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1.
Pharmacol Res ; 149: 104473, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585178

RESUMO

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic multi-faceted immune-mediated systemic disorder, characterized by articular, cutaneous, enthesis, nail and spine involvement. Articular manifestations of PsA are particularly common and highly disabling for patients, while the heterogeneous clinical subsets of the disease are challenging for clinicians. In recent years, research has made many advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease from genetic, epigenetic and molecular points of view. New drugs are now available for the treatment of this condition, and, in particular, TNF-alfa inhibitors, historically the first biologicals approved in PsA, are now juxtaposed by new biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) with different modes of action. Targeting IL-12/IL-23 p40 common subunit with ustekinumab, IL-17A with secukinumab and ixekizumab, T cells co-stimulation with abatacept, is now possible, safe and effective. Moreover, targeted synthetic molecules with oral administration are available, with the possibility to interfere with phosphodiesterase-4 and JAK/STAT pathways. Indeed, new drugs are under development, with the possibility to target selectively IL-17 receptor, IL-23, and other key molecular targets in the pathogenesis of this condition. In this narrative review, we provide an up-to-date overview of the current application of biological and targeted synthetic DMARDs in the field of PsA, with particular regard to the clinical significance of this possibility to target a higher number of distinct immune-pathways.

2.
Intern Med J ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although it is responsible of 10-20% of all RA mortality, no controlled studies are available for the treatment of RA-ILD and its therapeutic approach is still debated. AIMS: In this study, we analysed the evolution of ILD in a population of RA patients treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). METHODS: In this national multicenter study, we retrospectively collected patients with RA-ILD treated with at least one dose of TCZ. For each patient, disease activity and serological data were evaluated. Moreover, we analysed the evolution of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO). RESULTS: Twenty-eight RA-ILD patients were identified (females/males 18/10, mean age 61.6 years), with a mean follow-up for TCZ therapy of 30 months. At the end of follow-up, FVC remained stable in 14 patients (56%), improved in 5 (20%) and worsened in 6 (24%). DLCO remained stable in 14 patients (56%), improved in 5 (20%) and worsened in 6 (24%), even though in 3 patients DLCO and FVC showed an opposite trend. HRCT remained stable in the majority of cases (25), worsened in 2 patients with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, improved in only one case with a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The management of RA-ILD patients remains a critical unmet need. TCZ demonstrated a good safety profile in patients with RA-ILD and a potential effect on the stabilization of the lung involvement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compelling evidence supports a treat-to-target (T2T) strategy for optimal outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is limited knowledge regarding the factors that impede implementation of T2T, particularly in a setting where adherence to T2T is protocol specified. We aimed to assess clinical factors that associate with failure to adhere to T2T. METHODS: RA patients from 10 countries starting or changing conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic (csDMARDs) drugs and/or starting tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) were followed for 2 years (RA BIODAM cohort). Participating physicians were required per-protocol to adhere to the T2T strategy. Factors influencing adherence to T2T low disease activity (T2T-LDA; DAS≤2.4) were analyzed in two types of binomial generalized estimating equations (GEE) models: i. including only baseline features (baseline model); ii. Modelling variables that inherently vary over time as such (longitudinal model). RESULTS: A total of 571 patients were recruited and 439 (76.9%) completed 2-year followup. Failure of adherence to T2T-LDA was noted in 1765 (40.5%) visits. In the baseline multivariable model, high number of comorbidities (OR (95%CI): 1.10 (1.02; 1.19)), smoking (1.32 (1.08; 1.63)) and high number of tender joints (1.03 (1.02; 1.04)), were independently associated with failure to implement T2T, while ACPA/RF positivity (0.63 (0.50; 0.80)), was a significant facilitator of T2T. Results were similar in the longitudinal model. CONCLUSION: Lack of adherence to T2T in the RA BIODAM cohort was evident in a substantial proportion despite being a protocol requirement and this could be predicted by clinical features.

