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1.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527748

RESUMO

""Sparse testing" refers to reduced multi-environment breeding trials in which not all genotypes of interest are grown in each environment. Using genomic-enabled prediction and a model embracing genotype × environment interaction (GE), the non-observed genotype-in-environment combinations can be predicted. Consequently, the overall costs can be reduced and the testing capacities can be increased. The accuracy of predicting the unobserved data depends on different factors including (1) how many genotypes overlap between environments, (2) in how many environments each genotype is grown, and (3) which prediction method is used. In this research, we studied the predictive ability obtained when using a fixed number of plots and different sparse testing designs. The considered designs included the extreme cases of (1) no overlap of genotypes between environments, and (2) complete overlap of the genotypes between environments. In the latter case, the prediction set fully consists of genotypes that have not been tested at all. Moreover, we gradually go from one extreme to the other considering (3) intermediates between the two previous cases with varying numbers of different or non-overlapping (NO)/overlapping (O) genotypes. The empirical study is built upon two different maize hybrid data sets consisting of different genotypes crossed to two different testers (T1 and T2) and each data set was analyzed separately. For each set, phenotypic records on yield from three different environments are available. Three different prediction models were implemented, two main effects models ( M1 and M2 ), and a model ( M3) including the genotype-by-environment interaction term (GE). The results showed that the genome-based model including GE ( M3 ) captured more phenotypic variation than the models that did not include this component. Also, M3 provided higher prediction accuracy than models M1 and M2 for the different allocation scenarios. Reducing the size of the calibration sets decreased the prediction accuracy under all allocation designs with M3 being the less affected model; however, using the genome-enabled models (i.e., M2 and M3 ) the predictive ability is recovered when more genotypes are tested across environments. Our results indicate that a substantial part of the testing resources can be saved when using genome-based models including GE for optimizing sparse testing designs.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276322

RESUMO

Prior knowledge on heterosis and quantitative genetic parameters on maize lethal necrosis (MLN) can help the breeders to develop numerous resistant or tolerant hybrids with optimum resources. Our objectives were to (1) estimate the quantitative genetic parameters for MLN disease severity, (2) investigate the efficiency of the prediction of hybrid performance based on parental per se and general combining ability (GCA) effects, and (3) examine the potential of hybrid prediction for MLN resistance or tolerance based on markers. Fifty elite maize inbred lines were selected based on their response to MLN under artificial inoculation. Crosses were made in a half diallel mating design to produce 307 F1 hybrids. All hybrids were evaluated in MLN quarantine facility in Naivasha, Kenya for two seasons under artificial inoculation. All 50 inbreds were genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) SNPs. The phenotypic variation was significant for all traits and the heritability was moderate to high. We observed that hybrids were superior to the mean performance of the parents for disease severity (-14.57%) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) (14.9%). Correlations were significant and moderate between line per se and GCA; and mean of parental value with hybrid performance for both disease severity and AUDPC value. Very low and negative correlation was observed between parental lines marker based genetic distance and heterosis. Nevertheless, the correlation of GCA effects was very high with hybrid performance which can suggests as a good predictor of MLN resistance. Genomic prediction of hybrid performance for MLN is high for both traits. We therefore conclude that there is potential for prediction of hybrid performance for MLN. Overall, the estimated quantitative genetic parameters suggest that through targeted approach, it is possible to develop outstanding lines and hybrids for MLN resistance.

3.
Virus Res ; 282: 197943, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205142

RESUMO

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a complex viral disease, emerged as a serious threat to maize production and the livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011, primarily due to the introduction of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in close partnership with national and international partners, implemented a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional strategy to curb the spread of MLN in sub-Saharan Africa, and mitigate the impact of the disease. The strategy revolved around a) intensive germplasm screening and fast-tracked development and deployment of MLN-tolerant/resistant maize hybrids in Africa-adapted genetic backgrounds; b) optimizing the diagnostic protocols for MLN-causing viruses, especially MCMV, and capacity building of relevant public and private sector institutions on MLN diagnostics and management; c) MLN monitoring and surveillance across sub-Saharan Africa in collaboration with national plant protection organizations (NPPOs); d) partnership with the private seed sector for production and exchange of MLN pathogen-free commercial maize seed; and e) awareness creation among relevant stakeholders about MLN management, including engagement with policy makers. The review concludes by highlighting the need to keep continuous vigil against MLN-causing viruses, and preventing any further spread of the disease to the major maize-growing countries that have not yet reported MLN in sub-Saharan Africa.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952130

