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1.
J Sch Health ; 90(3): 212-223, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence and bullying perpetration among boys are major public health problems. We address gaps in the literature by examining: (1) how risk and protective factors co-occur, and (2) how different risk/protection profiles are associated with violence and bullying perpetration among adolescent boys. METHODS: Data came from the population-based 2016 Minnesota Student Survey. The analytic sample included boys in grades 8, 9, and 11 (N = 63,818). Latent profile analyses identified patterns of 22 behavioral, intrapersonal, family, and school and community risk/protective factors. Logistic regression analyses examined how these patterns related to violence and bullying perpetration. RESULTS: We identified 5 groups: Class 1: Low risk, high safety, high connectedness; Class 2: Low risk, moderate safety, moderate connectedness; Class 3: Moderate risk, high safety, moderate connectedness; Class 4: High risk, moderate safety, low connectedness; and Class 5: High risk, low safety, low connectedness. Compared to Class 1, Class 5 students had the highest odds of all for violence and bullying perpetration. Class 4 students also demonstrated high odds of violence and bullying, compared to Class 1. Though not as high as Classes 4 or 5, Class 2 and 3 students showed higher odds for both outcomes, compared to Class 1. CONCLUSIONS: Substantive variations exist in boys who engage in violence and bullying. We highlight cumulative, co-occurring risk factors, connectedness to parents and other prosocial adults (eg, teachers), and school and neighborhood safety as important factors to address in school health programs seeking to prevent violence and bullying perpetration among boys.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917883

RESUMO

Research has identified discrimination and a lack of knowledgeable providers as major barriers for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals seeking care, which contributes to greater stress and significant health disparities affecting this population. However, research involving TGD youth is limited. The aim of this study, therefore, was to describe TGD adolescents' experiences, concerns and needs in healthcare settings, including their feedback on themes previously identified by healthcare providers (i.e. discomfort with gender-related topics, reasons for not asking patients about gender and previous training regarding gender diversity). The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 TGD-identified adolescents aged 14-17, living in Minnesota, USA in 2017-2018. Inductive thematic analysis was used to summarise participant comments into themes and subthemes. Two main themes were directly relevant to concerns and needs of TGD youth in healthcare settings and their views on healthcare providers' concerns: (a) asking about gender and pronouns and (b) training for healthcare providers. Findings suggest the need for revisions to clinic materials, infrastructure and protocols. Adding training to all general medical and nursing education to increase knowledge, comfort and competence around gender identity would further improve care and ultimately reduce healthcare disparities affecting TGD youth.

3.
West J Nurs Res ; 42(2): 81-89, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943875

RESUMO

Young peoples' acceptance and use of nontraditional, descriptive identity labels (e.g., pansexual, genderqueer) require nurses to consider moving beyond use of traditional terms (e.g., gay, transgender). This mixed methods study explores (a) labels used by sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) minority youth, (b) their expressed importance and meaning of these labels, and (c) differences in label usage. Sixty-six SOGI minority adolescents in British Columbia, Minnesota, and Massachusetts (mean age = 16.6) participated in "go-along" interviews; during interviews, 42 (63.6%) commented on labels. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare traditional versus nontraditional labels across participant demographic categories. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify representative themes. Approximately, 1/3 of participants used nontraditional sexual orientation identity labels; this finding was associated with a trans identity and nontraditional gender labels. Using terminology that is meaningful and representative to the youth themselves has potential to facilitate representative research and welcoming environments in practice.

4.
J Interpers Violence ; 35(3-4): 662-681, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294639

RESUMO

Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction (ps < .001) and perpetration: bullying and bringing a weapon to campus (ps < .001), with boys especially vulnerable to the negative effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research priorities and implications are discussed.

