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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) modulates Wnt signaling, promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. High DKK1 expression has been detected in various tumor types-including biliary tract cancer (BTC)-and is associated with poor prognosis. DKN-01-a humanized mAb targeting DKK1-was evaluated in a phase I multicenter study in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with unresectable or metastatic BTC with no prior systemic therapy for advanced disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included a dose-escalation phase assessing DKN-01 at two dose levels (150 mg and 300 mg) combined with gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2) and cisplatin (25 mg/m2) followed by dose expansion. Primary endpoints evaluated safety and tolerability; secondary endpoints evaluated efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (63%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (8%), and gallbladder cancer (29%) were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities were seen, and the expansion phase proceeded with DKN-01 300 mg (N = 47). The most frequent grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events included neutropenia (60%), thrombocytopenia (34%), and anemia (23%). The objective response rate was 21.3% and median progression-free survival was 8.7 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-10.3 months). Better outcomes were associated with biomarkers of angiogenesis inhibition (increased sVEGFR1 and lower VEGF-C) and reduced inflammation (lower IL6 and decreased TNFα). CONCLUSIONS: DKN-01 300 mg was well tolerated in this combination but did not appear to have additional activity beyond historically reported efficacy with gemcitabine/cisplatin alone. Exploratory pharmacokinetic and biomarker data indicate potential antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory activity of DKN-01/chemotherapy and the need for increased dose/intensity. A study with DKN-01 600 mg in combination with a PD-1 inhibitor in BTC is ongoing.

2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed patterns of failure and rates of subsequent biliary intervention among patients with resected biliary tract cancers (BTCs) including gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) and extra- and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCA and iCCA) treated with adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT). METHODS: In this single-institution retrospective analysis of 80 patients who had GBC (n = 29), eCCA (n = 43), or iCCA (n = 8) treated with curative-intent resection and adjuvant CRT from 2007 to 2017, the median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range 36-65 Gy) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. All but two of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The 2-year locoregional failure (LRF), 2-year recurrence-free survival (RFS), and 2-year overall survival (OS), and univariate predictors of LRF, RFS, and OS were calculated for the entire cohort and for a subgroup excluding patients with iCCA (n = 72). The predictors of biliary interventions also were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients (median follow-up period, 30.5 months; median OS, 33.9 months), 54.4% had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 1 or 2 disease, 57.1% were lymph node-positive, and 66.3% underwent margin-negative resection. For the entire cohort, 2-year LRF was 23.8%, 2-year RFS was  43.7%, and 2-year OS was 62.1%.  When patients with iCCA were excluded, the 2-year LRF was 22.6%, the 2-year RFS was 43.9%, and the 2-year OS was 59.2%. In the overall and subgroup univariate analyses, lymph node positivity was associated with greater LRF, whereas resection margin was not. Biliary intervention was required for 12 (63.2%) of the 19 patients with LRF versus 11 (18%) of the 61 patients without LRF (P < 0.001). Of the 12 patients with LRF who required biliary intervention, 4 died of biliary complications. CONCLUSIONS: The LRF rates remained significant despite adjuvant CRT. Lymph node positivity may be associated with increased risk of LRF. Positive margins were not associated with greater LRF, suggesting that CRT may mitigate LRF risk for this group. An association between LRF and higher rates of subsequent biliary interventions was observed, which may yield significant morbidity. Novel strategies to decrease the rates of LRF should be considered.

