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1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119026982, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684847

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association guidelines for early management of patients with ischemic stroke offer guidance to physicians involved in acute stroke care and clarify endovascular treatment indications. The purpose of this study was to assess concordance of physicians' endovascular treatment decision-making with current American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association stroke treatment guidelines using a survey-approach and to explore how decision-making in the absence of guideline recommendations is approached. Methods- In an international cross-sectional survey (UNMASK-EVT), physicians were randomly assigned 10 of 22 case scenarios (8 constructed with level 1A and 11 with level 2B evidence for endovascular treatment and 3 scenarios without guideline coverage) and asked to declare their treatment approach (1) under their current local resources and (2) assuming there were no external constraints. The proportion of physicians offering endovascular therapy (EVT) was calculated. Subgroup analysis was performed for different specialties, geographic regions, with regard to physicians' age, endovascular, and general stroke treatment experience. Results- When facing level 1A evidence, participants decided in favor of EVT in 86.8% under current local resources and in 90.6% under assumed ideal conditions, that is, 9.4% decided against EVT even under assumed ideal conditions. In case scenarios with level 2B evidence, 66.3% decided to proceed with EVT under current local resources and 69.7% under assumed ideal conditions. Conclusions- There is potential for improving thinking around the decision to offer endovascular treatment, since physicians did not offer EVT even under assumed ideal conditions in 9.4% despite facing level 1A evidence. A majority of physicians would offer EVT even for level 2B evidence cases.

2.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for efficacy and safety in stroke patients ≥80 years is limited, since they were underrepresented in randomized thrombectomy trials. This study sought to explore how physicians approach endovascular therapy (EVT) decision making in octogenarians and nonagenarians under their current local resources under assumed ideal conditions, i.e. without external (monetary or infrastructural) limitations. METHODS: In an international multidisciplinary survey, 607 physicians involved in acute stroke care were randomly assigned 10 out of a pool of 22 case scenarios with different evidence levels for EVT, 4 of which involved octogenarians and 2 nonagenarians, and asked how they would treat the patient in the given scenario A) under their current local resources and B) under assumed ideal conditions, i.e. with no external restraints. Decision rates were calculated and clustered multivariable regression analysis performed to determine adjusted measures of effect size for patient age. RESULTS: In octogenarians, physicians decided in favor of EVT in 76.7% (all of which were level 2B evidence scenarios) under current local resources and in 80.2% under assumed ideal conditions. In nonagenarians, 74.0% decided in favor of EVT under current local resources (level 1A scenarios: 87.7%, level 2B scenarios: 60.3%) and 79.2% would offer EVT under assumed ideal conditions (level 1A scenarios: 91.3%, level 2B scenarios: 67.2%). Age was not a significant predictor for treatment decision under current local resources (adjusted odds ratio, OR: 0.99, confidence interval, CI: 0.96-1.02 per decile increase) and under assumed ideal conditions (adjusted OR: 1.00, CI 0.97-1.03 per decile increase). CONCLUSION: The vast majority of physicians participating in this survey would offer EVT to acute ischemic stroke patients above 80 years.

3.
Neuroradiology ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713667

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the association of different measures of intracranial thrombus permeability on non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) with recanalization with or without intravenous alteplase. METHODS: Patients with anterior circulation occlusion from the INTERRSeCT study were included. Thrombus permeability was measured on non-contrast CT and CTA using the following methods: [1] automated method, mean attenuation increase on co-registered thin (< 2.5 mm) CTA/NCCT; [2] semi-automated method, maximum attenuation increase on non-registered CTA/NCCT (ΔHUmax); [3] manual method, maximum attenuation on CTA (HUmax); and [4] visual method, residual flow grade. Primary outcome was recanalization with intravenous alteplase on the revised AOL scale (2b/3). Regression models were compared using C-statistic, Akaike (AIC), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). RESULTS: Four hundred eighty patients were included in this analysis. Statistical models using methods 2, 3, and 4 were similar in their ability to discriminate recanalizers from non-recanalizers (C-statistic 0.667, 0.683, and 0.634, respectively); method 3 had the least information loss (AIC = 483.8; BIC = 492.2). A HUmax ≥ 89 measured with method 3 provided optimal sensitivity and specificity in discriminating recanalizers from non-recanalizers [recanalization 55.4% (95%CI 46.2-64.6) when HUmax > 89 vs. 16.8% (95%CI 13.0-20.6) when HUmax ≤ 89]. In sensitivity analyses restricted to patients with co-registered CTA/NCCT (n = 88), methods 1-4 predicted recanalization similarly (C-statistic 0.641, 0.688, 0.640, 0.648, respectively) with Method 2 having the least information loss (AIC 104.8, BIC 109.8). CONCLUSION: Simple methods that measure thrombus permeability are as reliable as complex image processing methods in discriminating recanalizers from non-recanalizers.

