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2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518290

RESUMO

Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have historically had few options and faced extremely poor prognoses if their disease progressed after standard-of-care tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Recently, the standard of care for HCC has been transformed as a combination of the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) atezolizumab plus the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab was shown to offer improved overall survival in the first-line setting. Immunotherapy has demonstrated safety and efficacy in later lines of therapy as well, and ongoing trials are investigating novel combinations of ICIs and TKIs, in addition to interventions earlier in the course of disease or in combination with liver-directed therapies. Because HCC usually develops against a background of cirrhosis, immunotherapy for liver tumors is complex and oncologists need to account for both immunological and hepatological considerations when developing a treatment plan for their patients. To provide guidance to the oncology community on important concerns for the immunotherapeutic care of HCC, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts to develop a clinical practice guideline (CPG). The expert panel drew on the published literature as well as their clinical experience to develop recommendations for healthcare professionals on these important aspects of immunotherapeutic treatment for HCC, including diagnosis and staging, treatment planning, immune-related adverse events (irAEs), and patient quality of life (QOL) considerations. The evidence- and consensus-based recommendations in this CPG are intended to give guidance to cancer care providers treating patients with HCC.

3.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551969

RESUMO

Futibatinib, a highly selective, irreversible FGFR1-4 inhibitor, was evaluated in a large multihistology phase I dose-expansion trial that enrolled 197 patients with advanced solid tumors. Futibatinib demonstrated an objective response rate (ORR) of 13.7%, with responses in a broad spectrum of tumors (cholangiocarcinoma and gastric, urothelial, central nervous system, head and neck, and breast cancer) bearing both known and previously uncharacterized FGFR1-3 aberrations. The greatest activity was observed in FGFR2 fusion/rearrangement-positive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ORR, 25.4%). Some patients with acquired resistance to a prior FGFR inhibitor also experienced responses with futibatinib. Futibatinib demonstrated a manageable safety profile. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were hyperphosphatemia (81.2%), diarrhea (33.5%), and nausea (30.4%). These results formed the basis for ongoing futibatinib phase II/III trials and demonstrate the potential of genomically selected early-phase trials to help identify molecular subsets likely to benefit from targeted therapy.

4.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554208

RESUMO

Importance: Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) variations occur in up to approximately 20% of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. In the ClarIDHy trial, progression-free survival as determined by central review was significantly improved with ivosidenib vs placebo. Objective: To report the final overall survival (OS) results from the ClarIDHy trial, which aimed to demonstrate the efficacy of ivosidenib (AG-120)-a first-in-class, oral, small-molecule inhibitor of mutant IDH1-vs placebo for patients with unresectable or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma with IDH1 mutation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical phase 3 trial was conducted from February 20, 2017, to May 31, 2020, at 49 hospitals across 6 countries among patients aged 18 years or older with cholangiocarcinoma with IDH1 mutation whose disease progressed with prior therapy. Interventions: Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ivosidenib, 500 mg, once daily or matched placebo. Crossover from placebo to ivosidenib was permitted if patients had disease progression as determined by radiographic findings. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival as determined by blinded independent radiology center (reported previously). Overall survival was a key secondary end point. The primary analysis of OS followed the intent-to-treat principle. Other secondary end points included objective response rate, safety and tolerability, and quality of life. Results: Overall, 187 patients (median age, 62 years [range, 33-83 years]) were randomly assigned to receive ivosidenib (n = 126; 82 women [65%]; median age, 61 years [range, 33-80 years]) or placebo (n = 61; 37 women [61%]; median age, 63 years [range, 40-83 years]); 43 patients crossed over from placebo to ivosidenib. The primary end point of progression-free survival was reported elsewhere. Median OS was 10.3 months (95% CI, 7.8-12.4 months) with ivosidenib vs 7.5 months (95% CI, 4.8-11.1 months) with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.56-1.12]; 1-sided P = .09). When adjusted for crossover, median OS with placebo was 5.1 months (95% CI, 3.8-7.6 months; hazard ratio, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.34-0.70]; 1-sided P < .001). The most common grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse event (≥5%) reported in both groups was ascites (11 patients [9%] receiving ivosidenib and 4 patients [7%] receiving placebo). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events considered ivosidenib related were reported in 3 patients (2%). There were no treatment-related deaths. Patients receiving ivosidenib reported no apparent decline in quality of life compared with placebo. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that ivosidenib was well tolerated and resulted in a favorable OS benefit vs placebo, despite a high rate of crossover. These data, coupled with supportive quality of life data and a tolerable safety profile, demonstrate the clinical benefit of ivosidenib for patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma with IDH1 mutation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02989857.