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic basis of maize grain yield and other traits under low-nitrogen (N) stressed environments could improve selection efficiency. In this study, five doubled haploid (DH) populations were evaluated under optimum and N-stressed conditions, during the main rainy season and off-season in Kenya and Rwanda, from 2014 to 2015. Identifying the genomic regions associated with grain yield (GY), anthesis date (AD), anthesis-silking interval (ASI), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), ear position (EPO), and leaf senescence (SEN) under optimum and N-stressed environments could facilitate the use of marker-assisted selection to develop N-use-efficient maize varieties. DH lines were genotyped with genotyping by sequencing. A total of 13, 43, 13, 25, 30, 21, and 10 QTL were identified for GY, AD ASI, PH, EH, EPO, and SEN, respectively. For GY, PH, EH, and SEN, the highest number of QTL was found under low-N environments. No common QTL between optimum and low-N stressed conditions were identified for GY and ASI. For secondary traits, there were some common QTL for optimum and low-N conditions. Most QTL conferring tolerance to N stress was on a different chromosome position under optimum conditions.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1502, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824533

RESUMO

Genomic selection predicts the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of individuals not previously phenotyped. Several studies have investigated the accuracy of genomic predictions in maize but there is little empirical evidence on the practical performance of lines selected based on phenotype in comparison with those selected solely on GEBVs in advanced testcross yield trials. The main objectives of this study were to (1) empirically compare the performance of tropical maize hybrids selected through phenotypic selection (PS) and genomic selection (GS) under well-watered (WW) and managed drought stress (WS) conditions in Kenya, and (2) compare the cost-benefit analysis of GS and PS. For this study, we used two experimental maize data sets (stage I and stage II yield trials). The stage I data set consisted of 1492 doubled haploid (DH) lines genotyped with rAmpSeq SNPs. A subset of these lines (855) representing various DH populations within the stage I cohort was crossed with an individual single-cross tester chosen to complement each population. These testcross hybrids were evaluated in replicated trials under WW and WS conditions for grain yield and other agronomic traits, while the remaining 637 DH lines were predicted using the 855 lines as a training set. The second data set (stage II) consists of 348 DH lines from the first data set. Among these 348 best DH lines, 172 lines selected were solely based on GEBVs, and 176 lines were selected based on phenotypic performance. Each of the 348 DH lines were crossed with three common testers from complementary heterotic groups, and the resulting 1042 testcross hybrids and six commercial checks were evaluated in four to five WW locations and one WS condition in Kenya. For stage I trials, the cross-validated prediction accuracy for grain yield was 0.67 and 0.65 under WW and WS conditions, respectively. We found similar responses to selection using PS and GS for grain yield other agronomic traits under WW and WS conditions. The top 15% of hybrids advanced through GS and PS gave 21%-23% higher grain yield under WW and 51%-52% more grain yield under WS than the mean of the checks. The GS reduced the cost by 32% over the PS with similar selection gains. We concluded that the use of GS for yield under WW and WS conditions in maize can produce selection candidates with similar performance as those generated from conventional PS, but at a lower cost, and therefore, should be incorporated into maize breeding pipelines to increase breeding program efficiency.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877962