4.
Radiographics ; 39(6): 1717-1738, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589578

RESUMO

CT is the primary imaging modality used for selecting appropriate treatment in patients with acute stroke. Awareness of the typical findings, pearls, and pitfalls of CT image interpretation is therefore critical for radiologists, stroke neurologists, and emergency department providers to make accurate and timely decisions regarding both (a) immediate treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator up to 4.5 hours after a stroke at primary stroke centers and (b) transfer of patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) at CT angiography to comprehensive stroke centers for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) up to 24 hours after a stroke. Since the DAWN and DEFUSE 3 trials demonstrated the efficacy of EVT up to 24 hours after last seen well, CT angiography has become the operational standard for rapid accurate identification of intracranial LVO. A systematic approach to CT angiographic image interpretation is necessary and useful for rapid triage, and understanding common stroke syndromes can help speed vessel evaluation. Moreover, when diffusion-weighted MRI is unavailable, multiphase CT angiography of collateral vessels and source-image assessment or perfusion CT can be used to help estimate core infarct volume. Both have the potential to allow distinction of patients likely to benefit from EVT from those unlikely to benefit. This article reviews CT-based workup of ischemic stroke for making tPA and EVT treatment decisions and focuses on practical skills, interpretation challenges, mimics, and pitfalls.©RSNA, 2019.

5.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thromboembolic events are recognized complications of aneurysm coiling. OBJECTIVE: To identify any protective effects of antiplatelet therapy use before coiling of unruptured aneurysms. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical studies published up to February 2019. We included studies reporting symptomatic thromboembolic events (defined as clinical stroke or transient ischemic attacks) in patients who received antiplatelet therapy before coiling of unruptured aneurysms using unassisted coiling, balloon assistance, or multiple microcatheters. We excluded ruptured aneurysms and those treated with stent coiling or flow diverters. RESULTS: We identified 14 studies (2486 patients). All were single-center studies and four were prospective. In three studies with a control (no treatment) arm, the pooled risk ratio for symptomatic thromboembolic events with versus without antiplatelet therapy was 0.33 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.92, p= 0.035). The cumulative risk of symptomatic thromboembolic events with single antiplatelet agents was 5.0% '56/1122' (95% CI 1.6% to 8.4%, I183.63%), and with dual or multiple agents 2.7% '33/1237' (95% CI 1.0% to 3.0%, I139.9%). The incidence of diffusion lesions was reported in seven studies. It was 50.5% '96/190' (95% CI 7.3% to 93.9%, I194.4%) with single agents compared with 43.9% '196/446' (95% CI 25.9% to 61.9%, I173.4%) with dual or multiple agents. CONCLUSION: Periprocedural antiplatelet therapy was associated with a low symptomatic thromboembolic event after coiling-only for unruptured aneurysms. However, available evidence is of limited quality with significant heterogeneity, requiring evidence from randomized controlled trials.