5.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(10): 803-815, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment options are sparse for patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma after progression on first-line gemcitabine-based therapy. FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements occur in 10-16% of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Infigratinib is a selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors. We aimed to evaluate the antitumour activity of infigratinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, FGFR2 alterations, and previous gemcitabine-based treatment. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study recruited patients from 18 academic centres and hospitals in the USA, Belgium, Spain, Germany, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older, had histologically or cytologically confirmed, locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma and FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements, and were previously treated with at least one gemcitabine-containing regimen. Patients received 125 mg of oral infigratinib once daily for 21 days of 28-day cycles until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or death. Radiological tumour evaluation was done at baseline and every 8 weeks until disease progression via CT or MRI of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. The primary endpoint was objective response rate, defined as the proportion of patients with a best overall response of a confirmed complete or partial response, as assessed by blinded independent central review (BICR) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. The primary outcome and safety were analysed in the full analysis set, which comprised all patients who received at least one dose of infigratinib. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02150967, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 23, 2014, and March 31, 2020, 122 patients were enrolled into our study, of whom 108 with FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements received at least one dose of infigratinib and comprised the full analysis set. After a median follow-up of 10·6 months (IQR 6·2-15·6), the BICR-assessed objective response rate was 23·1% (95% CI 15·6-32·2; 25 of 108 patients), with one confirmed complete response in a patient who only had non-target lesions identified at baseline and 24 partial responses. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events of any grade were hyperphosphataemia (n=83), stomatitis (n=59), fatigue (n=43), and alopecia (n=41). The most common ocular toxicity was dry eyes (n=37). Central serous retinopathy-like and retinal pigment epithelial detachment-like events occurred in 18 (17%) patients, of which ten (9%) were grade 1, seven (6%) were grade 2, and one (1%) was grade 3. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Infigratinib has promising clinical activity and a manageable adverse event profile in previously treated patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma harbouring FGFR2 gene fusions or rearrangements, and so represents a potential new therapeutic option in this setting. FUNDING: QED Therapeutics and Novartis.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/induzido quimicamente , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/secundário , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Síndromes do Olho Seco/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperfosfatemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Radiossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Descolamento Retiniano/induzido quimicamente , Descolamento Retiniano/epidemiologia , Segurança , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3199, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045463

RESUMO

In patients with metastatic cancer, spatial heterogeneity of somatic alterations may lead to incomplete assessment of a cancer's mutational profile when analyzing a single tumor biopsy. In this study, we perform sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and distinct metastatic tissue samples from ten rapid autopsy cases with pre-treated metastatic cancer. We show that levels of heterogeneity in genetic biomarkers vary between patients but that gene expression signatures representative of the tumor microenvironment are more consistent. Across nine patients with plasma samples available, we are able to detect 62/62 truncal and 47/121 non-truncal point mutations in cfDNA. We observe that mutation clonality in cfDNA is correlated with the number of metastatic lesions in which the mutation is detected and use this result to derive a clonality threshold to classify truncal and non-truncal driver alterations with reasonable specificity. In contrast, mutation truncality is more often incorrectly assigned when studying single tissue samples. Our results demonstrate the utility of a single cfDNA sample relative to that of single tissue samples when treating patients with metastatic cancer.