RESUMO

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), caused by co-infection of maize chlorotic mottle virus and sugarcane mosaic virus, can lead up to 100% yield loss. Identification and validation of genomic regions can facilitate marker assisted breeding for resistance to MLN. Our objectives were to identify marker-trait associations using genome wide association study and assess the potential of genomic prediction for MLN resistance in a large panel of diverse maize lines. A set of 1400 diverse maize tropical inbred lines were evaluated for their response to MLN under artificial inoculation by measuring disease severity or incidence and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). All lines were genotyped with genotyping by sequencing (GBS) SNPs. The phenotypic variation was significant for all traits and the heritability estimates were moderate to high. GWAS revealed 32 significantly associated SNPs for MLN resistance (at p < 1.0 × 10-6). For disease severity, these significantly associated SNPs individually explained 3-5% of the total phenotypic variance, whereas for AUDPC they explained 3-12% of the total proportion of phenotypic variance. Most of significant SNPs were consistent with the previous studies and assists to validate and fine map the big quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions into few markers' specific regions. A set of putative candidate genes associated with the significant markers were identified and their functions revealed to be directly or indirectly involved in plant defense responses. Genomic prediction revealed reasonable prediction accuracies. The prediction accuracies significantly increased with increasing marker densities and training population size. These results support that MLN is a complex trait controlled by few major and many minor effect genes.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Sementes/genética , Zea mays/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Potyvirus/patogenicidade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/virologia , Tombusviridae/patogenicidade , Zea mays/virologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13490, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530852

RESUMO

Little is known on maize germplasm adapted to the African highland agro-ecologies. In this study, we analyzed high-density genotyping by sequencing (GBS) data of 298 African highland adapted maize inbred lines to (i) assess the extent of genetic purity, genetic relatedness, and population structure, and (ii) identify genomic regions that have undergone selection (selective sweeps) in response to adaptation to highland environments. Nearly 91% of the pairs of inbred lines differed by 30-36% of the scored alleles, but only 32% of the pairs of the inbred lines had relative kinship coefficient <0.050, which suggests the presence of substantial redundancy in allelic composition that may be due to repeated use of fewer genetic backgrounds (source germplasm) during line development. Results from different genetic relatedness and population structure analyses revealed three different groups, which generally agrees with pedigree information and breeding history, but less so by heterotic groups and endosperm modification. We identified 944 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers that fell within 22 selective sweeps that harbored 265 protein-coding candidate genes of which some of the candidate genes had known functions. Details of the candidate genes with known functions and differences in nucleotide diversity among groups predicted based on multivariate methods have been discussed.

8.
Euphytica ; 215(8): 138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402796

RESUMO

Efficient production and use of doubled haploid lines can greatly accelerate genetic gains in maize breeding programs. One of the critical steps in standard doubled haploid line production is doubling the haploid genome using toxic and costly mitosis-inhibiting chemicals to achieve fertility in haploids. Alternatively, fertility may be spontaneously restored by natural chromosomal doubling, although generally at a rate too low for practical applications in most germplasm. This is the first large-scale genome-wise association study to analyze spontaneous chromosome doubling in haploids derived from tropical maize inbred lines. Induction crosses between tropicalized haploid inducers and 400 inbred lines were made, and the resulting haploid plants were assessed for haploid male fertility which refers to pollen production and haploid fertility which refers to seed production upon self-fertilization. A small number of genotypes were highly fertile and these fertility traits were highly heritable. Agronomic traits like plant height, ear height and tassel branch number were positively correlated with fertility traits. In contrast, haploid induction rate of the source germplasm and plant aspect were not correlated to fertility traits. Several genomic regions and candidate genes were identified that may control spontaneous fertility restoration. Overall, the study revealed the presence of large variation for both haploid male fertility and haploid fertility which can be potentially exploited for improving the efficiency of doubled haploid derivation in tropical maize germplasm.

9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(8): 2381-2399, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098757