5.
J Sch Health ; 89(11): 883-889, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents are in a unique developmental stage, ideal for initiating healthy behaviors and benefiting from health promotion interventions. In this study, we used positive youth development and resilience frameworks, to investigate the role of internal assets as a protective factor for bullying and emotional distress among early adolescents, with attention to whether those associations vary by sex. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey, a cross-sectional, population-based survey of Minnesota youth. Participating eighth grade students (N = 42,841) reported on internal assets, physical, relational and cyberbullying involvement, and emotional distress. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex and controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, revealed that students with higher internal assets had lower odds of all forms of bullying victimization and perpetration than those with lower internal assets. Higher levels of internal assets were also associated with lower odds of emotional distress. All associations were significant for boys and girls, but appeared stronger for girls. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that internal assets may buffer young teens from bullying and from the emotional distress that may result from bullying involvement. Approaches bolstering internal assets may be beneficial for combating bullying and emotional distress during early adolescence.

6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446582

RESUMO

Research has indicated that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning (LGBQ) adolescents have disproportionately high rates of substance use compared to heterosexual peers; yet certain features of schools and communities have been associated with lower substance use rates in this population. To advance this field, research examining multiple levels of influence using measures developed with youth input is needed. With community, school, and student data, this study tested hypotheses that LGBQ students attending high schools and living in communities with more LGBQ-supportive environments (assessed with a novel inventory tool) have lower odds of substance use behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, prescription drug misuse, and other drug use) than their peers in less supportive LGBQ environments. Multilevel models using data from 2454 LGBQ students (54.0% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic white) in 81 communities and adjusting for student and school covariates found that LGBQ adolescents who lived in areas with more community support had lower odds of frequent substance use, particularly among females. Expanding and strengthening community resources (e.g., LGBQ youth-serving organizations, LGBQ events such as a Pride parade, and LGBQ-friendly services) is recommended to further support LGBQ adolescents and reduce substance use disparities.

7.
J Sch Nurs ; : 1059840519863094, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337243

RESUMO

Research on enacted stigma, or stigma- and bias-based victimization, including bullying and harassment, among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth often focuses on one context (e.g., school) or one form (e.g., bullying or microaggressions), which limits our understanding of these experiences. We conducted qualitative go-along interviews with 66 LGBTQ adolescents (14-19 years) in urban, suburban, town, and rural locations in the United States and Canada identified through purposive and snowball sampling. Forty-six participants (70%) described at least one instance of enacted stigma. Three primary themes emerged: (1) enacted stigma occurred in many contexts; (2) enacted stigma restricted movement; and (3) second-hand accounts of enacted stigma shaped perceptions of safety. Efforts to improve well-being among LGBTQ youth must address the diverse forms and contexts of enacted stigma that youth experience, which limit freedom of movement and potential access to opportunities that encourage positive youth development. School nurses can play a critical role in reducing enacted stigma in schools and in collaboration with community partners.

8.
J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv ; 31(3): 314-331, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327914

RESUMO

The social environment in which lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth live influences health and wellbeing. We describe the development of the LGBTQ Supportive Environments Inventory (LGBTQ SEI), designed to quantify the LGBTQ-inclusiveness of social environments in the US and Canada. We quantify aspects of the social environment: 1) Presence/quality of LGBTQ youth-serving organizations; 2) LGBTQ-inclusive Community Resources; 3) Socioeconomic and Political environment. Using GIS tools, we aggregated data to buffers around 397 schools in 3 regions. The LGBTQ SEI can be used to assess the role of the social environment in reducing health disparities for LGBTQ youth.

9.
J LGBT Youth ; 16(3): 235-254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156739

RESUMO

This study examines the intersection of sexual and gender identities among adolescents, including the prevalence of these groups and rates of emotional distress and bullying victimization. Data come from a large population-based sample; two measures of sexual orientation and gender identity create eight identity groups. Youth who report identifying both as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) and as transgender/gender diverse (TGD) had significantly higher levels of two measures of emotional distress and four measures of bullying victimization than those who report only identifying as LGBQ non-TGD or straight TGD. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

10.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 33(4): 379-385, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nurses and physicians receive minimal training about providing competent care to transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) patients, and training specific to TGD youth is particularly lacking. This qualitative study examined health care providers' experiences and attitudes about working with TGD youth to identify specific training needs. METHOD: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 nurses and physicians who work with adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to characterize participants' responses. RESULTS: Five themes summarized participants' responses to interview questions: Training Regarding Gender Diversity, Discomfort With Gender-Related Topics, Reasons for Not Asking About Gender, Talking About Gender With Patients, and Need for Resources. DISCUSSION: Findings highlight multiple opportunities to improve provider education and care experiences of TGD youth. Specific training is needed to help providers manage discomfort with gender-related topics and simultaneously develop their knowledge of and skills for discussing gender issues.

