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1.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 21(23): 235402, 2009 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21825583

RESUMO

Amorphous to crystalline transition in pressure quenched Zr(0.5)Hf(0.5)W(2)O(8) has been studied with respect to local structures of ZrO(6) using the perturbed angular correlation technique. In an untreated crystalline sample close to 0.7 fraction of the probe atoms occupy Zr sites of regular ZrO(6) while the remaining three fractions are understood to be associated with contracted and distorted octahedra. The existence of six distinct ZrO(6) could be deduced based on perturbed angular correlation studies in the pressure amorphized sample. In the amorphous sample these ZrO(6) are associated with appreciable octahedral distortions. Isochronal annealing measurements show that these octahedra remain structurally quite stable up to 800 K. Values of quadrupole frequencies tend to become close to those experienced by probe atoms in a crystalline sample for annealing at 870 K, implying that around this temperature there is an onset of amorphous to crystalline transition. Complete restoration of quadrupole parameters to those of the untreated crystalline sample is seen subsequent to annealing at 975 K.

2.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 59(2): 120-3, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23120408

RESUMO

During 1980 to 2004, 1602 Canal Wall Down (CWD) procedures was performed of which 978 had primary surgery and 624 were revision cases. We have highlighted various methods for total clearance of disease process from the tympanomastoid area, making of a smooth cavity, augmentation of middle ear space for better functional results, inlay temporalis fascia grafting, ossiculoplasty with live tissue grafts, natural obliteration of the cavity and meatoplasty.Healing of cavity and tympanic membrane (TM) graft was achieved in 1548 (94.2%) of cases. Revision surgery was performed in 32 cases for recurrence or residual cholesteatoma, mostly in the attic and middle ear. Persisting discharge was present in 12 cases. Serviceable hearing (airbone (A-B) gap closure up to 20 dB) was achieved in 1017 (63.5%) cases. Hearing was worse than pre-operative level in 154 (9.6%) cases. There was no improvement in hearing in 397 (24.8%) cases. Serviceable hearing was obtained after second stage ossiculoplasty in 34 (2%) cases.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 18(32): 7651-8, 2006 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21690877

RESUMO

Time differential perturbed angular correlation measurements using the (181)Ta probe in La(0.7)Sr(0.3)Mn(0.995)Hf(0.005)O(3) reveal the presence of two distinct hyperfine components, identified with probe atoms occupying Mn sites which are rich and deficient in hole concentration. The Mn(4+) rich zones exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at all temperatures below 360 K, the bulk Curie temperature. In the case of Mn(4+) deficient zones, the paramagnetic order is seen to evolve into a canted antiferromagnetic ordering below 360 K, that becomes ferromagnetic below 250 K. Concomitantly, there is a change in the fractions below 250 K. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of electronic phase separation.

5.
Health Policy ; 44(1): 1-18, 1998 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10180198

RESUMO

This article analyzes policies that affected the availability of praziquantel, the drug of choice for schistosomiasis. The study examines how interactions among four actors (pharmaceutical producers, international agencies, non-governmental agencies, and national governments) affected praziquantel availability in poor countries. It also examines trends in praziquantel prices over time in different markets. This analysis demonstrates that the discovery of an effective new drug does not necessarily result in access to the drug for disease sufferers--especially if those sufferers are poor people in poor countries. The article proposes measures to improve international systems for making new drugs available in poor countries.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/provisão & distribução , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Praziquantel/provisão & distribução , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tropical , Anti-Helmínticos/economia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Indústria Farmacêutica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pobreza , Praziquantel/economia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Setor Privado , Setor Público
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 44(2): 157-69, 1997 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9015869

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe , Organização do Financiamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 44(2): 157-69, Jan. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2039

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average, per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2 percent of their GDP on health, with the expenditure divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe , Organização do Financiamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , América Latina , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão
8.
Bull World Health Organ ; 72(4): 623-37, 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7923542

RESUMO

As part of the background research to the World development report 1993: investing in health, an effort was made to estimate public, private and total expenditures on health for all countries of the world. Estimates could be found for public spending for most countries, but for private expenditure in many fewer countries. Regressions were used to predict the missing values of regional and global estimates. These econometric exercises were also used to relate expenditure to measures of health status. In 1990 the world spent an estimated US$ 1.7 trillion (1.7 x 10(12) on health, or $1.9 trillion (1.9 x 10(12)) in dollars adjusted for higher purchasing power in poorer countries. This amount was about 60% public and 40% private in origin. However, as incomes rise, public health expenditure tends to displace private spending and to account for the increasing share of incomes devoted to health.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Gastos em Saúde , Financiamento Governamental , Organização do Financiamento , Financiamento Pessoal , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Expectativa de Vida
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