Assuntos
Autopsia/métodos , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Mutação Puntual , RNA-Seq , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise Espacial , Fatores de Tempo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP2001010, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043449

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in patients younger than 50 years of age, commonly defined as early-onset (EO-CRC), is rising. EO-CRC often presents with distinct clinicopathologic features. However, data on prognosis are conflicting and outcomes with modern treatment approaches for metastatic disease are still limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) to a biobanking and clinical data collection protocol from 2014 to 2018. We grouped the cohort based on age at initial diagnosis: < 40 years, 40-49 years, and ≥ 50 years. We used regression models to examine associations among age at initial diagnosis, treatments, clinicopathologic features, and survival. RESULTS: We identified 466 patients with mCRC (45 [10%] age < 40 years, 109 [23%] age 40-49 years, and 312 [67%] age ≥ 50 years). Patients < 40 years of age were more likely to have received multiple metastatic resections (odds ratio [OR], 3.533; P = .0066) than their older counterparts. Patients with EO-CRC were more likely to receive triplet therapy than patients > 50 years of age (age < 40 years: OR, 6.738; P = .0002; age 40-49 years: OR, 2.949; P = .0166). Patients 40-49 years of age were more likely to have received anti-EGFR therapy (OR, 2.633; P = .0016). Despite differences in care patterns, age did not predict overall survival. CONCLUSION: Despite patients with EO-CRC receiving more intensive treatments, survival was similar to the older counterpart. However, EO-CRC had clinical and molecular features associated with worse prognoses. Improved biologic understanding is needed to optimize clinical management of EO-CRC. The cost-benefit ratio of exposing patients with EO-CRC to more intensive treatments has to be carefully evaluated.

8.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(5): 567-576, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030132

RESUMO

Treatment options in locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have evolved considerably over the past few years with the recent approval of multiple systemic therapies and significant advances in locoregional therapy. Given the poor prognosis for patients with unresectable HCC, there is significant interest in rationally designed combination therapies. This article reviews the treatment options available to patients with locally advanced HCC and discusses the rationale, ongoing trials, and future prospects for combining locoregional and systemic therapy in both the definitive and neoadjuvant settings.

9.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(5): 541-565, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030131

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers focus on the screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder cancer, and cancer of the bile ducts (intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma). Due to the multiple modalities that can be used to treat the disease and the complications that can arise from comorbid liver dysfunction, a multidisciplinary evaluation is essential for determining an optimal treatment strategy. A multidisciplinary team should include hepatologists, diagnostic radiologists, interventional radiologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, and pathologists with hepatobiliary cancer expertise. In addition to surgery, transplant, and intra-arterial therapies, there have been great advances in the systemic treatment of HCC. Until recently, sorafenib was the only systemic therapy option for patients with advanced HCC. In 2020, the combination of atezolizumab and bevacizumab became the first regimen to show superior survival to sorafenib, gaining it FDA approval as a new frontline standard regimen for unresectable or metastatic HCC. This article discusses the NCCN Guidelines recommendations for HCC.