6.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545347

RESUMO

Importance: Early treatment of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) reduces the risk of stroke. However, many patients present with symptoms that have an uncertain diagnosis. Patients with motor, speech, or prolonged symptoms are at the highest risk for recurrent stroke and the most likely to undergo comprehensive investigations. Lower-risk patients are much more likely to be cursorily investigated. Objective: To establish the frequency of acute infarct defined by diffusion restriction detected on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan (DWI positive). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Diagnosis of Uncertain-Origin Benign Transient Neurological Symptoms (DOUBT) study was a prospective, observational, international, multicenter cohort study of 1028 patients with low-risk transient or minor symptoms referred to neurology within 8 days of symptom onset. Patients were enrolled between June 1, 2010, and October 31, 2016. Included patients were 40 years or older and had experienced nonmotor or nonspeech minor focal neurologic events of any duration or motor or speech symptoms of short duration (≤5 minutes), with no previous stroke. Exposures: Patients underwent a detailed neurologic assessment prior to undergoing a brain MRI within 8 days of symptom onset. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was restricted diffusion on a brain MRI scan (acute stroke). Results: A total of 1028 patients (522 women and 506 men; mean [SD] age, 63.0 [11.6] years) were enrolled. A total of 139 patients (13.5%) had an acute stroke as defined by diffusion restriction detected on MRI scans (DWI positive). The final diagnosis was revised in 308 patients (30.0%) after undergoing brain MRI. There were 7 (0.7%) recurrent strokes at 1 year. A DWI-positive brain MRI scan was associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke (relative risk, 6.4; 95% CI, 2.4-16.8) at 1 year. Absence of a DWI-positive lesion on a brain MRI scan had a 99.8% negative predictive value for recurrent stroke. Factors associated with MRI evidence of stroke in multivariable modeling were older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), male sex (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.39-2.96), motor or speech symptoms (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.37-3.29), ongoing symptoms at assessment (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.29-3.02), no prior identical symptomatic event (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.11), and abnormal results of initial neurologic examination (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.11-2.65). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggested that patients with transient ischemic attack and symptoms traditionally considered low risk carry a substantive risk of acute stroke as defined by diffusion restriction (DWI positive) on a brain MRI scan. Early MRI is required to make a definitive diagnosis.

7.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3269-3273, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480968

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) thresholds associated with follow-up brain infarction may differ by time from symptom onset to imaging and reperfusion. We confirm CTP thresholds over time to imaging and reperfusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke from the HERMES collaboration (Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke Trials) data. Methods- Patients with occlusion on CT angiography were acutely imaged with CTP. Noncontrast CT and magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging at 24 to 48 hours defined follow-up infarction. Reperfusion was assessed on conventional angiogram. Tmax, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume maps were derived from delay-insensitive CTP postprocessing. These parameters were analyzed using receiver operator characteristics to derive optimal thresholds based on time from stroke onset-to-CTP or to reperfusion. ANOVA and linear regression were used to test whether the derived CTP thresholds were different by time. Results- One hundred thirty-seven patients were included. Tmax thresholds of >15.7 s and >15.8 s and absolute CBF thresholds of <8.9 and <7.5 mL·min-1·100 g-1 for gray matter and white matter respectively were associated with infarct if reperfusion was achieved <90 minutes from CTP with stroke onset-to-CTP <180 minutes. The discriminative ability of cerebral blood volume was modest. There were no statistically significant relationships between stroke onset-to-CTP time and Tmax, CBF, and cerebral blood volume thresholds (all P>0.05). A statistically significant relationship was observed between CTP-to-reperfusion time and the optimal thresholds for Tmax (P<0.001) and CBF (P<0.001). Similar but more modest relationship was noted for onset-to-reperfusion time and optimal thresholds for CBF (P≤0.01). Conclusions- CTP thresholds based on stroke onset and imaging time and taking into account time needed for reperfusion may improve infarct prediction in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

8.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3115-3120, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554502

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- We hypothesized that the pial collateral status at the time of presentation could predict the infarct size on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with similar degrees of early ischemic changes on computed tomography. We tested the association between serial changes in collateral status and infarct volume defined on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with large vessel occlusion and small core. Methods- Consecutive patients who were candidates for endovascular treatment (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score [ASPECTS] of ≥6 points) and who underwent both pretreatment multiphasic computed tomography angiography (mCTA) and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. The baseline early ischemic changes and collateral status were determined using both mCTA and magnetic resonance imaging-based collateral maps. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate adjusted estimates of the effect of collateral status on predicting MR DWI lesion volume before endovascular treatment. Results- Of 65 patients (39 men; median age, 76 years; median ASPECTS, 8 points [range, 6-10]), 10 (15.4%), 8 (12.3%), and 47 (72.3%) presented poor, intermediate, and good collaterals on mCTA, respectively. After adjusting for the initial stroke severity, ASPECTS, time to DWI, and mismatch volume, the mCTA collateral grade was the only factor independently associated with the DWI lesion volume (ß=-35.657, SE mean=3.539; P<0.0001). An excellent correlation between the mCTA- and magnetic resonance imaging-based collateral grades was observed (matching grade seen in 92.3%), suggesting a collateral status persistence during the hyperacute stroke phase. Conclusions- The mCTA assessed collateral adequacy is the sole predictor of eventual DWI lesion volume before endovascular treatment. The added value of collateral assessment in early ischemic changes and large vessel occlusion for decision-making regarding more aggressive revascularizations requires further evaluation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03234634 and NCT02668627.

