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1.
iScience ; 23(3): 100944, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163898

RESUMO

Performance-stability contradiction of high-energy-density materials (HEDMs) is a long-standing puzzle in the field of chemistry and material science. Bridging the gap that exists between detonation performance of new HEDMs and their stability remains a formidable challenge. Achieving optimal balance between the two contradictory factors is of a significant demand for deep-well oil and gas drilling, space exploration, and other civil and defense applications. Herein, supercomputers and latest quantitative computational strategies were employed and high-throughput quantum calculations were conducted for 67 reported HEDMs. Based on statistical analysis of large amounts of physico-chemical data, in-crystal interspecies interactions were identified to be the one that provokes the performance-stability contradiction of HEDMs. To design new HEDMs with both good detonation performance and high stability, the proposed systematic and comprehensive strategies must be satisfied, which could promote the development of crystal engineering of HEDMs to an era of theory-guided rational design of materials.

2.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779257

RESUMO

Due to a significant and prolific activity in the field of design and synthesis of new energetic molecules, it becomes increasingly difficult to introduce new explosophore structures with attractive properties. In this work, we synthesized a trans-bimane-based energetic material-3,7-diamino-2,6-dinitro-1H,5H-pyrazolo-[1,2-a]pyrazole-1,5-dione (4), the structure of which was comprehensively analyzed by a variety of advanced spectroscopic methods and by X-ray crystallo-graphy (with density of 1.845 g·cm-3 at 173 K). Although obtained crystals of 4 contained solvent molecules in their structure, state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) computational techniques allowed us to predict that solvent-free crystals of this explosive would preserve a similar tightly packed planar layered molecular arrangement, with the same number of molecules of 4 per unit cell, but with a smaller unit cell volume and therefore higher energy density. Explosive 4 was found to be heat resistant, with an onset decomposition temperature of 328.8 °C, and was calculated to exhibit velocity of detonation in a range of 6.88-7.14 km·s-1 and detonation pressure in the range of 19.14-22.04 GPa, using for comparison both HASEM and the EXPLO 5 software. Our results indicate that the trans-bimane explosophore could be a viable platform for the development of new thermostable energetic materials.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; 271: 166-173, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268011

RESUMO

Non-conventional carbon sources, such as macroalgae, are sustainable alternatives for large-scale production of biopolymers. The present study examined macroalgae-derived carbohydrates, as carbon sources for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Haloferax mediterranei. Simulants of the hydrolysates of seven different macroalgal biomasses were prepared and the PHA production was studied. A maximum biomass concentration with maximum PHA content was detected in medium prepared from green macroalgae. The highest cell dry weight and PHA concentrations were 3.8 ±â€¯0.2 g·L-1 and 2.2 ±â€¯0.12 g·L-1 respectively when Haloferax mediterranei was grown in 25% (w/w) of Ulva sp. hydrolysate, at 42 °C temperature and initial pH of 7.2. Poly(3-hydroxy-butyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate was the major PHA constituent. The present study demonstrated that Ulva sp. is a promising feedstock for PHA production.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Haloferax mediterranei/metabolismo , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/biossíntese , Carbono/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Hidroxibutiratos/metabolismo , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo , Ulva
4.
J Org Chem ; 83(23): 14698-14702, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388371

RESUMO

Herein, a novel zero oxygen balance polycyclic energetic compound trans-3,3,4,4,7,7,8,8-octanitro-9,10-dioxatricyclo[4.2.1.12,5]-decane ( trans-BIT) was designed and expected to exhibit high crystal density (ρ = 2.06 g/cm3), outstanding detonation performance ( D = 9.473 km/s, P = 42.2 GPa), and promising thermostability and sensitivity. We proposed that the synthesis of this compound could be achieved via a facile Diels-Alder reaction, using tetranitroethylene and oxadiazole as starting materials. We also predicted that the crystal structure of trans-BIT would have P21/ C space group symmetry.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(11)2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380643

