companies in Greece (n = 26). From a microbiological standpoint, the data indicate that the AVM milk samples meet the quality standards of pasteurized milk. However, the prepackaged, retail milk samples yielded better results in terms of TAC, TPC and EC, compared to the AVM samples at the end of shelf-life. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Recently, Greek dairy farmers organized in cooperatives launched the sale of pasteurized milk via AVM and this study reports on the microbiological quality of this product. The data show that AVM milk is sold at proper refrigeration temperatures and meets the quality standards of pasteurized milk throughout the manufacturer's specified shelf-life. However, based on the microbiological indicators tested, the keeping quality of the tested prepackaged, retail samples of pasteurized milk at the end of shelf-life upon storage under suboptimal refrigeration temperature (8°C) was better.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Grécia , Temperatura
3.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 59(5): 500-6, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25059796

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: A hundred samples from ready-to-eat (RTE) fish products were examined for the presence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococci were isolated from 43% of these samples (n = 100). The identified species in the samples were Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (13%), Staphylococcus xylosus (12%), Staphylococcus sciuri (4%), Staphylococcus warneri (3%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2%), Staphylococcus schleiferi (1%) and Staphylococcus auricularis (1%). Two Staph. aureus (MRSA) isolates, three Staph. epidermidis (MRSE), five Staph. xylosus, four Staph. sciuri, one Staph. schleiferi and one Staph. saprophyticus isolates were resistant to oxacillin and all of them carried the mecA gene. The two MRSA isolates belonged to the spa types t316 (ST359) and t548 (ST5) and none of them was able to produce enterotoxins. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis for Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis isolates revealed 6 and 11 distinct PFGE types, respectively, reflecting diversity. The presence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci, especially MRSA and MRSE, in RTE fish products may constitute a potential health risk for consumers. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study provides the first data on the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in salted and smoked fish products in Greece. These results are important and useful for Staphylococcus spp. risk assessment and management programmes for ready-to-eat fish products.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterotoxinas/biossíntese , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/metabolismo
4.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 97(4): 740-53, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22716021

RESUMO

Ninety-six brown Lohmann laying hens were equally assigned into four groups with six replicates. Hens within the control group were fed a corn-soybean-based diet supplemented with 4% linseed oil. Two other groups were given the same diet further supplemented with 5 or 10 g ground olive leaves/kg feed, while the diet of the fourth group was further supplemented with 200 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg. Supplementing diets with olive leaves had no effect on egg production, feed intake and egg traits. Eggs collected 28 days after feeding the experimental diets were analysed for lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, fatty acid profile, α-tocopherol concentrations and susceptibility to iron-induced lipid oxidation. Olive leaves were also analysed for total and individual phenolics, and total flavonoids, whereas their antioxidant capacity was determined using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activity assays. Results showed that neither α-tocopheryl acetate nor olive leaves supplementation exerted (p>0.05) any effect on the fatty acid composition of n-3 eggs. Supplementing the diet with 5 g olive leaves/kg had no (p>0.05) effect on the hydroperoxide levels of n-3 eggs, while supplementing with 10 g olive leaves/kg or 200 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg, the lipid hydroperoxide levels were reduced (p≤0.05) compared to control. However, although hydroperoxides were reduced, MDA, a secondary lipid oxidation product, was not affected (p>0.05). Iron-induced lipid oxidation increased MDA values in eggs from all groups, the increase being higher (p≤0.05) in the control group and the group supplemented with 5 g olive leaves/kg. The group supplemented with 10 g olive leaves/kg presented MDA values lower (p≤0.05) than the control but higher (p≤0.05) than the α-tocopheryl acetate group, which presented MDA concentrations lower (p≤0.05) than all other experimental diets at all incubation time points.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas , Ovos/análise , Olea/química , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/química , alfa-Tocoferol/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Ferro/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
5.
Br Poult Sci ; 53(4): 508-19, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23130586