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Analysis of the genetic architecture of MCMV and MLN resistance in maize doubled-haploid populations revealed QTLs with major effects on chromosomes 3 and 6 that were consistent across genetic backgrounds and environments. Two major-effect QTLs, qMCMV3-108/qMLN3-108 and qMCMV6-17/qMLN6-17, were identified as conferring resistance to both MCMV and MLN. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a serious threat to the food security of maize-growing smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa. The ability of the maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) to interact with other members of the Potyviridae causes severe yield losses in the form of MLN. The objective of the present study was to gain insights and validate the genetic architecture of resistance to MCMV and MLN in maize. We applied linkage mapping to three doubled-haploid populations and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 380 diverse maize lines. For all the populations, phenotypic variation for MCMV and MLN was significant, and heritability was moderate to high. Linkage mapping revealed 13 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for MCMV resistance and 12 QTLs conferring MLN resistance. One major-effect QTL, qMCMV3-108/qMLN3-108, was consistent across populations for both MCMV and MLN resistance. Joint linkage association mapping (JLAM) revealed 18 and 21 main-effect QTLs for MCMV and MLN resistance, respectively. Another major-effect QTL, qMCMV6-17/qMLN6-17, was detected for both MCMV and MLN resistance. The GWAS revealed a total of 54 SNPs (MCMV-13 and MLN-41) significantly associated (P ≤ 5.60 × 10-05) with MCMV and MLN resistance. Most of the GWAS-identified SNPs were within or adjacent to the QTLs detected through linkage mapping. The prediction accuracy for within populations as well as the combined populations is promising; however, the accuracy was low across populations. Overall, MCMV resistance is controlled by a few major and many minor-effect loci and seems more complex than the genetic architecture for MLN resistance.


Assuntos
Ligação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Sementes/genética , Tombusviridae/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/virologia , Alelos , Área Sob a Curva , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Clima Tropical
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888105

RESUMO

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) occurs when maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) co-infect maize plant. Yield loss of up to 100% can be experienced under severe infections. Identification and validation of genomic regions and their flanking markers can facilitate marker assisted breeding for resistance to MLN. To understand the status of previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL)in diverse genetic background, F3 progenies derived from seven bi-parental populations were genotyped using 500 selected kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) SNPs. The F3 progenies were evaluated under artificial MLN inoculation for three seasons. Phenotypic analyses revealed significant variability (P ≤ 0.01) among genotypes for responses to MLN infections, with high heritability estimates (0.62 to 0.82) for MLN disease severity and AUDPC values. Linkage mapping and joint linkage association mapping revealed at least seven major QTL (qMLN3_130 and qMLN3_142, qMLN5_190 and qMLN5_202, qMLN6_85 and qMLN6_157 qMLN8_10 and qMLN9_142) spread across the 7-biparetal populations, for resistance to MLN infections and were consistent with those reported previously. The seven QTL appeared to be stable across genetic backgrounds and across environments. Therefore, these QTL could be useful for marker assisted breeding for resistance to MLN.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Resistência à Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Potyvirus/patogenicidade , Análise de Componente Principal , Tombusviridae/patogenicidade , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/virologia
11.
Mol Breed ; 38(5): 66, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773962

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is the key determinant of food security for smallholder farmers. The sudden outbreak of maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is seriously threatening the maize production in the region. Understanding the genetic basis of MLN resistance is crucial. In this study, we used four biparental populations applied linkage mapping and joint linkage mapping approaches to identify and validate the MLN resistance-associated genomic regions. All populations were genotyped with low to high density markers and phenotyped in multiple environments against MLN under artificial inoculation. Phenotypic variation for MLN resistance was significant and heritability was moderate to high in all four populations for both early and late stages of disease infection. Linkage mapping revealed three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 3, 6, and 9 that were consistently detected in at least two of the four populations. Phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL in each population ranged from 3.9% in population 1 to 43.8% in population 2. Joint linkage association mapping across three populations with three biometric models together revealed 16 and 10 main effect QTL for MLN-early and MLN-late, respectively. The QTL identified on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, and 9 were consistent with the QTL identified by linkage mapping. Ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction with five-fold cross-validation revealed high accuracy for prediction across populations for both MLN-early and MLN-late. Overall, the study discovered and validated the presence of major effect QTL on chromosomes 3, 6, and 9 which can be potential candidates for marker-assisted breeding to improve the MLN resistance.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1919, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761177