RESUMO

Epoxy resins have a wide range of applications, including in corrosion protection of metals, electronics, structural adhesives, and composites. The consumption of epoxy resins is predicted to keep growing in the coming years. Unfortunately, thermoset resins cannot be recycled, and are typically not biodegradable. Hence, they pose environmental pollution risk. Here, we report degradation of epoxy resin by two bacteria that are capable of using epoxy resin as a sole carbon source. These bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from areas around an epoxy and polyurethanes manufacturing plant. Using an array of molecular, biochemical, analytical, and microscopic techniques, they were identified as Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Ochrobactrum anthropi. As epoxy was the only carbon source available for these bacteria, their measured growth rate reflected their ability to degrade epoxy resin. Bacterial growth took place only when the two bacteria were grown together, indicating a synergistic effect. The surface morphology of the epoxy droplets changed significantly due to the biodegradation process. The metabolic pathway of epoxy by these two microbes was investigated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Bisphenol A, 3,3'-((propane-2,2-diylbis(4,1-phenylene))bis(oxy))bis(propane-1,2-diol) and some other constituents were identified as being consumed by the bacteria.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 57(24): 15105-15111, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481013

RESUMO

In our effort to seek for the "green" energetic coordination polymers (CPs), a versatile and multifunctional 1-amino-tetrazol-5-one ligand was synthesized and its complexes with a series of alkaline and earth alkaline metals were prepared and comprehensively characterized. A broad range of differently shaped 1D, 2D, and 3D supramolecular structures for the prepared energetic compounds were found, where each metal was bound in a specific and characteristic fashion. All prepared CPs show very good thermostability, with decomposition temperatures above 236 °C and remarkable insensitivity to mechanical impact and friction (impact sensitivity > 40 J, friction sensitivity > 360 N). In terms of detonation performance, our CPs were calculated to have detonation velocities in the range of 6.8-8.1 km·s-1 and detonation pressures in the range of 16.5-24.5 GPa. Upon their combustion, new materials show a range of characteristic flame colors (from yellow to blue), making these compounds as promising components for various "green" pyrotechnic formulations.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(38): 32828-32837, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160466

RESUMO

Polymorphic transition from a metastable phase to a stable phase often occurs in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under the action of external stimuli. However, these transitions sometimes result in deteriorating their special performances and can even lead to serious safety problems. Therefore, developing a simple and efficient strategy for enhancing the stabilities of metastable MOF polymorphs is very imperative and meaningful. Herein, we propose a simple graphene oxide (GO)-encapsulating strategy for improving the stabilities of metastable MOF polymorphs. To illustrate this strategy, we designed and synthesized two polymorphic MOFs [MOF(ATA-a) and MOF(ATA-b)] as examples, which are based on energetic 5-amino-1 H-tetrazole as ligands. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that these two polymorphs have a same chemical composition [Zn2(ATA)3(ATA)2/2] n, but different space groups, space systems, and different stacking modes of the neighboring ligands. As expected, the metastable polymorph [MOF(ATA-a)] underwent a complete polymorphic transition at room temperature to form its stable polymorph [MOF(ATA-b)]. Using the proposed strategy, we successfully encapsulated a small amount of GO in the metastable polymorph [GO⊂MOF(ATA-a)]. The resultant composite exhibited better chemical stability, extremely higher thermal stability, and larger Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area compared to both its precursor and the physically mixed analogue. Remarkably, its onset decomposition temperature ( Td) was as high as 377.4 °C, which is even higher than that of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene ( Td = 321 °C), making it a potential heat-resistant explosive. The mechanism of stabilization was investigated in detail using various analytical techniques. This work may not only provide new insights into the stabilization of functional MOF polymorphs but also open up a new field for the application of GO.

