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1.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 66(6): 477-482, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28355655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proper treatment of patients with diffuse, severe coronary artery disease (CAD) is a challenge due to its complexity. Thus, data on the outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in this population is scarce. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of CABG on the clinical and functional status, as well as graft patency in those individuals. METHODS: Patients with severe and diffuse CAD who underwent incomplete CABG due to complex anatomy or extensive distal coronary involvement were evaluated preoperatively and 1 year after surgery. Postoperative coronary angiography was performed to evaluate graft patency. Graft occlusion was defined as the complete absence of opacification of the target vessel. Stratified analysis of graft occlusion was performed by graft type and territories, defined as left anterior descending artery (LAD), the left circumflex branch, and the right coronary artery territories; the latter two, grouped, were further classified as non-LAD territory. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients were included, in whom 131 grafts were placed. There was a significant improvement in Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina symptom severity (Z = -6.1; p < 0.001) and maximum oxygen uptake (p < 0.001), with a corresponding decrease in the use of long-acting nitrates (p < 0.001). The overall graft occlusion rate was 19.1%, with no significant difference between LAD and non-LAD territories (p = 0.08). However, a significantly lower occlusion rate was noted for the internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts when compared with saphenous vein grafts (p = 0.01), though this difference was only significant in the LAD territory (p = 0.04). Overall, the use of venous graft was the only predictor occlusion at 1 year (odds ratio: 4.03; p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: In patients with diffuse CAD, incomplete CABG surgery resulted in a significant clinical improvement, with acceptable graft occlusion rates at 1 year, particularly for IMA grafts to the LAD territory.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Idoso , Brasil , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(3 Supl 1): 1-104, 2017 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044300
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(3,supl.1): 1-104, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887936
4.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.141-151.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-971533
5.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.789-799.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-971568
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(5): 493-502, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-765001

RESUMO

AbstractBackground:The recording of arrhythmic events (AE) in renal transplant candidates (RTCs) undergoing dialysis is limited by conventional electrocardiography. However, continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring seems to be more appropriate due to automatic detection of arrhythmia, but this method has not been used.Objective:We aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of AE in RTCs using an implantable loop recorder (ILR).Methods:A prospective observational study conducted from June 2009 to January 2011 included 100 consecutive ambulatory RTCs who underwent ILR and were followed-up for at least 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to define predictors of AE.Results:During a mean follow-up of 424 ± 127 days, AE could be detected in 98% of patients, and 92% had more than one type of arrhythmia, with most considered potentially not serious. Sustained atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation occurred in 7% and 13% of patients, respectively, and bradyarrhythmia and non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred in 25% and 57%, respectively. There were 18 deaths, of which 7 were sudden cardiac events: 3 bradyarrhythmias, 1 ventricular fibrillation, 1 myocardial infarction, and 2 undetermined. The presence of a long QTc (odds ratio [OR] = 7.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01–26.35; p = 0.002), and the duration of the PR interval (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.08; p < 0.001) were independently associated with bradyarrhythmias. Left ventricular dilatation (LVD) was independently associated with non-sustained VT (OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.01–7.96; p = 0.041).Conclusions:In medium-term follow-up of RTCs, ILR helped detect a high incidence of AE, most of which did not have clinical relevance. The PR interval and presence of long QTc were predictive of bradyarrhythmias, whereas LVD was predictive of non-sustained VT.