RESUMO

1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of the layer diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of α-linolenic acid enriched eggs during refrigerated storage, and to compare this effect with α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. 2. A total of 72 brown Lohmann laying hens, equally allocated to 3 groups, were fed on diets supplemented with 40 g/kg linseed oil, or linseed oil and olive leaves at 10 g/kg or linseed oil and α-tocopheryl acetate at 200 mg/kg. Collected eggs were analysed for fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation either fresh or following 60 d storage at 4°C. 3. Results showed that olive leaves or α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation reduced lipid hydroperoxide concentration in fresh eggs but had no effect on their fatty acid profile and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to controls. 4. Refrigerated storage for 60 d decreased the proportions of PUFAs but increased those of MUFAs in eggs from the control diet, whilst it had no effect on the fatty acid composition of eggs from the diets supplemented with olive leaves or α-tocopheryl acetate, which in turn showed decreased concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Olea/química , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida , Temperatura Baixa , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Óleo de Semente do Linho/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Óvulo/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrofotometria , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
6.
Food Chem ; 134(2): 1059-68, 2012 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23107728

RESUMO

The antioxidant potential of dietary olive leaves or α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on lipid oxidation of refrigerated stored hen eggs enriched with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids, was investigated. Ninety-six brown Lohmann laying hens, were equally assigned into three groups. Hens within the control group were given a typical diet containing 3% fish oil, whereas other groups were given the same diet further supplemented with 10 g ground olive leaves/kg feed or 200mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Results showed that α-tocopheryl acetate or olive leaves supplementation had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of fresh eggs but reduced their lipid hydroperoxide levels compared to controls. Storage for 60 d decreased the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but increased those of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in eggs from the control group, while had no effect on the fatty acid composition of the eggs from the other two groups, which showed decreased levels of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA. Therefore, the very long chain n-3 PUFAs in eggs were protected from undergoing deterioration partly by olive leaves supplementation and totally by α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. In addition, incorporating tocopherols into eggs might also provide a source of tocopherols for the human diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Olea/química , Tocoferóis/metabolismo , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Olea/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química
7.
Br Poult Sci ; 51(6): 760-8, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21161782

RESUMO

1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of feed supplementation with olive leaves, oregano and/or α-tocopheryl acetate on microbial growth and lipid oxidation of turkey breast fillets during refrigerated storage. 2. A total of 40 turkeys, allocated to 5 groups of 8 birds each, were fed on diets supplemented with olive leaves at 10 g/kg, oregano at 10 g/kg or α-tocopheryl acetate at 150 or 300 mg/kg. Following slaughter, fillets from breast were stored at 4°C in the dark for 12 d, and lipid oxidation and microbial growth were assessed. 3. Results showed that dietary olive leaves were more effective than oregano at inhibiting lipid oxidation, but were inferior to dietary supplementation of 300 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg. In turn, α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at 150 mg/kg was effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation compared to the control but inferior to oregano supplementation. 4. Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and psychrotrophic bacteria counts were all increased in breast fillets of all groups throughout the refrigerated storage. Diet supplementation with α-tocopheryl acetate had no effect on the bacterial counts recorded in the control group, but diet supplementation with olive leaves or oregano resulted in a decrease of all bacterial counts at d 2 of storage and thereafter; during this period, oregano was more effective at inhibiting bacterial growth compared with olive leaves. 5. Therefore, if shown clinically to be safe and having beneficial effects in vivo, olive leaves and oregano might be utilised in novel applications as nutritional supplements or functional food components.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional , Refrigeração , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Suplementos Nutricionais , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Olea , Origanum , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta , alfa-Tocoferol
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 137(2-3): 175-80, 2010 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20060188

RESUMO

The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil (EO) at 0.6 or 0.9%, nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis was studied in minced sheep meat during storage at 4 degrees or 10 degrees C for 12 days. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of oregano EO at 0.6 or 0.9% in minced sheep meat was organoleptically acceptable, and attribute scores were higher for the EO at 0.6 than 0.9%. According to compositional analysis of the oregano EO, the phenols carvacrol (80.15%) and thymol (4.82%) were the predominant components. Treatment of minced sheep meat with nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, proved insufficient to act against S. Enteritidis. The combination of the oregano EO at 0.6% with nisin at 500 IU/g showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis than the oregano EO at 0.6% but lower than the combination with nisin at 1000 IU/g, which in turn was lower than that of the oregano EO at 0.9%. In its turn, oregano EO at 0.9% showed lower antimicrobial activity than its combinations with nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, which showed a bactericidal effect against the pathogen. The inhibition percentages of all treatments against S. Enteritidis at 10 degrees C were higher than those at 4 degrees C.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carne/microbiologia , Nisina/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Refrigeração , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Temperatura Baixa , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cimenos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ovinos , Timol/análise
9.
Vet J ; 184(2): 194-200, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19268613