3.
Oncologist ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic esophagogastric cancers (EGCs) have a poor prognosis with an approximately 5% 5-year survival. Additional treatment approaches are needed. c-MET gene-amplified tumors are an uncommon but potentially targetable subset of EGC. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated in patients with MET-amplified EGC and compared with those without MET amplification to facilitate identification of these patients and possible treatment approaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic MET-amplified EGC at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were identified using fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, with a gene-to-control ratio of ≥2.2 defined as positive. Non-MET-amplified patients identified during the same time period who had undergone tumor genotyping and treatment at MGH were evaluated as a comparison group. RESULTS: We identified 233 patients evaluated for MET amplification from 2002 to 2019. MET amplification was seen in 28 (12%) patients versus 205 (88%) patients without amplification. Most MET-amplified tumors occurred in either the distal esophagus (n = 9; 32%) or gastroesophageal junction (n = 10; 36%). Of MET-amplified patients, 16 (57%) had a TP53 mutation, 5(18%) had HER2 co-amplification, 2 (7.0%) had EGFR co-amplification, and 1 (3.5%) had FGFR2 co-amplification. MET-amplified tumors more frequently had poorly differentiated histology (19/28, 68.0% vs. 66/205, 32%; p = .02). Progression-free survival to initial treatment was substantially shorter for all MET-amplified patients (5.6 vs. 8.8 months, p = .026) and for those with metastatic disease at presentation (4.0 vs. 7.6 months, p = .01). Overall, patients with MET amplification had shorter overall survival (19.3 vs. 24.6 months, p = .049). No difference in survival was seen between low MET-amplified tumors (≥2.2 and <25 MET copy number) compared with highly amplified tumors (≥25 MET copy number). CONCLUSION: MET-amplified EGC represents a distinct clinical entity characterized by rapid progression and short survival. Ideally, the identification of these patients will provide opportunities to participate in clinical trials in an attempt to improve outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This article describes 233 patients who received MET amplification testing and reports (a) a positivity rate of 12%, similar to the rate of HER2 positivity in this data set; (b) the clinical characteristics of poorly differentiated tumors and nodal metastases; and (c) markedly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in MET-amplified tumors. Favorable outcomes are reported for patients treated with MET inhibitors. Given the lack of published data in MET-amplified esophagogastric cancers and the urgent clinical importance of identifying patients with MET amplification for MET-directed therapy, this large series is a valuable addition to the literature and will have an impact on future practice.

4.
Cancer Res ; 80(16): 3215-3221, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606000

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes, which is mainly linked to obesity, is associated with increased incidence of liver cancer. We have previously found that in various models of obesity/diabetes, hyperinsulinemia maintains heightened hepatic expression of cyclin D1, suggesting a plausible mechanism linking diabetes and liver cancer progression. Here we show that cyclin D1 is greatly elevated in human livers with diabetes and is among the most significantly upregulated genes in obese/diabetic liver tumors. Liver-specific cyclin D1 deficiency protected obese/diabetic mice against hepatic tumorigenesis, whereas lean/nondiabetic mice developed tumors irrespective of cyclin D1 status. Cyclin D1 dependency positively correlated with liver cancer sensitivity to palbociclib, an FDA-approved CDK4 inhibitor, which was effective in treating orthotopic liver tumors under obese/diabetic conditions. The antidiabetic drug metformin suppressed insulin-induced hepatic cyclin D1 expression and protected against obese/diabetic hepatocarcinogenesis. These results indicate that the cyclin D1-CDK4 complex represents a potential selective therapeutic vulnerability for liver tumors in obese/diabetic patients. SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity/diabetes-associated liver tumors are specifically vulnerable to cyclin D1 deficiency and CDK4 inhibition, suggesting that the obese/diabetic environment confers cancer-selective dependencies that can be therapeutically exploited.

5.
Future Oncol ; 16(30): 2375-2384, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580579

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with poor overall survival. Approximately 15% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas contain FGFR alterations. Infigratinib is an oral FGFR 1-3 kinase inhibitor. Favorable results from a Phase II trial of infigratinib in advanced/metastatic FGFR-altered cholangiocarcinomas has led to its further investigation in the front-line setting. In this article we describe the design, objectives and rationale for PROOF 301, a Phase III multicenter, open label, randomized trial of infigratinib in comparison to standard of care gemcitabine and cisplatin in advanced/metastatic cholangiocarcinoma with FGFR2 translocations. The results of this study have the potential to define a new role for a chemotherapy-free, targeted therapy option in the front-line setting for these patients. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03773302 (ClincalTrials.gov).

6.
Cancer ; 126(15): 3569-3578, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers have substantial misperceptions regarding hospice, which contributes to its underuse. METHODS: The authors conducted a single-site randomized trial of a video educational tool versus a verbal description of hospice in 150 hospitalized patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers. Patients without a caregiver were eligible. Intervention participants (75 patients and 18 caregivers) viewed a 6-minute video depicting hospice. Control participants (75 patients and 26 caregivers) received a verbal description identical to the video narrative. The primary outcome was patient preference for hospice. Secondary outcomes included patient and/or caregiver knowledge and perceptions of hospice, and hospice use. RESULTS: Between February 2017 and January 2019, approximately 55.7% of eligible patients (150 of 269 eligible patients) and 44 caregivers were enrolled. After the intervention, there was no difference noted with regard to patients' preferences for hospice (86.7% vs 82.7%; P = .651). Patients in the video group reported greater knowledge regarding hospice (9.0 vs 8.4; P = .049) and were less likely to endorse that hospice is only about death (6.7% vs 21.6%; P = .010). Among deceased patients, those assigned to the intervention were more likely to have used hospice (85.2% vs 63.6%; P = .01) and to have had a longer hospice length of stay (median, 12 days vs 3 days; P < .001). After the intervention, caregivers assigned to view the video were more likely to prefer hospice for their loved ones (94.4% vs 65.4%; P = .031), reported greater knowledge concerning hospice (9.7% vs 8.0%; P = .001), and were less likely to endorse that hospice is only about death (0.0% vs 23.1%; P = .066). CONCLUSIONS: A hospice video did not significantly impact patients' preferences for hospice care. Patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers who were assigned to view the video were more informed regarding hospice and reported more favorable perceptions of hospice. Patients were more likely to use hospice and to have a longer hospice length of stay.