10.
Pancreatology ; 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare tumor of the exocrine pancreas, representing less than 1% of all pancreatic malignancies. The majority of data regarding ACC are limited to small case series. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted at a large healthcare system from 1996 to 2019. Patients with pathologically confirmed ACC were included, and demographic data, tumor characteristics, and treatment outcomes were abstracted by chart review. Survival curves were obtained by using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients with ACC were identified. The median patient age at diagnosis was 64, and 42% presented with metastatic disease. The majority presented with abdominal pain or pancreatitis (69%), and laboratory parameters did not correlate with tumor size, metastatic disease, or survival. Several somatic abnormalities were noted in tumors (BRCA2, TP53, and mismatch-repair genes). In patients with localized disease that underwent resection, the median time to develop metastatic lesions was 13 months. The median overall survival (OS) was 24.7 months from diagnosis, with a survival difference based on metastatic disease at diagnosis (median 15 vs 38 mos). Surgery was associated with improved survival in non-metastatic cases (p = 0.006) but not metastatic cases (p = 0.22), and chemotherapy showed OS benefit in metastatic disease (p < 0.01). Patients with metastatic ACC treated after 2010 utilized more platinum-based agents, and there was a OS benefit to FOLFOX or FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy compared to gemcitabine or capecitabine-based regimens (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Pancreatic ACC patients often present with advanced disease. Surgery was associated with survival benefit among patients presenting with localized disease. The use of FOLFOX or FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy regimens was associated with improved OS in metastatic patients. These data add to our knowledge in this rare malignancy, and improves understanding about the genomic underpinnings, prognosis and treatment for acinar cancers.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(20): 5586-5594, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Detection of persistent circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) after curative-intent surgery can identify patients with minimal residual disease (MRD) who will ultimately recur. Most ctDNA MRD assays require tumor sequencing to identify tumor-derived mutations to facilitate ctDNA detection, requiring tumor and blood. We evaluated a plasma-only ctDNA assay integrating genomic and epigenomic cancer signatures to enable tumor-uninformed MRD detection. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 252 prospective serial plasma specimens from 103 patients with colorectal cancer undergoing curative-intent surgery were analyzed and correlated with recurrence. RESULTS: Of 103 patients, 84 [stage I (9.5%), II (23.8%), III (47.6%), IV (19%)] had evaluable plasma drawn after completion of definitive therapy, defined as surgery only (n = 39) or completion of adjuvant therapy (n = 45). In "landmark" plasma drawn 1-month (median, 31.5 days) after definitive therapy and >1 year follow-up, 15 patients had detectable ctDNA, and all 15 recurred [positive predictive value (PPV), 100%; HR, 11.28 (P < 0.0001)]. Of 49 patients without detectable ctDNA at the landmark timepoint, 12 (24.5%) recurred. Landmark recurrence sensitivity and specificity were 55.6% and 100%. Incorporating serial longitudinal and surveillance (drawn within 4 months of recurrence) samples, sensitivity improved to 69% and 91%. Integrating epigenomic signatures increased sensitivity by 25%-36% versus genomic alterations alone. Notably, standard serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels did not predict recurrence [HR, 1.84 (P = 0.18); PPV = 53.9%]. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma-only MRD detection demonstrated favorable sensitivity and specificity for recurrence, comparable with tumor-informed approaches. Integrating analysis of epigenomic and genomic alterations enhanced sensitivity. These findings support the potential clinical utility of plasma-only ctDNA MRD detection.See related commentary by Bent and Kopetz, p. 5449.

12.
Cancer Discov ; 11(10): 2488-2505, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926920

RESUMO

We conducted next-generation DNA sequencing on 335 biliary tract cancers and characterized the genomic landscape by anatomic site within the biliary tree. In addition to frequent FGFR2 fusions among patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC), we identified FGFR2 extracellular domain in-frame deletions (EID) in 5 of 178 (2.8%) patients with IHCC, including two patients with FGFR2 p.H167_N173del. Expression of this FGFR2 EID in NIH3T3 cells resulted in constitutive FGFR2 activation, oncogenic transformation, and sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors. Three patients with FGFR2 EIDs were treated with Debio 1347, an oral FGFR1/2/3 inhibitor, and all showed partial responses. One patient developed an acquired L618F FGFR2 kinase domain mutation at disease progression and experienced a further partial response for 17 months to an irreversible FGFR2 inhibitor, futibatinib. Together, these findings reveal FGFR2 EIDs as an alternative mechanism of FGFR2 activation in IHCC that predicts sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors in the clinic. SIGNIFICANCE: FGFR2 EIDs are transforming genomic alterations that occur predominantly in patients with IHCC. These FGFR2 EIDs are sensitive to FGFR inhibition in vitro, and patients with these alterations benefited from treatment with FGFR inhibitors in the clinic.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2355.