ResumoFundamento:A documentação de eventos arrítmicos (EA) em candidatos a transplante renal (CTR) submetidos à diálise é limitada pelo registro de eletrocardiograma convencional. Um monitoramento contínuo do ritmo cardíaco parece ser o procedimento mais adequado para a detecção automática de arritmia, contudo esse método não foi explorado anteriormente.Objetivo:O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a incidência e os preditores de EA em CTR usando um gravador de eventos implantável, do inglês, “loop recorder implantável” (ILR).Métodos:Um estudo prospectivo observacional foi conduzido entre Junho/2009 a Janeiro/2011. Cem CTR ambulatoriais consecutivos foram submetidos ao ILR e acompanhados pelo menos por um ano. Uma regressão logística multivariada foi aplicada para definir os preditores de EA.Resultados:Durante o tempo médio de acompanhamento de 424 ± 127 dias, EA foram detectados em 98% dos pacientes, sendo que 92% deles tinham mais de um tipo de arritmia, a maioria não considerada potencialmente séria. Taquicardia atrial sustentada e fibrilação atrial ocorreram respectivamente em 7% e 13% dos pacientes; bradiarritmia em 25% e taquicardia ventricular (TV) não-sustentada ou sustentada em 57%. Ocorreram 18 óbitos, 7 por morte cardíaca súbita, 3 por bradiarritmias, 1 por fibrilação ventricular, 1 por infarto do miocárdio e 2 óbitos devido à causas desconhecidas. A presença de QTc longo (Razão de Probabilidade [RP] = 7,28; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC] 2,01-26,35; p = 0,002) e duração do intervalo PR (RP = 1,05; IC 95%: 1,02-1,08; p < 0,001) foram associados independentemente a bradiarritmias. A dilatação ventricular esquerda (DVE) foi independentemente associada à TV não-sustentada (RP = 2,83; IC 95%: 1,01-7,96; p = 0,041).Conclusões:Em acompanhamento de médio prazo de CTR, o ILR detectou uma alta incidência de EA, a maioria sem relevância clínica. O intervalo PR e a presença de QTc longo foram preditivos de bradiarritmias e DVE de TV não‑sustentada.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Transplante de Rim , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 105(5): 493-502, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26351983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recording of arrhythmic events (AE) in renal transplant candidates (RTCs) undergoing dialysis is limited by conventional electrocardiography. However, continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring seems to be more appropriate due to automatic detection of arrhythmia, but this method has not been used. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of AE in RTCs using an implantable loop recorder (ILR). METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted from June 2009 to January 2011 included 100 consecutive ambulatory RTCs who underwent ILR and were followed-up for at least 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to define predictors of AE. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 424 ± 127 days, AE could be detected in 98% of patients, and 92% had more than one type of arrhythmia, with most considered potentially not serious. Sustained atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation occurred in 7% and 13% of patients, respectively, and bradyarrhythmia and non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred in 25% and 57%, respectively. There were 18 deaths, of which 7 were sudden cardiac events: 3 bradyarrhythmias, 1 ventricular fibrillation, 1 myocardial infarction, and 2 undetermined. The presence of a long QTc (odds ratio [OR] = 7.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-26.35; p = 0.002), and the duration of the PR interval (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; p < 0.001) were independently associated with bradyarrhythmias. Left ventricular dilatation (LVD) was independently associated with non-sustained VT (OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.01-7.96; p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: In medium-term follow-up of RTCs, ILR helped detect a high incidence of AE, most of which did not have clinical relevance. The PR interval and presence of long QTc were predictive of bradyarrhythmias, whereas LVD was predictive of non-sustained VT.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Transplante de Rim , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 24(1): 42-48, jan.-mar. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-729292

RESUMO

A despeito dos incontestáveis avanços no tratamento médico e em procedimentos de revascularização miocárdica (percutâneous e cirúrgicos), sintomas debilitantes relacionados à doença arterial coronária podem ocorrer devido à progressão da doença com envolvimento difuso arterial e oclusão de enxertos prévios ou reestenose pós-angioplastia, impossibilitando novos procedimentos de revascularização miocárdica. Característica desta condição (angina refratária) é o grande prejuízo dos afetados em termos de qualidade de vida, impedidos de realizar as atividades mais triviais do dia-a-dia (caminhar poucos metros no plano ou mesmo banha-se) sem que a dor anginosa ocorra; alguns pacientes são despertados frequentemente durante a noite por angina. Assim, para estes pacientes, o objetivo principal do tratamento é a melhoria na qualidade de vida, com maior tolerância ao esforço, e menor necessidade de hospitalizações e procedimentos diagnósticos ou terapêuticos. Neste contexto, elencaremos sucintamente as principais estratégias terapêuticas não farmacológica em desenvolvimento para o tratamento de pacientes com angina refratária, incluindo terapia gênica, terapia celular, revascularização transmiocárdica a laser, contrapulsação externa, estimulação de medula espinhal e revascularização miocárdica extracorpórea por ondas de choque.