8.
Adv Mater ; 30(41): e1706293, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862580

RESUMO

Highly reactive metastable intermixed composites (MICs) have attracted much attention in the past decades. The MIC family of materials mainly includes traditional metal-based nanothermites, novel core-shell-structured, 3D ordered macroporous-structured, and ternary nanocomposites. By applying special fabrication approaches, highly reactive MICs with uniformly dispersed reactants, "layer-by-layer" or "core-shell" structures, can be prepared. Thus, the combustion performance can be greatly improved, and the ignition characteristics and safety can be precisely controlled by using a certain preparation strategy. Here, the preparation and characterization of the MICs that have been developed during the past few decades are summarized. Traditional preparation methods for MICs generally include physical mixing, high-energy ball milling, sol-gel synthesis, and vapor deposition, while the novel methods include self-assembly, electrophoretic deposition, and electrospinning. Various preparation procedures and the ignition and combustion performance of different MIC reactive systems are compared and discussed. In particular, the advantages of novel structured MICs in terms of safety and combustion efficiency are clarified, based on which suggestions regarding the possible future research directions are proposed.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(12): 3320-3327, 2018 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519126

RESUMO

The density functional theory method was employed to calculate three-dimensional structures for a series of novel explosophores. The design of new molecules (DA1-DA12) was based on the bridge-ring structures that could be formed via Diels-Alder (DA) reaction of selected nitrogen-rich dienes and tetranitroethylene dienophile. The feasibility of the proposed DA reactions was predicted on the basis of the molecular orbital theory. The strong interactions between the HOMO of dienes, with electron-donating groups (Diene2, Diene6, and Diene8), and the LUMO of tetranitroethylene dienophile suggested thermodynamically favorable formation of the desired DA reaction products. In addition to molecular structures of the explored DA compounds, their physicochemical and energetic properties were also calculated in detail. Due to compact bridge-ring structures, new energetic molecules have highly positive heats of formation (up to 1124.90 kJ·mol-1) and high densities (up to 2.04 g·cm-3). Also, as a result of all-right ratios of nitrogen and oxygen, most of the new compounds possess high detonation velocities (8.28-10.02 km·s-1) and high detonation pressures (30.87-47.83 GPa). Energetic compounds DA1, DA4, and DA12 exhibit a superior detonation performance over widely used HMX explosive, and DA5, DA7, and DA10 could be comparable to the state-of-the-art CL-20 and ONC explosives. Our proposed designs and synthetic methodology should provide a platform for the development of novel energetic materials with superior performance.

10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(4)2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180363

RESUMO

A simple method for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) of silver (Ag) in a matrix of bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) was reported previously by some of the authors of this study. Based on mucin characteristics such as long-lasting stability, water solubility, and surfactant and adhesive characteristics, we hypothesized that these compounds, named BSM-Ag NPs, may possess favorable properties as potent antimicrobial agents. The goal of this study was to assess whether BSM-Ag NPs possess antibacterial activity, focusing on important plant-pathogenic bacterial strains representing both Gram-negative (Acidovorax and Xanthomonas) and Gram-positive (Clavibacter) genera. Growth inhibition and bactericidal assays, as well as electron microscopic observations, demonstrate that BSM-Ag NPs, at relatively low concentrations of silver, exert strong antimicrobial effects. Moreover, we show that treatment of melon seeds with BSM-Ag NPs effectively prevents seed-to-seedling transmission of Acidovorax citrulli, one of the most threatening pathogens of cucurbit production worldwide. Overall, our findings demonstrate strong antimicrobial activity of BSM-Ag NPs and their potential application for reducing the spread and establishment of devastating bacterial plant diseases in agriculture.IMPORTANCE Bacterial plant diseases challenge agricultural production, and the means available to manage them are limited. Importantly, many plant-pathogenic bacteria have the ability to colonize seeds, and seed-to-seedling transmission is a critical route by which bacterial plant diseases spread to new regions and countries. The significance of our study resides in the following aspects: (i) the simplicity of the method of BSM-Ag NP synthesis, (ii) the advantageous chemical properties of BSM-Ag NPs, (iii) the strong antibacterial activity of BSM-Ag NPs at relatively low concentrations of silver, and (iv) the fact that, in contrast to most studies on the effects of metal NPs on plant pathogens, the proof of concept for the novel compound is supported by in planta assays. Application of this technology is not limited to agriculture; BSM-Ag NPs potentially could be exploited as a potent antimicrobial agent in a wide range of industrial areas, including medicine, veterinary medicine, cosmetics, textiles, and household products.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Comamonadaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mucinas/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Comamonadaceae/patogenicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mucinas/química , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Plântula/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Prata/química
11.
Inorg Chem ; 56(17): 10281-10289, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809503