4.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The OMERACT Soluble Biomarker Working Group initiated an international, multicenter, prospective study, The Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) BIODAM cohort (NCT01476956), to generate resources for the clinical validation of candidate biomarkers predictive of radiographic progression. This first report describes the cohort, clinical outcomes, and radiographic findings. METHODS: RA patients from 38 sites in 10 countries starting or changing conventional synthetic diseasemodifying anti-rheumatic (csDMARDs) drugs and/or starting tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) reserved. 5 were followed for 2 years. Participating physicians were required to adhere to a treat-to-target strategy. Biosamples (serum, urine) were acquired every 3 months, radiography of hands and feet every 6 months, and ultrasound of hands and feet every 3 months in a subset. Primary endpoint was radiographic progression by the Sharp van der Heijde (vdHm-SHS) score. RESULTS: A total of 571 patients were recruited and 439 (76.9%) completed 2-year follow-up. At baseline, the majority was female (76%), mean age 55.7 years, and mean disease duration 6.5 years. Patients had a mean of 8.4 swollen and 13.6 tender joints, DAS44 3.8, 77.7% rheumatoid factor (RF) or anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) positive. Percentage of patients in DAS and ACR remission at 2 years was 52.2% and 27.1%, respectively. Percentage of patients with radiographic progression (>0.5) at 1- and 2-years was 38.3% and 59.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The RA-BIODAM prospective study succeeded in generating an extensive list of clinical, imaging (2343 radiographs), and biosample (4638 sera) resources that will be made available to expedite the identification and validation of biomarkers for radiographic damage endpoints.

5.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present the results of a Delphi consensus survey among Italian paediatric and adult rheumatologists on transitional care (TC) of young people (YP) with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: A taskforce of 27 paediatric and adult rheumatologists evaluated the applicability of the 2016 EULAR/PReS recommendations for TC to the Italian rheumatology practice and healthcare system and formulated additional country-specific statements aimed to increase their suitability. After a two-round discussion, applicability of EULAR/PReS recommendations and agreement with newly-proposed statements were voted on a 0-10 scale (where 0 = no applicability/agreement and 10 = total applicability/agreement). A mean level of agreement ≥8 was deemed acceptable. RESULTS: The consensus threshold was reached for only 4 of the 12 EULAR/PReS recommendations and for 25 of the 27 country-specific statements. Poor agreement with EULAR/PReS recommendations was mostly explained by paucity of centres in Italy that possess both paediatric and adult rheumatologists, disagreement about optimal time of transition start and de nition of transition coordinator, diversity between paediatric and adult clinimetric assessments, and lack of administrative and financial support. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus initiative represents an important step forward toward the establishment of a nationwide TC network for YP with JIA in Italy. The main goals established for the future are the identification of adult rheumatology centres that are willing to participate in the TC process, the education of adult rheumatology teams on childhood-onset rheumatic diseases and transition issues, and the increased awareness of public healthcare authorities and other stakeholders about the importance of good-quality TC.

6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The MARI study investigated the prescription patterns of methotrexate (MTX) in patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Italy. The primary aims of this cross-sectional analysis from the MARI study were to investigate the effect of gender on the prescription patterns and safety of MTX therapy. METHODS: The study enrolled 1336 patients with RA. Retrospective data included patients' clinical history, previous treatment with MTX and other DMARDs, and MTX modifications in the previous 12-month period. Cross-sectional data included information about current treatment with MTX (dose and route of administration, and adverse events), concomitant medications, disease activity, and modifications of MTX treatment at study entry. The prescription patterns of MTX, rates and causes of MTX modifications were analysed according to gender. RESULTS: There were no significant differences related to gender in the prescription patterns of MTX, either at 6 months after starting MTX or at the time of study entry. In the 12 months prior to study entry, women (4%) were more likely to undergo MTX modifications (dose or route of administration) compared to men (2%, p=0.032), due to subjective intolerance, but this difference was no longer significant after controlling for confounders. At study entry, a higher proportion of women (27%) reported tolerability issues (nausea and weakness) related to MTX compared to men (14%, p=0.001). Although a similar percentage of males and females changed dose or route of administration of MTX at the time of study entry, the reasons for such modifications were dissimilar between genders. Particularly, a higher proportion of women underwent MTX modification due to intolerance (women 6% vs. men 1%, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, prescription patterns of MTX do not differ between genders. However, women seem to be at higher risk of adverse events leading to MTX modifications.