13.
Future Oncol ; 17(16): 2057-2074, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709779

RESUMO

Background: IDH1 mutations occur in approximately 13% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs). The oral, targeted, mutant IDH1 (mIDH1) inhibitor ivosidenib (AG-120) suppresses production of the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate, promoting disease stabilization and improved progression-free survival (PFS) in mIDH1 IHCC. Materials & methods: Harnessing matched baseline and on-treatment biopsies, we investigate the potential mechanisms underlying ivosidenib's efficacy. Results: mIDH1 inhibition leads to decreased cytoplasm and expression of hepatocyte lineage markers in patients with prolonged PFS. These findings are accompanied by downregulation of biliary fate, cell cycle progression and AKT pathway activity. Conclusion: Ivosidenib stimulates a hepatocyte differentiation program in mIDH1 IHCC, a phenotype associated with clinical benefit. mIDH1 inhibition could be a paradigm for differentiation-based therapy in solid tumors. Clinical trial registration: NCT02073994 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

14.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 95: 102170, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735689

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are rare but aggressive tumours of the bile ducts, which are often diagnosed at an advanced stage and have poor outcomes on systemic therapy. Somatic alterations with therapeutic implications have been identified in almost half of CCAs, in particular in intrahepatic CCA (iCCA), the subtype arising from bile ducts within the liver. Among patients with CCA, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) fusions or rearrangements occur almost exclusively in iCCA, where they are estimated to be found in up to 10-15% of patients. Clinical trials for selective FGFR kinase inhibitors have shown consistent activity of these agents in previously treated patients with iCCA harbouring FGFR alterations. Current FGFR kinase inhibitors show differences in their structure, mechanisms of target engagement, and specificities for FGFR1, 2, 3 and 4 and other related kinases. These agents offer the potential to improve outcomes in FGFR-driven CCA, and the impact of variations in the molecular profiles of the FGFR inhibitors on efficacy, safety, acquired resistance mechanisms, and patients' health-related quality of life remains to be fully characterized. The most common adverse event associated with FGFR inhibitors is hyperphosphatemia, an on-target off-tumour effect of FGFR1 inhibition, and strategies to manage this include dose adjustment, chelators, and the use of a low phosphate diet. As FGFR inhibitors and other targeted agents enter the clinic for use in FGFR-driven CCA, molecular testing for actionable mutations and monitoring for the emergence of acquired resistance will be essential.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Humanos
16.
Cancer ; 127(4): 619-627, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) assessing quality of life (QOL) and symptom burden correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with cancer. However, to the authors' knowledge, data regarding associations between PROs and treatment response are lacking. METHODS: The authors prospectively approached consecutive patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer who were initiating a new treatment. Prior to treatment, patients reported their QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G], 4 subscales: Functional, Physical, Emotional, Social; higher scores indicate better QOL) and symptom burden (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS], Patient Health Questionnaire-4 [PHQ-4]; higher scores represent greater symptoms). Regression models were used to examine associations of baseline PROs with treatment response (clinical benefit or progressive disease [PD] at time of first scan), healthcare utilization, and survival. RESULTS: From May 2019 to April 2020, a total of 112 patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer were enrolled. For treatment response, 64.3% had CB and 35.7% had PD. Higher baseline ESAS-Physical (odds ratio, 1.04; P = .027) and lower FACT-G Functional (odds ratio, 0.92; P = .038) scores were associated with PD. Higher ESAS-Physical (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; P = .044) and lower FACT-G Total (HR, 0.96; P = .005), FACT-G Physical (HR, 0.89; P < .001), and FACT-G Functional (HR, 0.87; P < .001) scores were associated with a greater hospitalization risk. Lower FACT-G Total (HR, 0.96; P = .009) and FACT-G Emotional (HR, 0.86; P = .012) scores as well as higher ESAS-Total (HR, 1.03; P = .014) and ESAS-Physical (HR, 1.04; P = .032) scores were associated with worse survival. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline PROs are associated with treatment response in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer, namely physical symptoms and functional QOL, in addition to health care use and survival. The findings of the current study support the association between PROs and important clinical outcomes, including the novel finding of treatment response.