RESUMO

Drought stress (DS) is a major constraint to maize yield production. Heat stress (HS) alone and in combination with DS are likely to become the increasing constraints. Association mapping and genomic prediction (GP) analyses were conducted in a collection of 300 tropical and subtropical maize inbred lines to reveal the genetic architecture of grain yield and flowering time under well-watered (WW), DS, HS, and combined DS and HS conditions. Out of the 381,165 genotyping-by-sequencing SNPs, 1549 SNPs were significantly associated with all the 12 trait-environment combinations, the average PVE (phenotypic variation explained) by these SNPs was 4.33%, and 541 of them had a PVE value greater than 5%. These significant associations were clustered into 446 genomic regions with a window size of 20 Mb per region, and 673 candidate genes containing the significantly associated SNPs were identified. In addition, 33 hotspots were identified for 12 trait-environment combinations and most were located on chromosomes 1 and 8. Compared with single SNP-based association mapping, the haplotype-based associated mapping detected fewer number of significant associations and candidate genes with higher PVE values. All the 688 candidate genes were enriched into 15 gene ontology terms, and 46 candidate genes showed significant differential expression under the WW and DS conditions. Association mapping results identified few overlapped significant markers and candidate genes for the same traits evaluated under different managements, indicating the genetic divergence between the individual stress tolerance and the combined drought and HS tolerance. The GP accuracies obtained from the marker-trait associated SNPs were relatively higher than those obtained from the genome-wide SNPs for most of the target traits. The genetic architecture information of the grain yield and flowering time revealed in this study, and the genomic regions identified for the different trait-environment combinations are useful in accelerating the efforts on rapid development of the stress-tolerant maize germplasm through marker-assisted selection and/or genomic selection.

13.
Trends Plant Sci ; 22(11): 961-975, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965742

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) facilitates the rapid selection of superior genotypes and accelerates the breeding cycle. In this review, we discuss the history, principles, and basis of GS and genomic-enabled prediction (GP) as well as the genetics and statistical complexities of GP models, including genomic genotype×environment (G×E) interactions. We also examine the accuracy of GP models and methods for two cereal crops and two legume crops based on random cross-validation. GS applied to maize breeding has shown tangible genetic gains. Based on GP results, we speculate how GS in germplasm enhancement (i.e., prebreeding) programs could accelerate the flow of genes from gene bank accessions to elite lines. Recent advances in hyperspectral image technology could be combined with GS and pedigree-assisted breeding.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Modelos Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Seleção Genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Aprendizado de Máquina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética
14.
Theor Appl Genet ; 130(2): 461-470, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27866226

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Mid-parent values of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance tested across several locations are a good predictor of hybrid performance caused by a preponderance of additive gene action in wheat. Hybrid breeding is intensively discussed as one solution to boost yield and yield stability including an enhanced biotic stress resistance. Our objectives were to investigate (1) the heterosis for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, (2) the importance of general (GCA) vs. specific combining ability (SCA) for FHB resistance, and (3) the possibility to predict the FHB resistance of the hybrids by the parental means. We re-analyzed phenotypic data of a large population comprising 1604 hybrids and their 120 female and 15 male parental lines evaluated in inoculation trials across seven environments. Mid-parent heterosis of FHB severity averaged -9%, with a range from -36 to +35%. Mean better parent heterosis was 2% and 78 of the hybrids significantly (P < 0.05) outperformed the best commercial check variety included in our study. FHB resistance was not correlated with grain yield in healthy status for lines (r = 0.01) and hybrids (r = 0.09, P < 0.01). While a preponderance of GCA variance (P < 0.01) was found, SCA variance was not significantly different from zero. Accuracy to predict hybrid performance of FHB severity based on mid-parent values and on GCA effects was high (r = 0.70 and 0.86, respectively; P < 0.01). Similarly, line per se performance and GCA effects were significantly correlated (r = 0.77; P < 0.01). The substantial level of mid-parent heterosis in the desired direction of decreased susceptibility and the negligible better parent heterosis suggest that hybrids are an attractive alternative variety type to improve FHB resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fusarium , Vigor Híbrido , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158635, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383841

RESUMO

Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica/métodos , Hibridização Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Pão/normas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Especificidade da Espécie , Triticum/classificação
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(51): 15624-9, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26663911