11.
J Gambl Stud ; 35(1): 79-92, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343416

RESUMO

Most gambling research utilizes general youth samples and focuses on binary gender categories; few studies examine and compare gambling behaviors between transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth and their cisgender peers. The current study used population-based data from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey to compare the prevalence of gambling behaviors and problem gambling among TGD versus cisgender adolescents, in addition to examining differences by birth-assigned sex. The analytic sample consisted of 80,929 students (including, n = 2168 [2.7%] TGD) in 9th and 11th grades. Chi-square tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used for all comparisons. TGD youth reported greater involvement in most gambling behaviors and problem gambling compared to cisgender youth. In comparisons by birth-assigned sex, TGD youth assigned male at birth were particularly at risk for gambling involvement and problem gambling. TGD youth assigned female at birth also reported higher rates of problem gambling than both cisgender youth assigned male and female at birth. Results suggest that examining rates of gambling behavior and problem gambling as well as identifying disparities in vulnerable youth populations is crucial in order to develop culturally responsive and gender inclusive prevention, intervention, and outreach programs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Rural Health ; 35(2): 270-281, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the root causes of the substantial disparities in risk and protective factors among transgender and gender diverse (TGD) adolescents is essential to the development and expansion of resources and supports for this vulnerable population. This study examines differences in emotional distress, bullying victimization, and protective factors among TGD high school students in city, suburban, town, and rural locations. METHODS: Data come from a statewide school-based survey conducted in Minnesota in 2016 (n = 2,168 TGD youth). Analysis of covariance models were used to predict the prevalence of multiple indicators of emotional distress, bullying victimization, and protective factors across the 4 location categories, with multiple adjustments. FINDINGS: Significant linear trends were observed for 2 emotional distress outcomes and 2 bullying victimization outcomes, with urban TGD students having the lowest rates and rural having the highest prevalences. Additional significant differences in emotional distress were noted, with unexpectedly high rates of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among suburban students. CONCLUSIONS: Helping TGD adolescents in all types of locations identify resources and supportive professionals is critical to supporting this population.

13.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(6): 787-794, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Important mental and physical health disparities exist for transgender and gender diverse youth compared with cisgender youth (i.e., those whose birth-assigned sex and gender identity align), yet little is known about factors that protect transgender and gender diverse youth from health problems. The objective of this paper is to identify modifiable protective factors in the lives of transgender and gender diverse adolescents, with the goal of informing efforts to eliminate disparities in depression, suicidality, and substance use in this population. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey examined associations between eight protective factors (connectedness to parents, adult relatives, friends, adults in the community, and teachers; youth development opportunities; and feeling safe in the community and at school) and depression, suicidality, and substance use (alcohol, binge drinking, marijuana, nicotine) among 2,168 adolescents who identified as transgender, genderqueer, genderfluid, or questioning their gender. Logistic regressions assessed the role of each protective factor separately and simultaneously. RESULTS: Each protective factor was associated with lower odds of emotional distress and substance use. When protective factors were examined simultaneously, parent connectedness was protective for all measures. Feeling safe at school and connected to adults in one's community protected against depression and suicidality; teacher connectedness buffered risk of substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Given that transgender and gender diverse youth report lower levels of connectedness and safety, bolstering an explicitly transgender and gender diverse-friendly network of caring parents, safe and supportive schools, and connections to adults in the community may support efforts to eliminate disparities in depression, suicidality, and substance use.