7.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(6): 796-807, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations occur in approximately 13% of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, a relatively uncommon cancer with a poor clinical outcome. The aim of this international phase 3 study was to assess the efficacy and safety of ivosidenib (AG-120)-a small-molecule targeted inhibitor of mutated IDH1-in patients with previously treated IDH1-mutant cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study included patients from 49 hospitals in six countries aged at least 18 years with histologically confirmed, advanced, IDH1-mutant cholangiocarcinoma who had progressed on previous therapy, and had up to two previous treatment regimens for advanced disease, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1, and a measurable lesion as defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) with a block size of 6 and stratified by number of previous systemic treatment regimens for advanced disease to oral ivosidenib 500 mg or matched placebo once daily in continuous 28-day cycles, by means of an interactive web-based response system. Placebo to ivosidenib crossover was permitted on radiological progression per investigator assessment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival by independent central review. The intention-to-treat population was used for the primary efficacy analyses. Safety was assessed in all patients who had received at least one dose of ivosidenib or placebo. Enrolment is complete; this study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02989857. FINDINGS: Between Feb 20, 2017, and Jan 31, 2019, 230 patients were assessed for eligibility, and as of the Jan 31, 2019 data cutoff date, 185 patients were randomly assigned to ivosidenib (n=124) or placebo (n=61). Median follow-up for progression-free survival was 6·9 months (IQR 2·8-10·9). Progression-free survival was significantly improved with ivosidenib compared with placebo (median 2·7 months [95% CI 1·6-4·2] vs 1·4 months [1·4-1·6]; hazard ratio 0·37; 95% CI 0·25-0·54; one-sided p<0·0001). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse event in both treatment groups was ascites (four [7%] of 59 patients receiving placebo and nine [7%] of 121 patients receiving ivosidenib). Serious adverse events were reported in 36 (30%) of 121 patients receiving ivosidenib and 13 (22%) of 59 patients receiving placebo. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Progression-free survival was significantly improved with ivosidenib compared with placebo, and ivosidenib was well tolerated. This study shows the clinical benefit of targeting IDH1 mutations in advanced, IDH1-mutant cholangiocarcinoma. FUNDING: Agios Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/enzimologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/enzimologia , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
8.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 40: 161-173, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421451

RESUMO

Targeted therapies have transformed the treatment paradigm in diseases such as non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma but have shown relatively modest clinical benefit in gastrointestinal malignancies. Anti-EGFR therapy in RAS wild-type colorectal cancer, anti-HER2 therapy in HER2- amplified esophagogastric cancer, and FGFR and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) inhibitors in FGFR2 fusion-positive and IDH1-mutant biliary tract cancers offer antitumor efficacy, but the clinical benefit and durability of response in each case are typically limited. We review targeted therapies in each of these therapeutic areas and discuss their clinical efficacy, mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance, and strategies to overcome this resistance. We discuss lessons learned that we hope will lead to an expanded role for molecularly targeted therapy options for patients with gastrointestinal cancers.

9.
Future Oncol ; 16(16): 1069-1081, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374623

RESUMO

Gemcitabine/cisplatin is standard of care for first-line treatment of patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC); new treatments are needed. NUC-1031 is designed to overcome key cancer resistance mechanisms associated with gemcitabine. The tolerability/efficacy signal of NUC-1031/cisplatin in the Phase Ib ABC-08 study suggested that this combination may represent a more efficacious therapy than gemcitabine/cisplatin for patients with aBTC, leading to initiation of the global NuTide:121 study which will include 828 patients ≥18 years with untreated histologically/cytologically-confirmed aBTC (including cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder or ampullary cancer); randomized (1:1) to NUC-1031 (725 mg/m2)/cisplatin (25 mg/m2) or gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2)/cisplatin (25 mg/m2), on days 1/8, Q21-days. Primary objectives are overall survival and objective response rate. Secondary objectives: progression-free survival, safety, pharmacokinetics, patient-reported quality of life and correlative studies. (Investigational new drug (IND) number: 139058, European Clinical Trials database: EudraCT Number 2019-001025-28, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04163900).