RESUMO

Hybrid breeding promises to boost yield and stability. The single most important element in implementing hybrid breeding is the recognition of a high-yielding heterotic pattern. We have developed a three-step strategy for identifying heterotic patterns for hybrid breeding comprising the following elements. First, the full hybrid performance matrix is compiled using genomic prediction. Second, a high-yielding heterotic pattern is searched based on a developed simulated annealing algorithm. Third, the long-term success of the identified heterotic pattern is assessed by estimating the usefulness, selection limit, and representativeness of the heterotic pattern with respect to a defined base population. This three-step approach was successfully implemented and evaluated using a phenotypic and genomic wheat dataset comprising 1,604 hybrids and their 135 parents. Integration of metabolomic-based prediction was not as powerful as genomic prediction. We show that hybrid wheat breeding based on the identified heterotic pattern can boost grain yield through the exploitation of heterosis and enhance recurrent selection gain. Our strategy represents a key step forward in hybrid breeding and is relevant for self-pollinating crops, which are currently shifting from pure-line to high-yielding and resilient hybrid varieties.


Assuntos
Vigor Híbrido , Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Algoritmos , Produtos Agrícolas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes
17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 128(10): 1957-68, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26152570

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genome-wide association analysis in tropical and subtropical maize germplasm revealed that MLND resistance is influenced by multiple genomic regions with small to medium effects. The maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) caused by synergistic interaction of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus, and has emerged as a serious threat to maize production in eastern Africa since 2011. Our objective was to gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying the resistance to MLND by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic selection. We used two association mapping (AM) panels comprising a total of 615 diverse tropical/subtropical maize inbred lines. All the lines were evaluated against MLND under artificial inoculation. Both the panels were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing. Phenotypic variation for MLND resistance was significant and heritability was moderately high in both the panels. Few promising lines with high resistance to MLND were identified to be used as potential donors. GWAS revealed 24 SNPs that were significantly associated (P < 3 × 10(-5)) with MLND resistance. These SNPs are located within or adjacent to 20 putative candidate genes that are associated with plant disease resistance. Ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction with five-fold cross-validation revealed higher prediction accuracy for IMAS-AM panel (0.56) over DTMA-AM (0.36) panel. The prediction accuracy for both within and across panels is promising; inclusion of MLND resistance associated SNPs into the prediction model further improved the accuracy. Overall, the study revealed that resistance to MLND is controlled by multiple loci with small to medium effects and the SNPs identified by GWAS can be used as potential candidates in MLND resistance breeding program.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Vírus do Mosaico/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zea mays/virologia
18.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 430, 2015 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26044734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB) severely impair wheat production. With the aim to further elucidate the genetic architecture underlying FHB and STB resistance, we phenotyped 1604 European wheat hybrids and their 135 parental lines for FHB and STB disease severities and determined genotypes at 17,372 single-nucleotide polymorphic loci. RESULTS: Cross-validated association mapping revealed the absence of large effect QTL for both traits. Genomic selection showed a three times higher prediction accuracy for FHB than STB disease severity for test sets largely unrelated to the training sets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the genetic architecture is less complex and, hence, can be more properly tackled to perform accurate prediction for FHB than STB disease severity. Consequently, FHB disease severity is an interesting model trait to fine-tune genomic selection models exploiting beyond relatedness also knowledge of the genetic architecture.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fusarium/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/etiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
19.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 4(9): 1585-91, 2014 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25237110

RESUMO

Many biologically and agronomically important traits are dynamic and show temporal variation. In this study, we used triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) as a model crop to assess the genetic dynamics underlying phenotypic plasticity of adult plant development. To this end, a large mapping population with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four partially connected families from crosses among six parents was scored for developmental stage at three different time points. Using genome-wide association mapping, we identified main effect and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) at all three time points. Interestingly, some of these QTL were identified at all time points, whereas others appear to only contribute to the genetic architecture at certain developmental stages. Our results illustrate the temporal contribution of QTL to the genetic control of adult plant development and more generally, the temporal genetic patterns of regulation that underlie dynamic traits.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo
20.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99848, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24927281

RESUMO

Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Estações do Ano , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Genoma de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
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