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to investigate the early stages of experimental infection of the ovine mammary gland with Mannheimia haemolytica and to identify the lymphocyte subsets accumulating at the teat duct. M. haemolytica was inoculated into one teat of each of 25 ewes and clinical, bacteriological, cytological, haematological, physicochemical, gross pathological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were carried out. Clinical signs of inflammation were evident by 8 h but had subsided 2 days after challenge. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) predominated in milk films up to 1 day following challenge, but the proportion of lymphocytes and macrophages progressively increased thereafter. Total blood leucocyte counts decreased immediately after challenge and then rose until 1 day after challenge with immature PMNs comprising >3% of the total. The pH of the mammary secretions from the challenged side was increased (>7.0). Focal lymphoid accumulations were observed in the lamina propria at the junction of the teat duct and cistern, including CD79(+), CD3(+) and gammadelta T cells, CD68(+) and MHC-II(+) cells with a particular increase in the numbers of CD8(+) T cells from days 3 to 5 after challenge. The findings suggest that these organised lymphoid structures are inducible and contribute to the defence of the infected teat when the PMN-macrophage response is overwhelmed.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Mannheimia haemolytica/imunologia , Mastite/veterinária , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Mastite/imunologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/patologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/patologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
10.
Food Microbiol ; 25(1): 120-7, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17993385

RESUMO

The antimicrobial effect of thyme essential oil (EO) at 0.3%, 0.6%, or 0.9%, nisin at 500 or 1000IU/g, and their combination against Listeria monocytogenes was examined in both tryptic soy broth (TSB) and minced beef meat. Thyme EO at 0.3% possessed a weak antibacterial activity against the pathogen in TSB, whereas at 0.9% showed unacceptable organoleptic properties in minced meat. Thus, only the level of 0.6% of EO was further examined against the pathogen in minced meat. Treatment of minced beef meat with nisin at 500 or 1000IU/g showed antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes, which was dependent on the concentration level of nisin and the strains used. Treatment of minced beef meat with EO at 0.6% showed stronger inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes than treatment with nisin at 500 or 1000IU/g. All treatments showed stronger inhibitory activity against the pathogens at 10 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. The combined addition of EO at 0.6% and nisin at 500 or 1000IU/g showed a synergistic activity against the pathogen. Most efficient among treatments was the combination of EO at 0.6% with nisin at 1000IU/g, which decreased the population of L. monocytogenes below the official limit of the European Union recently set at 2logcfu/g, during storage at 4 degrees C.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Nisina/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Meat Sci ; 80(2): 159-66, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22063318

RESUMO

The antimicrobial effect of thyme essential oil (EO) at supplementation levels of 0.3%, 0.6% or 0.9%, nisin at 500 or 1000IU/g, and their combination, on Escherichia coli O157:H7 was examined in both tryptic soy broth (TSB) and minced beef meat. EO at 0.3% possessed a weak antibacterial activity against the pathogen in TSB, whereas at 0.9% showed unacceptable organoleptic properties in minced meat. Thus, only the level of 0.6% of EO was further examined against the pathogens in minced meat. Treatment of minced beef meat with EO at 0.6% showed an inhibitory activity against E. coli O157:H7 during storage at 10°C, but not at 4°C. Treatment of minced beef meat or TSB with nisin at 500 or 1000IU/g did not show any antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7. The combination of EO at 0.6% and nisin at 500 or 1000IU/g showed an additive effect against the pathogen, which was higher during storage at 10°C than at 4°C.