7.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(5): 748-755, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the baseline characteristics of the patients enrolled in the QUality of life in patients with Axial SpondyloARthritis (QUASAR) study in terms of quality of life (QoL), disease activity, therapy adherence, and work ability in a real-world setting. METHODS: QUASAR is an Italian multicentre, prospective 12-month observational study, including consecutive adult patients classified as axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for axSpA. RESULTS: Of 512 patients enrolled in 23 rheumatology centres, 80.7% had ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 19.3% had non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). Mean ages were 34.1±13.3 years at axSpA symptoms onset and 39.5±13.0 years at diagnosis. Of the patients, 51.4% presented with ≥1 extra articular manifestation (EAM); the most common were psoriasis (17.8%) and uveitis (16.4%). Patients with nr-axSpA and AS had similar EAM rates, disease activity, and QoL. Biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs; 83.2%) were the most commonly received medication, followed by conventional synthetic DMARDs (22.9%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 16.6%). At baseline, higher treatment satisfaction was reported with bDMARDs which, together with NSAIDs, were associated with the best overall scores for disease activity, function, and QoL in the overall population and AS subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: QUASAR is the first Italian prospective study that comprehensively evaluated a large axSpA patient sample in a real-world setting. This interim analysis at baseline confirmed that i) patients with AS and nr-axSpA have similar QoL and disease burden, ii) nearly all axSpA patients receive treatment, and iii) bDMARDs and NSAIDs, overall, yield better disease activity and QoL.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Qualidade de Vida , Espondilartrite , Espondilite Anquilosante , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espondilartrite/fisiopatologia , Espondilartrite/psicologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/fisiopatologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Rheumatol ; 46(8): 904-911, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the ULISSE study was to evaluate the prevalence of clinical and ultrasonographic (US) entheseal involvement in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), psoriasis, and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). METHODS: In this cross-sectional multicenter study, patients with PsA and psoriasis (not taking systemic therapy) and FMS underwent a clinical evaluation of the entheses, and a B-mode and power Doppler examination of 6 pairs of entheses. RESULTS: The study analyzed 140 patients with PsA, 51 with psoriasis, and 51 with FMS. Clinical and US examinations were performed in 1960 and 1680 entheses in the PsA group, and 714 and 612 entheses both in the psoriasis group and in the FMS group. In both per-patient and per-enthesis evaluation, the frequency of entheseal tenderness was higher in patients with FMS (92% of the patients and 46% of the entheses, compared with 66%/23% in the PsA group and 59%/18% in the psoriasis group). With US examination, signs of entheseal involvement were more frequent in both the per-patient and per-enthesis evaluation in PsA and psoriasis (about 90% of patients in both the PsA and psoriasis groups and 75% of patients in the FMS group had at least 1 site affected, and 54%, 41%, and 27% of the pairs of entheses in, respectively, PsA, psoriasis, and FMS patients showed at least 1 enthesis involved). CONCLUSION: The ULISSE study indicated that enthesitis is a common feature in patients with PsA, those with psoriasis, and in those with FMS if only clinical examination is used. US entheseal assessment showed findings more consistent with the 3 disorders.

9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 736-745, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926722

RESUMO

Our objective was to update the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on emerging new evidence. We performed a systematic literature review (01/2007-12/2017), followed by modified Delphi method, to form questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Treatment in SLE aims at remission or low disease activity and prevention of flares. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended in all patients with lupus, at a dose not exceeding 5 mg/kg real body weight. During chronic maintenance treatment, glucocorticoids (GC) should be minimised to less than 7.5 mg/day (prednisone equivalent) and, when possible, withdrawn. Appropriate initiation of immunomodulatory agents (methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate) can expedite the tapering/discontinuation of GC. In persistently active or flaring extrarenal disease, add-on belimumab should be considered; rituximab (RTX) may be considered in organ-threatening, refractory disease. Updated specific recommendations are also provided for cutaneous, neuropsychiatric, haematological and renal disease. Patients with SLE should be assessed for their antiphospholipid antibody status, infectious and cardiovascular diseases risk profile and preventative strategies be tailored accordingly. The updated recommendations provide physicians and patients with updated consensus guidance on the management of SLE, combining evidence-base and expert-opinion.