10.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 9(1): 7, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146818

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a set of molecularly distinct and heterogeneous diseases. While cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the current standard of care for treatment-naïve and treatment-refractory unresectable disease, recently identified mutations driving oncologic development offer opportunities for targeted therapy. Currently, alterations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), DNA damage repair, and HER2 pathways have demonstrated promising new therapeutic avenues, among others, and various studies have demonstrated clinical activity with targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors and/or antibodies. In this review, we will discuss the currently identified targets for therapy in BTCs and review currently available data regarding clinical development of treatment options in these molecularly distinct subsets.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/terapia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Humanos
12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1877-1885, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941831

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ctDNA offers a promising, noninvasive approach to monitor therapeutic efficacy in real-time. We explored whether the quantitative percent change in ctDNA early after therapy initiation can predict treatment response and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 138 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers and tumor profiling by next-generation sequencing had serial blood draws pretreatment and at scheduled intervals during therapy. ctDNA was assessed using individualized droplet digital PCR measuring the mutant allele fraction in plasma of mutations identified in tumor biopsies. ctDNA changes were correlated with tumor markers and radiographic response. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients enrolled. A total of 101 patients were evaluable for ctDNA and 68 for tumor markers at 4 weeks. Percent change of ctDNA by 4 weeks predicted partial response (PR, P < 0.0001) and clinical benefit [CB: PR and stable disease (SD), P < 0.0001]. ctDNA decreased by 98% (median) and >30% for all PR patients. ctDNA change at 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks, also predicted CB (P < 0.0001). Four-week change in tumor markers also predicted response (P = 0.0026) and CB (P = 0.022). However, at a clinically relevant specificity threshold of 90%, 4-week ctDNA change more effectively predicted CB versus tumor markers, with a sensitivity of 60% versus 24%, respectively (P = 0.0109). Patients whose 4-week ctDNA decreased beyond this threshold (≥30% decrease) had a median PFS of 175 days versus 59.5 days (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.55-7.00; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Serial ctDNA monitoring may provide early indication of response to systemic therapy in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer prior to radiographic assessments and may outperform standard tumor markers, warranting further evaluation.

13.
Invest New Drugs ; 38(5): 1533-1539, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898183

RESUMO

Subsets of esophagogastric (EG) cancers harbor genetic abnormalities, including amplification of HER2, MET, or FGFR2 or mutations in PIK3CA, EGFR, or BRAF. Ganetespib which is a novel triazolone heterocyclic inhibitor of HSP90, is a potentially biologically rational treatment strategy for advanced EG cancers with these gene amplification. This multicenter, single-arm phase 2 trial enrolled patients with histologically confirmed advanced EG cancer with progression on at least one line of systemic therapy. Patients received Ganetespib 200 mg/m2 IV on Days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included: Progression Free Survival (PFS); to correlate the presence of HSP clients with ORR and PFS; evaluating the safety, tolerability and adverse events profile. In this study 26 eligible patients mainly: male 77%, median age 64 years were enrolled. The most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (77%), fatigue (65%), elevated ALKP (42%), and elevated AST (38%). The most common grade 3/4 AEs included: leucopenia (12%), fatigue (12%), diarrhea (8%), and elevated ALKP (8%). The ORR of 4% reflects the single patient of 26 who had a complete response and stayed on treatment for more than seventy (70) months. Median PFS and OS was 61 days (2.0 months), 94 days (3.1 months) respectively. Ganetespib showed manageable toxicity. While the study was terminated early due to insufficient evidence of single-agent activity, the durable CR and 2 minor responses suggest that there may be a subset of EG patients who could benefit from this drug.