12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 58(4): 312-20, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17566893

RESUMO

Thirty-six 12-week-old turkeys were distributed into six groups and were raised for 4 weeks on rations containing 0%, 0.5% or 1.0% dehydrated rosemary leaves as antioxidant in the presence of alpha-tocopheryl acetate from 10 to 300 mg/kg. Following slaughtering, breast and thigh meat samples, raw or cooked, from all six groups were collected to be refrigerated at 4 degrees C for 9 days. All stored samples were submitted to analysis for their concentration in malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid oxidation marker, and alpha-tocopherol. The results showed that the rations containing 300 mg/kg alpha-tocopheryl acetate increased the mean alpha-tocopherol content of the breast and thigh significantly (P <0.05) compared with the respective control values. No significant (P>0.05) changes could be observed in the alpha-tocopherol content of breast and thigh of turkeys consuming rations containing up to 1% dehydrated rosemary leaves. The refrigeration of the meats led to spontaneous increase in the MDA content of the breast and thigh meat samples. Samples from turkeys fed rations containing 300 mg/kg alpha-tocopheryl acetate showed the lowest mean levels of MDA after the 9-day refrigerated period. The incorporation of rosemary in the rations led to a modest decrease in the formation of MDA in the meats compared with the respective mean control values. The combination of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and rosemary was not associated with an additional decrease in MDA formation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Folhas de Planta , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Rosmarinus , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Culinária , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/análise , Perus , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
13.
J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med ; 53(4): 170-3, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16629949

RESUMO

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate under field conditions the effect of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis on young lamb mortality and sheep milk production when administered in the late pregnancy and lactation feed of ewes. In a sheep farm, two groups of milking ewes with identical genetic material, management, nutrition, health status and similar production characteristics were formed. One group (46 ewes) served as control, while the other one (48 ewes) served as a probiotic-treated group. Both groups of ewes received a similar feeding regiment, but the ewes of the second group were additionally offered a probiotic product containing B. licheniformis and B. subtilis (BioPlus 2B, Chr. Hansen, Denmark) at the approximate dose of 2.56 x 10(9) viable spores per ewe per day. Lamb mortality during the 1.5 months suckling period, and milk yield during the 2 months of milk collection for commercial purposes have been recorded. In the non-treated control group, 13.1% mortality was observed versus 7.8% in the probiotic-treated group (P = 0.33), with mortality being mainly due to diarrhoea. Microbiological examination of diarrhoeic faeces from some of the dead lambs in both groups revealed the presence of Escherichia coli. The average daily milk yield per ewe was significantly lower in the control group (0.80 l) than that in the probiotic-treated group (0.93 l) (P < 0.05). Fat and protein content of milk in ewes that received probiotics was significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared with untreated ewes. It was concluded that supplementing ewe's feed with probiotics may have beneficial effect on subsequent milk yields, fat and protein content.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Probióticos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Lactentes , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Indústria de Laticínios , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
14.
J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med ; 51(6): 306-12, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15485567

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis spores, on the health status and productivity of pigs, during weaning, growing and finishing stages of growth. On a commercial farrow-to-finish farm, five experimental groups were formed, each of 54 weaned piglets. The pigs of the first group (double controls) received normal feed with no probiotic and the pigs of the second group (untreated controls) received BioPlus 2B only during the weaning stage. The pigs of the third, the fourth and the fifth group received the same as the second group feed but, at the growing and at a part of the finishing stages, supplemented with three different doses of Bioplus 2B, a low, medium and high dose, respectively. The results have shown that, compared with the double controls, BioPlus 2B-treated pigs had a lower morbidity and mortality during the whole trial period, compared with the double controls (range from 9.26 to 14.81% versus 25.93% and from 0.00 to 3.70% versus 11.1%, respectively), as a result of the lower incidence of post-weaning diarrhoea due mainly to Escherichia coli. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and carcass quality of the BioPlus 2B-treated pigs were significantly improved compared with the double controls, whilst the beneficial effects of the probiotic were more pronounced when the medium and high doses were used.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Suínos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bacillus subtilis , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Masculino , Carne/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Esporos Bacterianos , Doenças dos Suínos/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Desmame
15.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 55(2): 115-23, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14985183