Despite great advances in both medical management and myocardial revascularization procedures (percutaneous and surgical), disabling symptoms due to coronary artery disease may occur due to progression of the beds, grafts failures after successful bypass surgery, and/or stent restenosis, preventing further revacularization attempts. Patients with refractory angina have a mared impairment in quality of life, unable to perform any daily avtivity such as slowl walking or even taking a bath without chest pain; many patients are awaken during their sleep due to chest disconfort. For theses patients, the main objective f treatment is to improve their quality of life, with better exercise tolerance, and decreased number of hospitalizations and/or diagnosis/therapeutic procedures. In this paper, we briefly discuss new non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies being developed for patients with adavanced CAD including gene therapy, cell therapy, transmyocardial laser revascularization, enhanced external conter-pulsation, spinal cord stimulation and extracorporeal shockwave myocardial revascularization.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica/tendências , Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/tendências , Terapia Genética/métodos
10.
Transplant Res ; 2(1): 18, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24176034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal transplant candidates are at high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to develop a new risk score model to determine the pre-test probability of the occurrence of significant CAD in renal transplant candidates. METHODS: A total of 1,060 renal transplant candidates underwent a comprehensive cardiovascular risk evaluation. Patients considered at high risk of CAD (age ≥50 years, with either diabetes mellitus (DM) or cardiovascular disease (CVD)), or having noninvasive testing suggestive of CAD were referred for coronary angiography (n = 524). Significant CAD was defined by the presence of luminal stenosis ≥70%. A binary logistic regression model was built, and the resulting logistic regression coefficient B for each variable was multiplied by 10 and rounded to the next whole number. For each patient, a corresponding risk score was calculated and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed. RESULTS: The final equation for the model was risk score = (age × 0.4) + (DM × 9) + (CVD × 14) and for the probability of CAD (%) = (risk score × 2) - 23. The corresponding ROC for the accuracy of the diagnosis of CAD was 0.75 (P <0.0001) in the developmental model. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a simple clinical risk score to determine the pre-test probability of significant CAD in renal transplant candidates. This model may help those directly involved in the care of patients with end-stage renal disease being considered for transplantation in an attempt to reduce the rate of cardiovascular events that presently hampers the long-term prognosis of such patients.

11.
RBM rev. bras. med ; 70(1/2)jan.-fev. 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-704870

RESUMO

Apesar de sua descrição há mais de 240 anos por W. Heberden(43), a angina do peito permanece como entidade clínica desafiadora. Desafia-nos pelo seu ainda não completamente entendido mecanismo fisiopatológico em que, na presença de fatores de risco, o grau de envolvimento aterosclerótico seja extremamente variado - alguns indivíduos com pequenas irregularidades parietais, outros com padrão obstrutivo multiarterial grave e, outros ainda, com lesão crítica caprichosamente envolvendo apenas o tronco da artéria coronária esquerda. Disso resulta também a multitude de apresentações clínicas, desde indivíduos completamente assintomáticos a despeito de extensa doença coronária até os com sintomas anginosos clássicos associados ao esforço; outros, ainda, serão surpreendidos, mesmo na ausência de sintomas prévios, pela síndrome coronária aguda. E há, infelizmente, indivíduos cuja primeira manifestação será a morte súbita cardíaca.Em relação ao tratamento, exige-se do clínico domínio da fisiopatologia para que opte, diante de tantas alternativas, pela combinação daquelas que promoverão alívio sintomático e redução de eventos cardiovasculares(44). E, diante da decisão de se prosseguir com a revascularização miocárdica, todos os dados referentes a determinado paciente são submetidos a escrutínio minucioso para que se conclua não apenas pela indicação de revascularização, mas por qual método. E, para aqueles pacientes em que todas as opções parecem falhar, e a angina refratária se estabelece, novas estratégias terapêuticas estão sendo desenvolvidas (fármacos, técnicas não invasivas e procedimentos invasivos)(45). É a busca incansável pelo alívio do sofrer e, se possível, do prolongamento da vida, preservando-a com qualidade.


Assuntos
Angina Estável
12.
Clin Transplant ; 26(6): 820-5, 2012 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22594694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether the advantages conferred by renal transplantation encompass all individuals or whether they favor more specific groups of patients. METHODS: One thousand and fifty-eight patients on the transplant waiting list and 270 receiving renal transplant were studied. End points were the composite incidence of CV events and death. Patients were followed up from date of placement on the list until transplantation, CV event, or death (dialysis patients), or from the date of transplantation, CV event, return to dialysis, or death (transplant patients). RESULTS: Younger patients with no comorbidities had a lower incidence of CV events and death independently of the treatment modality (log-rank=0.0001). Renal transplantation was associated with better prognosis only in high-risk patients (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Age and comorbidities influenced the prevalence of CV complications and death independently of the treatment modality. A positive effect of renal transplantation was documented only in high-risk patients. These findings suggest that age and comorbidities should be considered indication for early transplantation even considering that, as a group, such patients have a shorter survival compared with low-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Nefropatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Listas de Espera
14.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 26(4): 1392-6, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20861194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of unexplained sudden death (SD) and the factors involved in its occurrence in patients with chronic kidney disease are not well known. METHODS: We investigated the incidence and the role of co-morbidities in unexplained SD in 1139 haemodialysis patients on the renal transplant waiting list. RESULTS: Forty-four patients died from SD of undetermined causes (20% of all deaths; 3.9 deaths/1000 patients per year), while 178 died from other causes and 917 survived. SD patients were older and likely to have diabetes, hypertension, past/present cardiovascular disease, higher left ventricular mass index, and lower ejection fraction. Multivariate analysis showed that cardiovascular disease of any type was the only independent predictor of SD (P = 0.0001, HR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.46-3.22). Alterations closely associated with ischaemic heart disease like angina, previous myocardial infarction and altered myocardial scan were not independent predictors of SD. The incidence of unexplained SD in these haemodialysis patients is high and probably a consequence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Factors influencing SD in dialysis patients are not substantially different from factors in the general population. The role played by ischaemic heart disease in this context needs further evaluation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Transplante de Rim , Listas de Espera , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 4(1): 106-13, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21061106