Assuntos
Fatores de Proteção , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
LGBT Health ; 5(5): 312-319, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As measures of birth-assigned sex, gender identity, and perceived gender presentation are increasingly included in large-scale research studies, data analysis approaches incorporating such measures are needed. Large samples capable of demonstrating variation within the transgender and gender diverse (TGD) community can inform intervention efforts to improve health equity. A population-based sample of TGD youth was used to examine associations between perceived gender presentation, bullying victimization, and emotional distress using two data analysis approaches. METHODS: This secondary data analysis of the Minnesota Student Survey included 2168 9th and 11th graders who identified as "transgender, genderqueer, genderfluid, or unsure about their gender identity." Youth reported their biological sex, how others perceived their gender presentation, experiences of four forms of bullying victimization, and four measures of emotional distress. Logistic regression and multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare and contrast two analysis approaches. RESULTS: Logistic regressions indicated that TGD youth perceived as more gender incongruent had higher odds of bullying victimization and emotional distress relative to those perceived as very congruent with their biological sex. Multifactor ANOVAs demonstrated more variable patterns and allowed for comparisons of each perceived presentation group with all other groups, reflecting nuances that exist within TGD youth. CONCLUSION: Researchers should adopt data analysis strategies that allow for comparisons of all perceived gender presentation categories rather than assigning a reference group. Those working with TGD youth should be particularly attuned to youth perceived as gender incongruent as they may be more likely to experience bullying victimization and emotional distress.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Pediatrics ; 141(3)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) adolescents have difficulty accessing and receiving health care compared with cisgender youth, yet research is limited by a reliance on small and nonrepresentative samples. This study's purpose was to examine mental and physical health characteristics and care utilization between youth who are TGNC and cisgender and across perceived gender expressions within the TGNC sample. METHODS: Data came from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, which consisted of 80 929 students in ninth and 11th grade (n = 2168 TGNC, 2.7%). Students self-reported gender identity, perceived gender expression, 4 health status measures, and 3 care utilization measures. Chi-squares and multiple analysis of covariance tests (controlling for demographic covariates) were used to compare groups. RESULTS: We found that students who are TGNC reported significantly poorer health, lower rates of preventive health checkups, and more nurse office visits than cisgender youth. For example, 62.1% of youth who are TGNC reported their general health as poor, fair, or good versus very good or excellent, compared with 33.1% of cisgender youth (χ2 = 763.7, P < .001). Among the TGNC sample, those whose gender presentation was perceived as very congruent with their birth-assigned sex were less likely to report poorer health and long-term mental health problems compared with those with other gender presentations. CONCLUSIONS: Health care utilization differs between TGNC versus cisgender youth and across gender presentations within TGNC youth. With our results, we suggest that health care providers should screen for health risks and identify barriers to care for TGNC youth while promoting and bolstering wellness within this community.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota
16.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(10): 1624-1632, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early adolescence is a critical risk period for initiation of substance use. Internal assets (IAs), which are individual qualities guiding positive choices, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are important protective and risk factors, respectively, against substance use. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether IAs modify associations between ACEs and early initiation of alcohol and marijuana use. METHOD: Data were from 9th and 11th graders who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (n = 79,339). Students reported on experiences of abuse, household dysfunction, and substance use. Multivariable logistic regressions examined associations between different types of ACEs and substance use. Interactions between IAs and ACEs were added to models to test effect modification. For significant interactions, main effects models were re-estimated at different percentiles of IAs. RESULT: IAs moderated associations of both abuse and household dysfunction with early initiation of marijuana (p <.003) and alcohol (p =.007) for females but not for males. For females with low IAs, odds of early initiation of marijuana were approximately twice as high as students without any ACEs. A similar pattern was detected for females' initiation of alcohol use. No effect modification was detected for IAs and experiencing only abuse or household dysfunction on initiation. CONCLUSION: Special attention should be paid to improving IAs among girls who have already experienced ACEs. Future research should examine protective factors that buffer the effects of ACEs for boys.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Prev Sci ; 19(6): 813-821, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032496