10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(4): 649-655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of serious infections (SIs) among the spondyloarthropathy (SpA) patients from the "Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio delle Early Arthritis" (GISEA) registry and treated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (TNFIs), and to identify the factors associated with the development of the infections. METHODS: This observational study on 3321 GISEA-registered SpA patients collected real-world demographic and clinical data relating to their biological drug treatments. The overall incidence of infections was analysed by type of SpA. RESULTS: A total of 3321 SpA patients (1731 males, 52.2%; mean age 47±13 years; median disease duration 3 years, interquartile range [IQR] 0-8) were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Two hundred and fifty-nine patients experienced at least one of 391 microbiologically diagnosed SIs, 32% of which were recorded during the first 12 months of treatment. The overall incidence of SIs was 43.9/1000 patient-years of follow-up (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.6-48.4): 29.9/1000 (95% CI 23.1-38.1) among those treated with adalimumab (ADA); 36.1/1000 (95% CI 30.0-43.1) among those treated with etanercept (ETN); and 61.4/1000 (95% CI 53.3-70.5) among those treated with infliximab (INF). The highest incidence was observed among the patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but the difference was statistically significant only in comparison with the patients with undifferentiated SpA (p=0.002), whose incidence of SIs was also lower than in the patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (p=0.034). Multivariate models showed that the number of comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR] 1.29, 95%CI 1.2-1.4; p<0.001), age at the start of TNFi treatment (HR 0.99, 95%CI 0.97-0.99; p=0.030), steroid use (HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.1-1.8; p=0.012) and male sex (HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.5-0.9; p=0.012) were all statistically significant predictors of infection. The factors independently associated with a lower risk of SIs were the use of ETN (HR 0.52, 95%CI 0.4-0.7; p<0.001) or ADA (HR 0.59, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; p=0.002) rather than INF. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SIs was higher among patients with PsA or AS than among those with undifferentiated SpA, and among patients treated with INF than among those treated with ADA or ETN. Male sex, steroid use and the number of comorbidities were all factors predictive of SIs.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Infecção/etiologia , Espondiloartropatias/complicações , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos , Adalimumab , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Etanercepte , Feminino , Humanos , Infecção/epidemiologia , Infliximab , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Espondiloartropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Espondiloartropatias/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico
11.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(2): 164-176, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572134

RESUMO

Pregnancy requires a special management in women with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (RDs), with the aim of controlling maternal disease activity and avoiding fetal complications. Despite the heterogeneous course of RDs during pregnancy, their impact on pregnancy largely relates to the extent of active inflammation at the time of conception. Therefore, accurate evaluation of disease activity is crucial for the best management of pregnant patients. Nevertheless, there are limitations in using conventional measures of disease activity in pregnancy, as some items included in these instruments can be biased by symptoms or by physiological changes related to pregnancy and the pregnancy itself may influence laboratory parameters used to assess disease activity. This article aims to summarize the current literature about the available instruments to measure disease activity during pregnancy in RDs. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the only disease with instruments that have been modified to account for several adaptations which might interfere with the attribution of signs or symptoms to disease activity during pregnancy. No modified-pregnancy indices exist for women affected by other RDs, but standard indices have been applied to pregnant patients. The current body of knowledge shows that the physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy need to be either adapted from existing instruments or developed to improve the management of pregnant women with RDs. Standardized instruments to assess disease activity during pregnancy would be helpful not only for clinical practice but also for research purposes.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia
12.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(57 Suppl 7): vii32-vii41, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289538