9.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019869706, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment is recommended in clinical practice in Japan. However, its utilization and comprehensiveness are less well described. AIMS: To report endovascular treatment utilization and overall geographical coverage in Japan and to analyze regional differences in the number of endovascular treatments, specialists, and endovascular treatment-capable hospitals. METHODS: A national survey of members of the Japanese Society for NeuroEndovascular Therapy (JSNET) was conducted in 2017 and 2018. The total number of endovascular treatment cases per year was estimated, and the number of endovascular treatment cases per 100,000 people was calculated using the 2015 census. The distribution of treatment hospitals and JSNET specialists was mapped and the population coverage rate was determined. RESULTS: The total number of endovascular treatment cases in Japan increased by 34.5% from 2016 (7702) to 2017 (10,360). The number of endovascular treatment-capable hospitals in Japan increased from 597 in 2016 to 693 in 2017, with an average annual caseload of 14.9 in 2017. The number of JSNET specialists per hospital decreased from 1.81 in 2016 to 1.76 in 2017 because of the increase in endovascular treatment-capable hospitals. Only 50 (7.2%) hospitals had > 40 endovascular treatment cases annually. The majority (97.7%) of the Japanese population lives within a 60-min drive of any endovascular treatment-capable hospital. However, only 70.4% live within a 60-min drive of a high-volume center (>40 cases annually). CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of endovascular treatment in Japan is increasing; however, the number of cases per hospital remains low, as is the number of specialists per endovascular treatment-capable hospital. Increased number of specialists and centralization of endovascular treatment services may improve patient outcomes.

10.
Stroke ; 50(9): 2413-2419, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412753

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Previous studies have reported less favorable outcome and less effect of endovascular treatment (EVT) after ischemic stroke in women than in men. Our aim was to study the influence of sex on outcome and on the effect of EVT for ischemic stroke in recent randomized trials on EVT. Methods- We used data from 7 randomized controlled trials on EVT within the HERMES collaboration. The primary outcome was 90-day functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale). We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes between men and women. With ordinal logistic regression, we evaluated the association between EVT and 90-day functional outcome for men and women separately, adjusted for potential confounders. We tested for interaction between sex and EVT. Results- We included 1762 patients in the analyses, of whom 833 (47%) were women. Women were older (median, 70 versus 66 years; P<0.001), were smoking less often (30% versus 44%; P<0.001), and had higher collateral grades (grade 3: 46% versus 35%; P<0.001) than men. Functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2) at 90 days was reached by 318 women (39%) and 364 men (39%). The effect of EVT on the ordinal modified Rankin Scale was similar in women (adjusted common odds ratio [acOR], 2.13; 95% CI, 1.47-3.07) and men (acOR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.59-2.96), with a P for interaction of 0.926. Conclusions- Sex does not influence clinical outcome after EVT and does not modify treatment effect of EVT. Therefore, sex should not be a consideration in the selection of patients for EVT.

11.
Stroke ; 50(9): 2420-2427, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412752

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- We determined the effect of sex on outcome after endovascular stroke thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke, including lifelong disability outcomes. Methods- We analyzed patients treated with the Solitaire stent retriever in the combined SWIFT (Solitaire FR With the Intention for Thrombectomy), STAR (Solitaire FR Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularization), and SWIFT PRIME (Solitaire FR With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment) cohorts. Ordinal and logistic regression were used to examine known factors influencing outcome after endovascular stroke thrombectomy and study the effect of sex on the association between these factors and outcomes, including age and time to reperfusion. Years of optimal life after thrombectomy were defined as disability-adjusted life years and calculated by projecting disability through adjusted poststroke life expectancy by sex. Results- Among 389 patients treated with endovascular stroke thrombectomy, 55% were females, and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 17 (interquartile range, 8-28). There were no differences between females versus males in presenting deficit severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 17 versus 17, P=0.21), occlusion location (69% versus 64% M1, P=0.62), presenting infarct extent (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score 8 versus 8, P=0.24), rate of substantial reperfusion (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b/3, 87% versus 83%, P=0.37), onset to reperfusion time (294 versus 302 minutes, P=0.46). Despite older ages (69 versus 64, P<0.001) and higher rate of atrial fibrillation (45% versus 30%, P=0.002) for females compared with males, adjusted rates of functional independence at 90 days were similar (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6-1.6). After adjusting for age at presentation and stroke severity, females had more years of optimal life (disability-adjusted life year) after endovascular stroke thrombectomy, 10.6 versus 8.5 years (P<0.001). Conclusions- Despite greater age and higher rate of atrial fibrillation, females experienced comparable functional outcomes and greater years of optimal life after intervention compared with males.