17.
Oncologist ; 26(6): e1036-e1049, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as a treatment option for several malignancies. Nivolumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab plus ipilimumab, and atezolizumab plus bevacizumab have been approved for the management of advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to systematically review the literature and summarize the characteristics and outcomes of patients with HCC treated with ICIs. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed according to the PRISMA statement (end of search date: November 7, 2020). Quality of evidence assessment was also performed. RESULTS: Sixty-three articles including 2,402 patients were analyzed, 2,376 of whom received ICIs for unresectable HCC. Response to ICIs could be evaluated in 2,116 patients; the overall objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 22.7% and 60.7%, respectively, and the mean overall survival (OS) was 15.8 months. The ORR, DCR, and OS for nivolumab (n = 846) were 19.7%, 51.1%, and 18.7 months, respectively; for pembrolizumab (n = 435) they were 20.7%, 64.6% and 13.3 months, respectively. The combination of atezolizumab/bevacizumab (n = 460) demonstrated an ORR and DCR of 30% and 77%, respectively. The overall rate of treatment discontinuation because of adverse events was 14.9%. Fifteen patients received ICIs in the liver transplant (LT) setting (one pre-LT for bridging, 14 for post-LT recurrence); fatal graft rejection was reported in 40.0% (n = 6/15) and mortality in 80.0% (n = 12/15). CONCLUSION: ICIs are safe and effective against unresectable HCC, but caution is warranted regarding their use in the LT setting because of the high graft rejection rate. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This systematic review pooled the outcomes from studies reporting on the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for the management of 2,402 patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 2,376 of whom had unresectable HCC. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 22.7% and 60.7%, respectively, and the mean overall survival was 15.8 months. The overall rate of treatment discontinuation because of adverse events was 14.9%. Fifteen patients received ICIs in the liver transplant (LT) setting (one pre-LT for bridging, 14 for post-LT recurrence). Six of these patients experienced graft rejection (40.0%).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Nivolumabe
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combining inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor and the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) pathway has shown efficacy in multiple cancers, but the disease-specific and agent-specific mechanisms of benefit remain unclear. We examined the efficacy and defined the mechanisms of benefit when combining regorafenib (a multikinase antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor) with PD1 blockade in murine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models. BASIC PROCEDURES: We used orthotopic models of HCC in mice with liver damage to test the effects of regorafenib-dosed orally at 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg daily-combined with anti-PD1 antibodies (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally thrice weekly). We evaluated the effects of therapy on tumor vasculature and immune microenvironment using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, RNA-sequencing, ELISA and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies in mice and in tissue and blood samples from patients with cancer. MAIN FINDINGS: Regorafenib/anti-PD1 combination therapy increased survival compared with regofarenib or anti-PD1 alone in a regorafenib dose-dependent manner. Combination therapy increased regorafenib uptake into the tumor tissues by normalizing the HCC vasculature and increasing CD8 T-cell infiltration and activation at an intermediate regorafenib dose. The efficacy of regorafenib/anti-PD1 therapy was compromised in mice lacking functional T cells (Rag1-deficient mice). Regorafenib treatment increased the transcription and protein expression of CXCL10-a ligand for CXCR3 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes-in murine HCC and in blood of patients with HCC. Using Cxcr3-deficient mice, we demonstrate that CXCR3 mediated the increased intratumoral CD8 T-cell infiltration and the added survival benefit when regorafenib was combined with anti-PD1 therapy. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: Judicious regorafenib/anti-PD1 combination therapy can inhibit tumor growth and increase survival by normalizing tumor vasculature and increasing intratumoral CXCR3+CD8 T-cell infiltration through elevated CXCL10 expression in HCC cells.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(23): 6158-6167, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) modulates Wnt signaling, promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. High DKK1 expression has been detected in various tumor types-including biliary tract cancer (BTC)-and is associated with poor prognosis. DKN-01-a humanized mAb targeting DKK1-was evaluated in a phase I multicenter study in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with unresectable or metastatic BTC with no prior systemic therapy for advanced disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included a dose-escalation phase assessing DKN-01 at two dose levels (150 mg and 300 mg) combined with gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2) and cisplatin (25 mg/m2) followed by dose expansion. Primary endpoints evaluated safety and tolerability; secondary endpoints evaluated efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (63%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (8%), and gallbladder cancer (29%) were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities were seen, and the expansion phase proceeded with DKN-01 300 mg (N = 47). The most frequent grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events included neutropenia (60%), thrombocytopenia (34%), and anemia (23%). The objective response rate was 21.3% and median progression-free survival was 8.7 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-10.3 months). Better outcomes were associated with biomarkers of angiogenesis inhibition (increased sVEGFR1 and lower VEGF-C) and reduced inflammation (lower IL6 and decreased TNFα). CONCLUSIONS: DKN-01 300 mg was well tolerated in this combination but did not appear to have additional activity beyond historically reported efficacy with gemcitabine/cisplatin alone. Exploratory pharmacokinetic and biomarker data indicate potential antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory activity of DKN-01/chemotherapy and the need for increased dose/intensity. A study with DKN-01 600 mg in combination with a PD-1 inhibitor in BTC is ongoing.