RESUMO

High-density materials have attracted extensive attention because of their broad applications. However, strategies for improving the densities of MOFs and preparing denser MOFs remain almost unexplored. Herein, we propose a tandem anion-ligand exchange strategy for synthesizing denser MOFs by using three-dimensional cationic MOFs (3D CMOFs) with pillared layered structures as precursors and high-density anions and small monotopic ligands as exogenous guests. By means of this strategy, we choose the high-density nitroformate ion [C(NO2)3-] as an exogenous anion and water as an exogenous ligand to successfully synthesize two layered CMOFs. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that after this transformation, the extra-framework anions are replaced with the C(NO2)3- anions, and the distances between adjacent layers in the two-dimensional (2D) networks are more than 3.70 Å shorter than those of their 3D precursors. The resultant materials exhibit higher densities, higher heats of detonation, higher nitrogen and oxygen contents, and lower metal contents. In particular, the density of {Cu(atrz)2[C(NO2)3]2(H2O)2·atrz·2H2O}n (2b, ρ = 1.76 g cm-3, atrz = 4,4'-azo-1,2,4-triazole) is increased by 0.12 g cm-3 compared to its 3D precursor {2a, [Cu(atrz)3(NO3)2·2H2O]n, ρ = 1.64 g cm-3}, and its heat of detonation is also enhanced to more than 1900 kJ kg-1. The resultant 2D layered CMOFs are also new potential high-energy density materials. This work may provide new insights into the design and synthesis of high-density MOFs. Moreover, we anticipate that the approach reported here would be useful for the preparation of new MOFs, in particular, which are otherwise difficult or unfeasible through traditional synthetic routes.

12.
Chemistry ; 23(46): 11159-11168, 2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664635

RESUMO

A series of nitrogen-rich energetic salts of 1,1'-dinitramino-5,5'-bistetrazolate (DNABT) guanidinium (1), aminoguanidinium (2), diaminoguanidinium (3), triaminoguanidinium (4), diaminouronium (5), 3,4-diamino-1,2,4-triazolium (6), and ethylenediammonium (7) was synthesized by a metathesis strategy and characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and IR spectroscopy as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The natural bond orbitals (NBOs) and electrostatic potentials (ESPs) were further computed for a better understanding of the structures of the DNABT molecule. The heats of formation were calculated based on the Born-Haber energy cycle. The detonation parameters were evaluated by using the EXPLO5 program, and the sensitivities were measured according to BAM standers. These new salts exhibit highly positive heats of formation (407.0-1377.9 kJ mol-1 ) and good thermal stabilities (180-211 °C). Most of these compounds possess detonation velocities comparable to RDX and acceptable detonation pressures. The high volumes of explosion gases of the salts 3 and 4 (921 and 933 L kg-1 , respectively) further support their power as explosives. The enhancing performances, the fact of being free of metals, and the more moderate sensitivities than K2 DNABT, suggest that the salts 4 (D=8851 m s-1 , P=29.0 GPa), 5 (D=9053 m s-1 , P=32.3 GPa), and 6 (D=8835 m s-1 , P=30.2 GPa) might be potential environmentally friendly energetic materials.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 46(26): 8422-8430, 2017 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621786

RESUMO

Tetrazolone (5-oxotetrazole) was synthesized by a moderate strategy through three steps (addition, cyclization and catalytic hydrogenation) avoiding the unstable intermediate diazonium, as reported during the previous preparation. Alkali and alkaline earth metal salts with lithium (1), sodium (2), potassium (3), rubidium (4) caesium (5), magnesium (6), calcium (7), strontium (8) and barium (9) were prepared and fully characterized using elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, DSC and TG analysis. All metal salts were characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in common space groups with high densities ranging from 1.479 (1) to 3.060 g cm-3 (5). Furthermore, the crystal structures of 7, 8 and 9 reveal interesting porous energetic coordination polymers with strong hydrogen bond interactions. All new salts have good thermal stabilities with decomposition temperature between 215.0 °C (4) and 328.2 °C (7), significantly higher than that of the reported nitrogen-rich salt neutral tetrazolone. The sensitivities towards impact and friction were tested using standard methods, and all the tetrazolone-based compounds investigated can be classified into insensitive. The flame test of these metal salts supports their potential use as perchlorate-free pyrotechnics or eco-friendly insensitive energetic materials.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(33): 21674-82, 2016 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27483139