12.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differences in the treatment practice of female and male physicians have been shown in several medical subspecialties. It is currently not known whether this also applies to endovascular stroke treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore whether there are differences in endovascular treatment decisions made by female and male stroke physicians and neurointerventionalists. METHODS: In an international survey, stroke physicians and neurointerventionalists were randomly assigned 10 case scenarios and asked how they would treat the patient: (A) assuming there were no external constraints and (B) given their local working conditions. Descriptive statistics were used to describe baseline demographics, and the adjusted OR for physician gender as a predictor of endovascular treatment decision was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: 607 physicians (97 women, 508 men, 2 who did not wish to declare) participated in this survey. Physician gender was neither a significant predictor for endovascular treatment decision under assumed ideal conditions (endovascular therapy was favored by 77.0% of female and 79.3% of male physicians, adjusted OR 1.03, P=0.806) nor under current local resources (endovascular therapy was favored by 69.1% of female and 76.9% of male physicians, adjusted OR 1.03, P=0.814). CONCLUSION: Endovascular therapy decision making between male and female physicians did not differ under assumed ideal conditions or under current local resources.

13.
Stroke ; 50(9): 2441-2447, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327314

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Little is known about the real-life factors that clinicians use in selection of patients that would receive endovascular treatment (EVT) in the real world. We sought to determine patient, practitioner, and health system factors associated with therapeutic decisions around endovascular treatment. Methods- We conducted a multinational cross-sectional web-based study comprising of 607 clinicians and interventionalists from 38 countries who are directly involved in acute stroke care. Participants were randomly allocated to 10 from a pool of 22 acute stroke case scenarios. Each case was classified as either Class I, Class II, or unknown evidence according to the current guidelines. We used logistic regression analysis applying weight of evidence approach. Main outcome measures were multilevel factors associated with EVT, adherence to current EVT guidelines, and practice gaps between current and ideal practice settings. Results- Of the 1330 invited participants, 607 (45.6%) participants completed the study (53.7% neurologists, 28.5% neurointerventional radiologists, 17.8% other clinicians). The weighed evidence approach revealed that National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (34.9%), level of evidence (30.2%), ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) or ischemic core volume (22.4%), patient's age (21.6%), and clinicians' experience in EVT use (19.3%) are the most important factors for EVT decision. Of 2208 responses that met Class I evidence for EVT, 1917 (86.8%) were in favor of EVT. In case scenarios with no available guidelines, 1070 of 1380 (77.5%) responses favored EVT. Comparison between current and ideal practice settings revealed a small practice gap (941 of 6070 responses, 15.5%). Conclusions- In this large multinational survey, stroke severity, guideline-based level of evidence, baseline brain imaging, patients' age and physicians' experience were the most relevant factors for EVT decision-making. The high agreement between responses and Class I guideline recommendations and high EVT use even when guidelines were not available reflect the real-world acceptance of EVT as standard of care in patients with disabling acute ischemic stroke.