14.
Invest New Drugs ; 38(2): 433-444, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028664

RESUMO

Background Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/IDH2) enzymes produce the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Ivosidenib (AG-120) is a targeted mutant IDH1 inhibitor under evaluation in a phase 1 dose escalation and expansion study of IDH1-mutant advanced solid tumors including cholangiocarcinoma, chondrosarcoma, and glioma. We explored the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of ivosidenib in these populations. Methods Ivosidenib was administered orally once (QD) or twice (BID) daily in continuous 28-day cycles; 168 patients received ≥1 dose within the range 100 mg BID to 1200 mg QD. PK and PD were assessed using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assays. Results Ivosidenib demonstrated good oral exposure after single and multiple doses, was rapidly absorbed, and had a long terminal half-life (mean 40-102 h after single dose). Exposure increased less than dose proportionally. Steady state was reached by day 15, with moderate accumulation across all tumors (1.5- to 1.7-fold for area-under-the-curve at 500 mg QD). None of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors assessed affected ivosidenib exposure, including patient/disease characteristics and concomitant administration of weak CYP3A4 inhibitors/inducers. After multiple doses in patients with cholangiocarcinoma or chondrosarcoma, plasma 2-HG was reduced by up to 98%, to levels seen in healthy subjects. Exposure-response relationships for safety and efficacy outcomes were flat across the doses tested. Conclusions Ivosidenib demonstrated good oral exposure and a long half-life. Robust, persistent plasma 2-HG inhibition was observed in IDH1-mutant cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. Ivosidenib 500 mg QD is an appropriate dose irrespective of various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02073994).

15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(4): 1122-1129, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) treated with hypofractionated proton or photon radiation therapy (HF-RT). METHODS: We retrospectively identified 66 patients with ICC who were treated with HF-RT from 2008 to 2018. Median age at RT was 76 years (range 30-92), including 27 patients (41%) aged ≥ 80 years. Median RT dose was 58.05 Gy (range 37.5-67.5), all delivered in 15 daily fractions. Thirty-two patients received proton RT and 34 patients received photon RT. RESULTS: Median follow-up times from diagnosis and RT start were 21 months and 14 months, respectively. In total, five patients (7.6%) developed local failure. The 2-year outcomes were 84% local control (LC) and 58% OS. Among the 51 patients treated with definitive intent, the 2-year LC rate was 93% and the OS rate was 62%. On multivariate analysis for LC, older age was associated with a lower risk of local failure [hazard ratio (HR) 0.91; p = 0.02], while prior surgery (HR 16.5; p = 0.04) and macrovascular invasion (HR 123.93; p = 0.02) were independently associated with an increased risk of local failure. On multivariate analysis for OS, female sex (HR 0.33; p = 0.001) and prior chemotherapy (HR 0.38; p = 0.003) remained significantly associated with OS. On multivariate analysis for OS, compared with photon RT, there was a trend towards improved survival with proton RT (HR 0.50; p = 0.05). The rate of overall grade 3 + toxicity was 11%. One patient developed radiation-induced liver disease and was treated with corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: HF-RT yields high rates of local control and is an effective modality to optimize biliary control for unresectable/locally recurrent ICC.

16.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 23-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422372

RESUMO

AIMS: The histological distinction of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from metastatic adenocarcinoma remains a challenge. The primary goal was to evaluate the diagnostic value of morphology and albumin expression in the diagnosis of ICC. METHODS: We evaluated morphological patterns in 120 ICCs and 677 non-hepatic adenocarcinomas and performed in situ hybridisation (ISH) stain for albumin in the former cohort (retrospective cohort). We also identified 119 samples from primary and metastatic lesions, the validation cohort, in which albumin ISH was performed as part of the diagnostic workup. Targeted sequencing was performed on selected cases. We also mined existing expression profiling data including cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (41 760 unique samples). RESULTS: In the retrospective cohort, 45% of ICCs and <1% of non-hepatic adenocarcinomas showed a cholangiolar pattern; albumin ISH was positive in 93% of ICCs with significant intratumorous heterogeneity. In the validation cohort, 29% of ICCs showed a cholangiolar pattern and 88% expressed albumin, while all metastatic non-hepatic neoplasms were negative (n=37) (sensitivity 88% and specificity 100%). Targetable genetic alterations (IDH mutations and FGFR2 fusions) were identified in 31% of ICCs (10 of 32). An analysis of the TCGA data validated the specificity of the albumin assay. CONCLUSIONS: The cholangiolar pattern and albumin RNA ISH distinguishes ICC from metastatic adenocarcinoma with high specificity. Given the high prevalence of targetable mutations in ICC, albumin RNA ISH is an essential component in the workup of tumours of uncertain origin. A specific diagnosis of ICC could trigger molecular testing and uncover targetable genetic alterations.