RESUMO

Objective: To establish clinical consensus for the optimal placement of TNF inhibitor (TNFi) in DMARDs-naïve RA patients. Methods: The steering group was composed of 15 Italian rheumatologists expert in the field of RA, who proposed and selected by consensus the clinically relevant questions on the role of TNFi treatment in DMARDs-naïve RA patients. The question was rephrased according to the population, intervention, comparison and outcome statement. The available scientific evidence on this topic were collected by updating the systematic literature reviews used for the EULAR 2013 recommendations up to January 2016. The aspects evaluated in the studies concerned clinical efficacy, radiographic structural damage and safety. After the systematic literature review the expert panel formulated a consensus statement, and a modified Delphi panel evaluated the level of agreement between panellists (strength of recommendation). Results: From a total of 1080 records we have included 6 studies, 2 randomized clinical trials and 4 open-label extension trials. Evidence from publications generated three statements for the final consensus document. The systematic literature review and the consensus statements developed showed that, for patients with early RA and in the presence of a treat-to-target strategy, the immediate use of anti-TNFi compared with an early (within 12 weeks) step-up to anti-TNF therapy did not confer a significant advantage regarding clinical, functional and radiographic outcomes. Conclusion: The most appropriate placement of the TNFi therapy in the treatment algorithm of early RA still remains a challenging clinical question that needs to be further addressed.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Consenso , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Itália , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021447, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: These analyses aim to comparatively evaluate the persistence on treatment of different biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) when administered in monotherapy compared with combination with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving first-line biologics. DESIGN: This is a retrospective observational study on Administrative Healthcare Databases. METHODS: Data were extracted from healthcare databases of the Lombardy Region, Italy (2004-2013), as a part of the RECord-linkage On Rheumatic Diseases study, on behalf of the Italian Society for Rheumatology. Analyses included patients with RA starting first-line approved course of bDMARDs and evaluated drug survival by using Cox proportional hazard models. Results are presented as HRs and 95% CI, crude and adjusted for prespecified confounders (age, sex, disease duration, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), previous infections, use of concomitant glucocorticoids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)). RESULTS: 4478 patients with RA were included (17.84% monotherapy). Etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab were the most prescribed first-line biologics. bDMARD monotherapy was associated with longer disease duration, higher CCI, lower glucocorticoids and NSAIDs use. Compared with monotherapy, combination associated with a lower risk of failure (adjusted HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88). Among monotherapies, considering etanercept as reference, adalimumab (1.28, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.59) and infliximab (2.41, 95% CI 1.85 to 3.15) had higher risk of failure. Concomitant methotrexate (0.78, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), leflunomide (0.80, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.98) or csDMARD combinations (0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87) reduced the risk of bDMARD withdrawal. CONCLUSION: Adalimumab and infliximab monotherapies show lower retention rate compared with etanercept. The relatively small number of therapeutic courses different from tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors makes more difficult to achieve conclusive results with other biologics. Concomitant methotrexate, leflunomide and csDMARDs combination associate with longer survival on bDMARD. Our data confirm the effectiveness of the current practices in the choice of etanercept as first-line anti-TNF monotherapy and strengthen the currently recommended use of bDMARDs in combination with csDMARDs.

14.
Infection ; 46(6): 801-809, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097989

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Climate changes and immunosuppression are influencing the spread of leishmaniasis and re-emergence in Northern Italy, respectively. We evaluated the prevalence of subclinical leishmaniasis in patients from a Northern Italian region with chronic inflammatory rheumatism (CIRD) receiving biological drugs (BD) and correlated it to the area of residence. METHODS: DNA from PBMC of patients affected by CIRD treated with either BD for at least 5 years (Group A) or other immunosuppressive drugs (Group B) was investigated by a qPCR for Leishmania infantum kDNA and compared to healthy subjects (Group C). Variables such as sex and age, rural areas, dog ownership, type of BD administered and association between BD and steroids, were evaluated by statistical analysis. RESULTS: A higher proportion of L. infantum DNA positivity was found in Group A than in Group C (p < 0.05), while no parasite DNA was detected in Group B. In Group A, 18/50 patients (36%) had higher rates of parasite DNA (from 1 to 136 to 1.000.000 copies/ml) than Group C (from 1 to 10 copies/ml). 14/18 (77.7%) of positive patients from Group A lived in rural areas, but no statistical differences occurred in relation to dog ownership or BD type (p < 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: We can speculate that exposure to rural areas appears to be a factor closely linked with the risk of developing Leishmania subclinical infection. A screening with molecular methods in patients with CIRD treated with BD living in these areas and monitoring Leishmania DNA during such therapies, would be mandatory to prevent delay in diagnosis should VL symptoms appear.