14.
Ann Neurol ; 86(3): 395-406, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The substantial clinical improvement in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT), combined with the poor response of proximal intracranial occlusions to intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), led to questions regarding the utility of bridging therapy (BT; IVT followed by MT) compared to direct mechanical thrombectomy (dMT) for AIS patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO). METHODS: We aimed to investigate the comparative safety and efficacy of BT and dMT in AIS patients. We included all observational studies and post hoc analyses from randomized controlled clinical trials that provided data on the outcomes of AIS patients with LVO stratified by IVT treatment status prior to MT. RESULTS: We identified 38 eligible observational studies (11,798 LVO patients, mean age = 68 years, 56% treated with BT). In unadjusted analyses, BT was associated with a higher likelihood of 3-month functional independence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-1.76), 3-month functional improvement (common OR [cOR] for 1-point decrease in modified Rankin Scale score = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.18-1.97), early neurological improvement (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.83-1.76), successful recanalization (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02-1.46), and successful recanalization with ≤2 device passes (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.43-3.64) compared to dMT. BT was also related to a lower likelihood of 3-month mortality (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.57-0.73). In the adjusted analyses, BT was independently associated with a higher likelihood of 3-month functional independence (adjusted OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.26-1.91) and lower odds of 3-month mortality (adjusted OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.97) compared to dMT. The two groups did not differ in functional improvement (adjusted cOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.89-1.74) or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.61-1.25). INTERPRETATION: BT appears to be associated with improved functional independence without evidence for safety concerns, compared to dMT, for AIS patients with LVO. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:395-406.

15.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The time-benefit relationship of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) according to the size of the core infarct has been incompletely explored in prior studies. We investigated whether established infarct core size on baseline imaging modifies the relationship between onset-to-reperfusion time (OTR) and functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with EVT. METHODS: We analyzed a database containing individual patient data pooled from three prospective Solitaire stent retriever studies. The inclusion criteria were treatment with a Solitaire device and achievement of substantial reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b-3). Main analyses were performed in patients with baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores (ASPECTSs) of 7-10. RESULTS: Among the 305 patients (mean age 67±13 years, 58% women), the proportions of patients in different categories of pretreatment infarct extent were: small (ASPECTS 9-10) 52.0%, moderate (ASPECTS 7-8) 37.1%, and large (ASPECTS 0-6) 7.6%. The mean OTR was 297±95 min. At 3 months, 60.1% of the patients achieved a good outcome. For OTRs of 2-8 hours, the rates of good outcomes at all time points were higher with higher baseline ASPECTS but declined with similar steepness. Both baseline ASPECTS (OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.45)) and OTR (every 30 min delay, OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.88)) were independently associated with a good 3-month outcome. No interaction between OTR and baseline ASPECTS was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with higher baseline ASPECTS are more likely to have good clinical outcomes at all OTR intervals after 2 hours, this benefit consistently declines with time, even in patients with a small infarct core, reinforcing the need to treat all patients as quickly as possible.

16.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic complications are not uncommon in patients undergoing neurointerventional procedures. The use of flow diverting stents is associated with higher risks of these complications despite current dual antiplatelet regimens. OBJECTIVE: To explore contemporary evidence on the safety of emerging dual antiplatelet regimens in flow diverting stenting procedures. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify relevant articles in electronic databases, and relevant references. Studies reporting the complications and mortality of flow diverting stenting procedures using acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) + ticagrelor or ASA + prasugrel compared with ASA + clopidogrel were included. RESULTS: Of 452 potentially relevant studies, we identified 49 studies (2526 patients) which reported the safety of ticagrelor or prasugrel for pooled analysis, and five studies (1005 patients) for meta-analysis. The pooled overall mortality in all studies was 2.14%, ischemic complications 6.89%, and hemorrhagic complications 3.68%. The use of ticagrelor or prasugrel was associated with a lower risk of mortality compared with clopidogrel (RR=4.57, 95% CI 1.23 to 16.99; p=0.02). Considering ischemic events, ASA + clopidogrel was as safe as ASA + prasugrel (RR=0.55, 95% CI 0.11 to 2.74; p=0.47) and ASA + ticagrelor (RR=0.74, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.74; p=0.49). ASA +ticagrelor was not associated with a higher risk of hemorrhagic complications (RR=0.92, 95% CI 0.27 to 3.16; p=0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that dual antiplatelet regimens including ticagrelor or prasugrel are safe for patients undergoing flow diversion procedures. Regimens using ticagrelor were associated with better survival than those using clopidogrel in the included studies.