RESUMO

Incomplete revascularization is associated with worse long-term outcomes. Autologous bone marrow cells (BMC) have recently been tested in patients with severe coronary artery disease. We tested the hypothesis that intramyocardial injection of autologous BMC increases myocardial perfusion in patients undergoing incomplete coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Twenty-one patients (19 men), 59 ± 7 years old, with limiting angina and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD), not amenable to complete CABG were enrolled. BMC were obtained prior to surgery, and the lymphomonocytic fraction separated by density gradient centrifugation. During surgery, 5 mL containing 2.1 ± 1.3 × 108 BMC (CD34+ = 0.8 ± 0.3%) were injected in the ischemic non-revascularized myocardium. Myocardial perfusion was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 1 month after surgery. The increase in myocardial perfusion was compared between patients with <50% (group A, n = 11) with that of patients with >50% (group B, n = 10) of target vessels (stenosis ≥ 70%) successfully bypassed. Injected myocardial segments included the inferior (n = 12), anterior (n = 7), and lateral (n = 2) walls. The number of treated vessels (2.3 ± 0.8) was significantly smaller than the number of target vessels (4.2 ± 1.0; P < 0.0001). One month after surgery, cardiac MRI showed a similar reduction (%) in the ischemic score of patients in group A (72.5 ± 3.2), compared to patients in group B (78.1 ± 3.2; P = .80). Intramyocardial injection of autologous BMC may help increase myocardial perfusion in patients undergoing incomplete CABG, even in those with fewer target vessels successfully treated. This strategy may be an adjunctive therapy for patients suffering from a more advanced (diffuse) CAD not amenable for complete direct revascularization.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Circulação Coronária , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Idoso , Brasil , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
In. Ribeiro, Ana Lucia Alves; Gabliani, Mayara Luciana. Psicologia e cardiologia: um desafio que deu certo. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2010. p.147-156.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-588348
20.
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 15(3): 144-146, jul.-set. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-507880

RESUMO

A doença arterial coronária (DAC) ocorre em 40% a 50% dos pacientes com doença renal crônica avançada (estágio V) e apresenta taxa de mortalidade anual de 9%. Transplante renal se acompanha de redução da mortalidade cardiovascular ecoronária, mas a incidência dessas complicações é ainda muito elevada em comparação com a da população geral. Por esses motivos, a investigação de DAC é uma etapa prioritária da avaliação de candidatos a transplante renal. Essa investigação é complicada pela baixa especificidade dos testes não-invasivos em renais crônicos e pela exclusão desses pacientes da maioria dos trabalhos sobre DAC. Atualmente, existem dois algoritmos para a avaliação de DAC em nefropatas: a proposta pela American Society of Transplantation (AST) e pela European Renal Association (ERA). No presente trabalho, discutimos as vantagens e limitações desses algoritmos e propomos um novo algoritmo com base em nossa experiência com uma coorte de mais de 1.000 pacientes candidatos a transplante renal avaliados em nosso serviço.


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is observed in 40% to 50% of patients with chronic kidney disease stage V with an annual mortality of 9%. Although renal transplantation is associated with a reduction of cardiovascular and coronary mortality, the incidence of these complications remains elevated compared to general population. As a consequence, evaluation of CAD is a fundamental step in the evaluation of patients candidates to renal transplantation. However, this task is complicated by the relatively low negative predictive value of non invasive testing and by the exclusion of renal patients in the majority of the trials on CAD. The America Society of Transplantation (AST) and The European Renal Association (ERA) proposed algorithms for the detectionof CAD in renal patients. In the present work, we discussed the main advantage and drawback of both algorithms and also forward a new algorithm based on our extensive experience with a cohort of more 1.000 renal transplant candidates evaluated in our Service.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Transplante de Rim , Insuficiência Renal Crônica
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