15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to define the risk of serious bacterial infections in patients receiving specific biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and evaluating the effect of concomitant synthetic DMARDs (sDMARDs) in a large population-based sample of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) deriving from an administrative health database. METHODS: Data were extracted from health databases of Lombardy Region, Italy (2004-2013), as a part of the RECord-linkage On Rheumatic Diseases (RECORD) study. Patients with RA treated with approved bDMARDs were included. Hospitalisations for bacterial infections were evaluated by hospital discharge forms. The association between drug exposure and infections was assessed by survival models, with time-dependent covariates. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HR) and 95%CI, crude and adjusted for pre-specified confounders (sex, age, disease duration, Charlson Comorbidity Index, previous biologics, previous infections, use of methotrexate, leflunomide, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). RESULTS: 4,656 RA patients with at least one bDMARD prescription were included, for a total of 7,601 biological courses; 3,603 (77.4%) women with a mean (SD) age of 55.8 (12.7) years. Crude incidence rate of hospitalised infection ranged from 0.14 to 2.95 per 1000 person-years. After multivariable adjustment, abatacept users (HR 0.29, 95%CI 0.10-0.82) had significantly lower risk of infections compared to etanercept. Concurrent treatment with methotrexate (0.72, 0.52-0.99) reduced the overall risk of infection while glucocorticoids increased it (1.09 per mg/day, 1.06-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In RA patients treated with bDMARDs, abatacept was associated with the lowest risk of infections; overall risk was mitigated by concomitant methotrexate and increased by glucocorticoids in a dose-dependent manner.

16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846158

RESUMO

In the past years the peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has received little attention despite its potential significant impact. The true prevalence of PNS in SLE reported in studies is variable and strongly influenced by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) case definition that includes seven PNS manifestations (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, autonomic disorder, mononeuropathy, myasthenia gravis, cranial neuropathy, plexopathy and polyneuropathy). Other peripheral manifestations, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and small fibre neuropathy, not included in the ACR nomenclature, have not been well characterised in SLE. The aim of this review is to focus on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical features of all possible different expressions of PNS involvement in SLE, with the final objective to profile the patient's clinical characteristics.

17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(5): 862-870, 2018 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As a strong association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and spondyloarthritis (SpA) has been hypothesised, our main objective was to explore by power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) the presence of subclinical enthesitis in asymptomatic HIV patients. The presence of subclinical synovitis was also evaluated. METHODS: Consecutive asymptomatic HIV patients were studied and compared with asymptomatic HCV patients and healthy controls (HC). All subjects underwent a clinical and PDUS bilateral examination of the following entheses and joints: epicondyle, quadriceps, patellar, Achilles and plantar fascia; wrists, II and III metacarpo-phalangeal, knee and ankle. RESULTS: Twenty-nine HIV, 32 HCV and 25 HC were recruited; 1.032 entheses and 860 joints were examined. Clinical diagnosis of enthesitis was made in 10.3% HIV patients, 6.2% HCV patients (p=0.66) and none HC (p=0.24). PDUS enthesitis was found in 72.4% HIV, 28.1% HCV (p=0.0008) and 12% HC (p<0.0001). Clinical diagnosis of synovitis was made in 3.4% HIV patients, 9.3% HCV patients (p=0.61) and none HC (p=1). PDUS abnormalities were documented in 24.1% HIV patients, 71.8% HCV patients (p=0.0003) and none HC (p=0.0001). In detecting enthesitis and synovitis, PDUS was more sensitive than clinical examination both in HIV and HCV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary study shows the high frequency of PDUS enthesitis in asymptomatic HIV patients, which highlights the close link between HIV and SpA. Further studies are desirable on a larger number of HIV patients to confirm these results. PDUS proved to be more sensitive than clinical examination in detecting subclinical involvement of entheses and joints.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 68, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594125