20.
Oncologist ; 25(11): e1691-e1700, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic esophagogastric cancers (EGCs) have a poor prognosis with an approximately 5% 5-year survival. Additional treatment approaches are needed. c-MET gene-amplified tumors are an uncommon but potentially targetable subset of EGC. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated in patients with MET-amplified EGC and compared with those without MET amplification to facilitate identification of these patients and possible treatment approaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic MET-amplified EGC at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were identified using fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, with a gene-to-control ratio of ≥2.2 defined as positive. Non-MET-amplified patients identified during the same time period who had undergone tumor genotyping and treatment at MGH were evaluated as a comparison group. RESULTS: We identified 233 patients evaluated for MET amplification from 2002 to 2019. MET amplification was seen in 28 (12%) patients versus 205 (88%) patients without amplification. Most MET-amplified tumors occurred in either the distal esophagus (n = 9; 32%) or gastroesophageal junction (n = 10; 36%). Of MET-amplified patients, 16 (57%) had a TP53 mutation, 5(18%) had HER2 co-amplification, 2 (7.0%) had EGFR co-amplification, and 1 (3.5%) had FGFR2 co-amplification. MET-amplified tumors more frequently had poorly differentiated histology (19/28, 68.0% vs. 66/205, 32%; p = .02). Progression-free survival to initial treatment was substantially shorter for all MET-amplified patients (5.6 vs. 8.8 months, p = .026) and for those with metastatic disease at presentation (4.0 vs. 7.6 months, p = .01). Overall, patients with MET amplification had shorter overall survival (19.3 vs. 24.6 months, p = .049). No difference in survival was seen between low MET-amplified tumors (≥2.2 and <25 MET copy number) compared with highly amplified tumors (≥25 MET copy number). CONCLUSION: MET-amplified EGC represents a distinct clinical entity characterized by rapid progression and short survival. Ideally, the identification of these patients will provide opportunities to participate in clinical trials in an attempt to improve outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This article describes 233 patients who received MET amplification testing and reports (a) a positivity rate of 12%, similar to the rate of HER2 positivity in this data set; (b) the clinical characteristics of poorly differentiated tumors and nodal metastases; and (c) markedly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in MET-amplified tumors. Favorable outcomes are reported for patients treated with MET inhibitors. Given the lack of published data in MET-amplified esophagogastric cancers and the urgent clinical importance of identifying patients with MET amplification for MET-directed therapy, this large series is a valuable addition to the literature and will have an impact on future practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Amplificação de Genes , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Junção Esofagogástrica , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
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