RESUMO

The dietary and post-mortem uses of oregano oil in turkeys to inhibit development of lipid oxidation in breast and thigh meat during refrigerated storage were investigated. Using minced meat, patties were prepared from turkey meat post-mortem added with either 200 mg oregano oil or alpha-tocopherol/kg, meat from turkeys dietary supplemented with either 200 mg oregano oil or alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed, and control meat. All patties were cooked, placed in a refrigerated cabinet at 4 degrees C, and lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondialdehyde formation after 3, 6 and 9 days of storage. Treatments significantly (P<0.05) retarded lipid oxidation in both breast and thigh meat patties at all storage times compared with controls. The dietary supplementation of either oregano oil or alpha-tocopheryl acetate exhibited the highest antioxidative activity compared with the other treatments. Post-mortem addition of either oregano oil or alpha-tocopherol to the minced meat also retarded lipid oxidation in the prepared patties compared with controls; however, this effect was inferior to that of the dietary supplementation even though the post-mortem alpha-tocopherol supplemented meat contained 90-fold more alpha-tocopherol than patties from the dietary supplemented meat. Thigh meat was more susceptible to oxidation than breast meat, although the former contained alpha-tocopherol at markedly higher levels. Supplementing the diet with 200 mg oregano oil/kg, alpha-tocopherol levels in the breast and thigh meat significantly (P<0.05) increased compared with control. This increase could not be attributed to the alpha-tocopherol already present in the oregano oil since post-mortem addition of oregano oil to control breast and thigh meat at the same dose could not actually increase the alpha-tocopherol concentrations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/análise , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Malondialdeído/análise , Origanum , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Refrigeração , Perus , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacologia
16.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 87(9-10): 324-35, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14507415

RESUMO

Twenty-five 12-week-old turkeys randomly divided into five groups were given a basal diet, or a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg, or 100 mg oregano oil/kg or 200 mg oregano oil/kg, or 100 mg oregano oil plus 100 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Breast, thigh, liver and heart tissues were subjected to iron-induced lipid oxidation, the extent of which was determined by third-order derivative spectrophotometry. Results showed that dietary oregano oil at the inclusion level of 200 mg oregano oil/kg diet was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared with the inclusion level of 100 mg/kg, but equivalent to the inclusion of 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet, which in turn was inferior to the combined inclusion of 100 mg oregano oil plus 100 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg, which was superior to all dietary treatments. Thigh tissue was more susceptible to oxidation than breast tissue, although it contained alpha-tocopherol at higher concentrations. Also, lipid oxidation in heart was relatively high, although it contained the highest alpha-tocopherol levels. This indicates that tissue alpha-tocopherol is one important factor influencing the level of lipid oxidation, but the distribution of lipids, iron and oregano oil in tissues must also be taken into consideration. Tissue alpha-tocopherol levels responded to dietary intake of 30-200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg in the order heart > liver > thigh > breast. Breast, thigh and heart tissues from the oregano groups presented significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of alpha-tocopherol compared with the control, the increase being positively correlated with the supplementation level. The increased levels of alpha-tocopherol in these tissues indicated that the dietary oregano oil exerted a protective action on alpha-tocopherol.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Origanum/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Perus/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/análogos & derivados , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Oxirredução , Distribuição Aleatória , Espectrofotometria/veterinária , Distribuição Tecidual , Tocoferóis
17.
Meat Sci ; 65(3): 1193-200, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22063702

RESUMO

The effects of dietary oregano essential oil and α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on the susceptibility of raw and cooked turkey breast and thigh meat to lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage for 9 days were examined. Thirty 12-week-old turkeys were divided into five groups and fed a basal diet containing 30 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) feed as control, or basal diet plus 200 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1), or basal diet plus 100 mg oregano oil kg(-1), or basal diet plus 200 mg oregano oil kg(-1), or basal diet plus 100 mg oregano oil and 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1), for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondialdehyde formation in raw and cooked meat at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days of refrigerated storage, through use of a third-order derivative spectrophotometric method. Results showed that all dietary treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the stability of both raw and cooked turkey meat to lipid oxidation compared with the control. Oregano oil at 200 mg kg(-1) was significantly (P<0.05) more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared to the level of 100 mg kg(-1), equivalent to α-tocopheryl acetate at 200 mg kg(-1), but inferior (P<0.05) to oregano oil plus α-tocopheryl acetate at 100 mg kg(-1) each, which in turn was superior (P<0.05) to all dietary treatments, indicating a synergistic effect. Thigh muscle was more susceptible to oxidation compared with breast muscle in all treatments, although it contained α-tocopherol at significantly (P<0.05) higher levels.