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most severe manifestations of the disease that has a heavy impact on patient's functioning, quality of life, and disease outcome. The prevalence is highly variable and the clinical phenotypes vary from common syndromes to rare NP entities. Its occurrence may be the result of a primary manifestation of SLE, secondary to other conditions (such as infections or metabolic disturbances) or the effect of concomitant comorbidities that often complicate the disease course. Correct attribution of NP events may pose diagnostic challenges and it is a critical factor in selecting the correct management. Although there is still no diagnostic gold standard to rightly diagnose NPSLE syndromes, great advances have been made in improving the clinician judgment in the evaluation process. In this narrative review, we present and discuss available evidence concerning NPSLE with a special focus on the attribution models developed using composite decision rules to ascribe NP events to SLE.

19.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(1): 44-49, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if the timing of appearance with respect to disease onset may influence the arthritis presentation pattern in antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD). METHODS: The patients were selected from a retrospective large international cohort of ASSD patients regularly followed-up in centres referring to AENEAS collaborative group. Patients were eligible if they had an antisynthetase antibody testing positive in at least two determinations along with arthritis occurring either at ASSD onset (Group 1) or during the course of the disease (Group 2). RESULTS: 445 (70%; 334 females, 110 males, 1 transsexual) out of the 636 ASSD we collected had arthritis, in the majority of cases (367, 83%) from disease onset (Group 1). Patients belonging to Group 1 with respect to Group 2 had an arthritis more commonly polyarticular and symmetrical (p=0.015), IgM-Rheumatoid factor positive (p=0.035), erosions at hands and feet plain x-rays (p=0.036) and more commonly satisfying the 1987 revised classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (p=0.004). Features such as Raynaud's phenomenon, mechanic's hands and fever (e.g. accompanying findings) were more frequently reported in Group 2 (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In ASSD, the timing of appearance with respect to disease onset influences arthritis characteristics. In particular, RA features are more common when arthritis occurs from ASSD onset, suggesting an overlap between RA and ASSD in these patients. When arthritis appears during the follow-up, it is very close to a connective tissue disease-related arthritis. Also, the different prevalence of accompanying features between these two groups is in line with this possibility.


Assuntos
Artrite/epidemiologia , Miosite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/imunologia , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Autoimmun ; 86: 1-8, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate efficacy, safety and survival of belimumab and to identify predictors of drug response and drug discontinuation in patients with active SLE in clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of SLE patients, treated with belimumab, from 11 Italian prospective cohorts were analyzed. SLEDAI-2K, anti-dsDNA, C3, C4, prednisone daily dose, DAS-28, 24-h proteinuria, CLASIa (Cutaneous LE Disease Area and Severity Index Activity) were recorded at baseline and every 6 months. SLE Responder Index-4 (SRI-4) was calculated at 12 and 24 months. Demographic and clinical features and comorbidities were included in the univariate and multivariate analysis. Adverse events were recorded at each visit. Statistics was performed using the SPSS software. RESULTS: We studied 188 SLE patients, mean follow-up 17.5 ± 10.6 months. The most frequent manifestations, which required the use of belimumab, were polyarthritis (45.2%) and skin rashes (25.5%). SRI-4 was achieved by 77.0% and 68.7% of patients at 12 and 24-months. Independent predictors of 12-month response were SLEDAI-2K ≥ 10 (OR 40.46, p = 0.001) and polyarthritis (OR 12.64, p = 0.001) and of 24-month response were SLEDAI-2K ≥ 10 (OR 15.97, p = 0.008), polyarthritis (OR 32.36, p = 0.006), and prednisone ≥7.5 mg/day (OR 9.94, p = 0.026). We observed a low rate of severe adverse events. Fifty-eight patients (30.8%) discontinued belimumab after a mean follow-up of 10.4 ± 7.5 months. The drug survival was 86.9%, 76.9%, 69.4%, 67.1%, and 61.9% at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, respectively. No factors associated with drug discontinuation were found. CONCLUSION: Belimumab is effective and safe when used in clinical practice setting.

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