RESUMO

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience disproportionate rates of bullying compared to their heterosexual peers. Schools are well-positioned to address these disparities by creating supportive school climates for LGBT youth, but more research is needed to examine the variety of practices and professional development opportunities put in place to this end. The current study examines how school practices to create supportive LGBT student climate relate to student reports of bullying. Student-level data come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey, a state-wide survey of risk and protective factors. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 31,183) reported on frequency of physical and relational bullying victimization and perpetration and sexual orientation-based harassment. School administrators reported on six practices related to creating supportive LGBT school climate (N = 103 schools): having a point person for LGBT student issues, displaying sexual orientation-specific content, having a gay-straight alliance, discussing bullying based on sexual orientation, and providing professional development around LGBT inclusion and LGBT student issues. An index was created to indicate how many practices each school used (M = 2.45; SD = 1.76). Multilevel logistic regressions indicated that students attending schools with more supportive LGBT climates reported lower odds of relational bullying victimization, physical bullying perpetration, and sexual orientation-based harassment compared to students in schools with less supportive LGBT climates. Sexual orientation did not moderate these relations, indicating that LGBT-supportive practices may be protective for all students, regardless of their sexual orientation. Findings support school-wide efforts to create supportive climates for LGBQ youth as part of a larger bullying prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Meio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Acad Pediatr ; 18(1): 51-58, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure how weight status and weight perception relate to mental distress and psychosocial protective factors in adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents in 8th, 9th, and 11th grade participating in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 122,180) were classified on the basis of weight perception (overweight or not overweight) and weight status (not overweight, overweight, obese). Bivariate tests were used to assess the relationship of weight status and weight perception with internal mental distress, and generalized linear models were used to measure the association between weight status and weight perception with psychosocial protective factors including parent, school, and friend connectedness, social competency, and positive identity. Logistic regressions measured the relationship between psychosocial protective factors and internal mental distress. RESULTS: Prevalence of internal mental distress ranged from 14.5% for overweight boys who perceived themselves as not overweight to 55.0% for girls who were not overweight but self-perceived as overweight. Across all weight-status categories, adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight, compared to those who did not, had higher internal mental distress and lower mean levels of psychosocial protective factors. All psychosocial protective factors were related to lower odds of internal mental distress, with significant small differences by weight status and weight perception. CONCLUSIONS: Weight status and weight perception affected both mental distress and psychosocial protective factors. Those who perceived themselves as overweight, regardless of weight status, had the highest prevalence of mental distress and the lowest levels of psychosocial protective factors. Health care providers should consider screening for weight perception to provide a tailored approach to adolescent care.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Amigos , Relações Pais-Filho , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Homosex ; 65(8): 969-989, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820667

RESUMO

LGBTQ youth are at increased risk of poor health outcomes. This qualitative study gathered data from LGBTQ adolescents regarding their communities and describes the resources they draw on for support. We conducted 66 go-along interviews with diverse LGBTQ adolescents (mean age = 16.6) in Minnesota, Massachusetts, and British Columbia in 2014-2015, in which interviewers accompanied participants in their communities to better understand those contexts. Their responses were systematically organized and coded for common themes, reflecting levels of the social ecological model. Participants described resources at each level, emphasizing organizational, community, and social factors such as LGBTQ youth organizations and events, media presence, and visibility of LGBTQ adults. Numerous resources were identified, and representative themes were highly consistent across locations, genders, orientations, racial/ethnic groups, and city size. Findings suggest new avenues for research with LGBTQ youth and many opportunities for communities to create and expand resources and supports for this population.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Colúmbia Britânica , Redes Comunitárias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Minnesota , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Sex Health Rep ; 10(4): 246-254, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057341

RESUMO

Purpose of review: This paper examines recent research on bullying victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth to identify critical issues and advocate for future research priorities. Recent findings: Recent studies have begun to document the importance of bullying in general, and bias-based bullying (rooted in stigma) in particular, on the health and wellbeing of this vulnerable subgroup of adolescents, as well as drivers of disparities. Current research demonstrates the role of multiple identities for and important differences among LGBTQ youth and has begun to identify protective factors for youth who are the targets of bullying. Summary: Researchers, clinicians, and those working with and on behalf of LGBTQ youth must measure and acknowledge the multiple reasons for which LGBTQ youth are the targets of bullying. Intervention and prevention efforts should focus on improving the supportiveness of the climates within which LGBTQ youth live.

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