18.
Food Addit Contam ; 19(11): 1043-50, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12456275

RESUMO

Yoghurt from cow's milk artificially contaminated with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at levels of 0.050 and 0.100 g l(-1) was fermented to reach pHs 4.0 and 4.6. Yoghurt fermented to pH 4.6 was also used for preparing strained yoghurt. Yoghurts were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. Analysis of AFM1 in milk, yoghurt, strained yoghurt and yoghurt whey was carried out using immunoaffinity column extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with fluorometric detection. AFM1 levels in yoghurt samples showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) compared with those initially added to milk. Growth of culture lactic acid bacteria was not affected in the AFM1 contaminated yoghurts, with the exception of Streptococcus thermophilus that showed a significantly (p < 0.01) lower increase in the yoghurt containing the toxin at high concentration. Following fermentation, AFM1 was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in yoghurts with pH 4.0 than in yoghurts with pH 4.6 at both contamination levels. During refrigerated storage, AFM1 was rather more stable in yoghurts with pH 4.6 than with pH 4.0. The percentage loss of the initial amount of AFM1 in milk was estimated at about 13 and 22% by the end of the fermentation, and 16 and 34% by the end of storage for yoghurts with pHs 4.6 and 4.0, respectively. The percentage distribution ratio of AFM1 in strained yoghurt/yoghurt whey of the initial toxin present in the yoghurt was about 90/10 and 87/13 for the lower and the higher contamination levels, respectively.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Iogurte , Aflatoxina M1/química , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus , Streptococcus , Iogurte/microbiologia
19.
Food Addit Contam ; 19(9): 863-8, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12396397

RESUMO

From December 1999 to May 2000, 114 samples of pasteurized, ultrahigh temperature-treated (UHT) and concentrated milk were collected in supermarkets, whereas 52 raw milk samples from cow, sheep and goat were obtained from different milk producers all over Greece. Sample collection was repeated from December 2000 to May 2001 and concerned 54 samples of pasteurized milk, 23 samples of bulk-tank raw milk and 55 raw milk samples from cow, sheep and goat. The total number of samples analysed for aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) contamination by immunoaffinity column extraction and liquid chromatography was 297. In the first sampling, the incidence rates of AFM(1) contamination in pasteurized, UHT, concentrated and cow, sheep and goat raw milk were 85.4, 82.3, 93.3, 73.3, 66.7 and 40%, respectively, with only one cow raw milk and two concentrated milk samples exceeding the EU limit of 50 ng l(-1). In the second sampling, the incidence rates of AFM(1) contamination in pasteurized, bulk-tank and cow, sheep and goat raw milk were 79.6, 78.3, 64.3, 73.3 and 66.7%, respectively, with only one cow and one sheep raw milk samples exceeding the limit of 50 ng l(-1). The results suggest that the current regulatory status in Greece is effective.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cabras , Grécia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Ovinos
20.
Food Addit Contam ; 18(5): 437-43, 2001 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11358185

RESUMO

Telemes cheeses were produced using milk that was artificially-contaminated with aflatoxin M1 at the levels of 0.050 and 0.100 microg/l. The cheeses produced in the two cheese-making trials were allowed to ripen for 2 months and stored for an additional 4 months to simulate commercial production of Telemes cheese. Concentrations of aflatoxin M1 in whey, curd, brine, and the produced cheeses were determined at intervals by liquid chromatography and fluorometric detection coupled with immunoaffinity column extraction. Concentrations of aflatoxin M1 in the produced curds were found to be 3.9 and 4.4 times higher than those in milk, whereas concentrations in whey were lower than those in curd and milk. Aflatoxin M1 was present in cheese at higher concentrations at the beginning than at the end of the ripening/storage period, and it declined to concentrations 2.7 and 3.4 times higher than those initially present in milk by the end of the sixth month of storage. Concentrations of aflatoxin M1 in brine started low and increased by the end of the ripening/storage period but only a portion of the amounts of aflatoxin M1 lost from cheese was found in the brine. Results showed that Telemes cheeses produced from milk containing aflatoxin M1 at a concentration close to either the maximum acceptable level of 0.05 microg/l set by the European union (EU) or at double this value, will contain the toxin at a level that is much lower or slightly higher, respectively, than the maximum acceptable level of 0.250 microg of aflatoxin M1/kg cheese set by some countries.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Queijo/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Aflatoxina M1/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Humanos , Leite/química
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