Assuntos
Albuminas/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Hibridização In Situ , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/secundário , Biópsia por Agulha , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705172

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is associated with a poor prognosis with surgical resection offering the best chance for long-term survival and potential cure. However, in up to 36% of patients who undergo surgery, more extensive disease is found at time of operation requiring cancellation of surgery. PET/MR is a novel hybrid technology that might improve local and whole-body staging in ICC patients, potentially influencing clinical management. This study was aimed to investigate the possible management implications of PET/MR, relative to conventional imaging, in patients affected by untreated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Retrospective review of the clinicopathologic features of 37 patients with iCCC, who underwent PET/MR between September 2015 and August 2018, was performed to investigate the management implications that PET/MR had exerted on the affected patients, relative to conventional imaging. RESULTS: Of the 37 patients enrolled, median age 63.5 years, 20 (54%) were female. The same day PET/CT was performed in 26 patients. All patients were iCCC-treatment-naïve. Conventional imaging obtained as part of routine clinical care demonstrated early-stage resectable disease for 15 patients and advanced stage disease beyond the scope of surgical resection for 22. PET/MR modified the clinical management of 11/37 (29.7%) patients: for 5 patients (13.5%), the operation was cancelled due to identification of additional disease, while 4 "inoperable" patients (10.8%) underwent an operation. An additional 2 patients (5.4%) had a significant change in their operative plan based on PET/MR. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with standard imaging, PET/MR significantly influenced the treatment plan in 29.7% of patients with iCCC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2018P001334.

19.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1415-1421, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501609

RESUMO

During cancer therapy, tumor heterogeneity can drive the evolution of multiple tumor subclones harboring unique resistance mechanisms in an individual patient1-3. Previous case reports and small case series have suggested that liquid biopsy (specifically, cell-free DNA (cfDNA)) may better capture the heterogeneity of acquired resistance4-8. However, the effectiveness of cfDNA versus standard single-lesion tumor biopsies has not been directly compared in larger-scale prospective cohorts of patients following progression on targeted therapy. Here, in a prospective cohort of 42 patients with molecularly defined gastrointestinal cancers and acquired resistance to targeted therapy, direct comparison of postprogression cfDNA versus tumor biopsy revealed that cfDNA more frequently identified clinically relevant resistance alterations and multiple resistance mechanisms, detecting resistance alterations not found in the matched tumor biopsy in 78% of cases. Whole-exome sequencing of serial cfDNA, tumor biopsies and rapid autopsy specimens elucidated substantial geographic and evolutionary differences across lesions. Our data suggest that acquired resistance is frequently characterized by profound tumor heterogeneity, and that the emergence of multiple resistance alterations in an individual patient may represent the 'rule' rather than the 'exception'. These findings have profound therapeutic implications and highlight the potential advantages of cfDNA over tissue biopsy in the setting of acquired resistance.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/sangue , Biópsia Líquida , Autopsia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Estudos de Coortes , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(12): 4091-4099, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have demonstrated associations between surgical resections at academic centers and improved outcomes, particularly for complex operations. However, few studies have examined this relationship in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The hypothesis of this study was that facility type is associated with improved postoperative outcomes and survival for patients with ICC who undergo resection. METHODS: Patients with stages 1 to 3 ICC who underwent hepatectomy were identified using the National Cancer Database (NCDB) (2004-2014). Facilities were categorized as academic or community centers per Commission on Cancer designations. High-volume hospitals were those that performed 11 or more hepatectomies per year. Multilevel logistic mixed-effects models to identify predictors of outcomes and parametric survival-time models were used to determine overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The study identified 2256 patients. Of these patients, 423 (18.8%) were treated at community centers, and 1833 (81.3%) were treated at academic centers. Nearly all high-volume centers were academic facilities (98.5% academic vs. 1.5% community centers), whereas low-volume centers were mixed (65.5% academic vs. 34.5% community centers) (p < 0.001). Surgery performed at an academic center was an independent predictor of decreased positive margins (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.98; p = 0.04), a lower 90-day mortality rate (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.97; p = 0.03), and improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.96; p = 0.02). Facility hepatectomy volume was not independently associated with any short- or long-term outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment at an academic center is associated with fewer positive resection margins, a decreased 90-day mortality rate, and improved OS for patients who undergo ICC resection. Facility surgical volume was not shown to be significantly associated with any postoperative outcomes after adjustment for patient and disease characteristics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/mortalidade , Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Colangiocarcinoma/mortalidade , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Margens de Excisão , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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