17.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 28(11): 939-948, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In eligible patients with acute ischaemic stroke, rapid revascularisation is crucial for good outcome. At our treatment centre, we had achieved and sustained a median door-to-needle time of under 30 min. We hypothesised that further improvement could be achieved through implementing a revised treatment protocol and in situ simulation-based team training sessions. This report describes a quality improvement project aiming to reduce door-to-needle times in stroke thrombolysis. METHODS: All members of the acute stroke treatment team were surveyed to tailor the interventions to local conditions. Through a review of responses and available literature, the improvement team suggested changes to streamline the protocol and designed in situ simulation-based team training sessions. Implementation of interventions started in February 2017. We completed 14 simulation sessions from February to June 2017 and an additional 12 sessions from November 2017 to March 2018. Applying Kirkpatrick's four-level training evaluation model, participant reactions, clinical behaviour and patient outcomes were measured. Statistical process control charts were used to demonstrate changes in treatment times and patient outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 650 consecutive patients, including a 3-year baseline, treated with intravenous thrombolysis were assessed. Median door to needle times were significantly reduced from 27 to 13 min and remained consistent after 13 months. Risk-adjusted cumulative sum charts indicate a reduced proportion of patients deceased or bedridden after 90 days. There was no significant change in balancing measures (stroke mimics, fatal intracranial haemorrhage and prehospital times). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing a revised treatment protocol in combination with in situ simulation-based team training sessions for stroke thrombolysis was followed by a considerable reduction in door-to-needle times and improved patient outcomes. Additional work is needed to assess sustainability and generalisability of the interventions.

18.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2118-2124, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272328

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- There is contradictory evidence on the impact of the stroke side (hemisphere) on outcomes. We investigated any effect modification by laterality on stroke patients' outcomes in recent endovascular trials. Methods- Individual patient-level data were combined in this meta-analysis of all patients included in randomized trials comparing endovascular thrombectomy predominantly done with stent retrievers with standard care in anterior circulation ischemic patients with stroke (HERMES [Highly Effective Reperfusion Using Multiple Endovascular Devices] Collaboration). We stratified the 90-day functional outcome assessed by ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin Scale according to the stroke side of patients treated with endovascular therapy versus standard care, adjusted for important prognostic variables. Results- The meta-analysis included 1737 patients (871 right hemispheric strokes and 866 left hemispheric) from 7 trials. Baseline median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were significantly higher in left (20) versus right (16) hemispheric strokes (P<0.001). Other clinical and radiological baseline characteristics were similar. The beneficial response to endovascular therapy assessed by 90-day modified Rankin Scale shift was not modified by the side of the stroke. There were no significant differences between right and left hemispheric stroke in the 90-day functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2; 40.7% [95% CI, 37.4%-44.1%] versus 37.6% [95% CI, 37.4%-44.1%]; P=0.19), median final infarct volumes (45 versus 39.5 mL, P=0.51), nor 90-day mortality (15.1% vs 16.8%, P=0.31). Conclusions- Stroke side was not a prognostic factor and did not modify the treatment effect among patients treated in the endovascular or control groups in recent endovascular thrombectomy trials.

19.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The decision to proceed with endovascular thrombectomy should ideally be made independent of inconvenience factors, such as daytime. We assessed the influence of patient presentation time on endovascular therapy decision making under current local resources and assumed ideal conditions in acute ischemic stroke with level 2B evidence for endovascular treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In an international cross sectional survey, 607 stroke physicians from 38 countries were asked to give their treatment decisions to 10 out of 22 randomly assigned case scenarios. Eleven scenarios had level 2B evidence for endovascular treatment: 7 daytime scenarios (7:00 am-5:00 pm) and four night time cases (5:01 pm- 6:59 am). Participants provided their treatment approach assuming (A) there were no practice constraints and (B) under their current local resources. Endovascular treatment decisions in the 11 scenarios were analyzed according to presentation time with adjustment for patient and physician characteristics. RESULTS: Participants selected endovascular therapy in 74.2% under assumed ideal conditions, and 70.7% under their current local resources of night time scenarios, and in 67.2% and 63.8% of daytime scenarios. Night time presentation did not increase the probability of a treatment decision against endovascular therapy under current local resources or assumed ideal conditions. CONCLUSION: Presentation time did not influence endovascular treatment decision making in stroke patients in this international survey.

20.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 29(3): 553, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161342

RESUMO

Correction to: Clin Neuroradiol 2018 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00062-018-0717-x Unfortunately, the author list of the original version of this article contains a mistake. The middle name of the author "Rani Gupta Sah" was erroneously tagged as part of the surname in the article's metadata.This mistake.

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