RESUMO

A series of novel highly thermostable energetic coordination polymers (ECPs), with promising mechanical sensitivity properties, were prepared by an in situ oxidation-coordination reaction of triaminoguanidine hydrochloride with copper nitrate in aqueous solution. The molecular structures and properties of these ECPs could be tuned, by varying the ratios and concentrations of the starting materials. Our ECPs exhibit remarkable thermostability (>390 °C) and very low sensitivity to impact (Im > 98 J). The best-performing material (ECP-5) has a calculated detonation velocity of 8969 m·s(-1) and a decomposition peak temperature of 396.9 °C, demonstrating an outstanding balance between two inherently contradicting properties: high detonation performance and very low sensitivity.

15.
Nanoscale ; 8(9): 4799-851, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880518

RESUMO

In recent years, research in the field of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), such as fullerenes, expanded graphite (EG), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and graphene oxide (GO), has been widely used in energy storage, electronics, catalysts, and biomaterials, as well as medical applications. Regarding energy storage, one of the most important research directions is the development of CNMs as carriers of energetic components by coating or encapsulation, thus forming safer advanced nanostructures with better performances. Moreover, some CNMs can also be functionalized to become energetic additives. This review article covers updated preparation methods for the aforementioned CNMs, with a more specific orientation towards the use of these nanomaterials in energetic compositions. The effects of these functionalized CNMs on thermal decomposition, ignition, combustion and the reactivity properties of energetic compositions are significant and are discussed in detail. It has been shown that the use of functionalized CNMs in energetic compositions greatly improves their combustion performances, thermal stability and sensitivity. In particular, functionalized fullerenes, CNTs and GO are the most appropriate candidate components in nanothermites, solid propellants and gas generators, due to their superior catalytic properties as well as facile preparation methods.

16.
ACS Nano ; 9(7): 6706-16, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26042619

RESUMO

Modulating T cell function by down-regulating specific genes using RNA interference (RNAi) holds tremendous potential in advancing targeted therapies in many immune-related disorders including cancer, inflammation, autoimmunity, and viral infections. Hematopoietic cells, in general, and primary T lymphocytes, in particular, are notoriously hard to transfect with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Herein, we describe a novel strategy to specifically deliver siRNAs to murine CD4(+) T cells using targeted lipid nanoparticles (tLNPs). To increase the efficacy of siRNA delivery, these tLNPs have been formulated with several lipids designed to improve the stability and efficacy of siRNA delivery. The tLNPs were surface-functionalized with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody to permit delivery of the siRNAs specifically to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Ex vivo, tLNPs demonstrated specificity by targeting only primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes and no other cell types. Systemic intravenous administration of these particles led to efficient binding and uptake into CD4(+) T lymphocytes in several anatomical sites including the spleen, inguinal lymph nodes, blood, and the bone marrow. Silencing by tLNPs occurs in a subset of circulating and resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Interestingly, we show that tLNP internalization and not endosome escape is a fundamental event that takes place as early as 1 h after systemic administration and determines tLNPs' efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that tLNPs may open new avenues for the manipulation of T cell functionality and may help to establish RNAi as a therapeutic modality in leukocyte-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/transplante , Células Cultivadas , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Terapêutica com RNAi/métodos
17.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 112: 16-22, 2013 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23933103

RESUMO

The ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG) protein was discovered to be an efficient and selective dispersant for carbon nanotubes (CTNs) with certain diameters. A dispersion process of CTNs by the ß-LG was studied, focusing on the relationships between the surface curvature of the CNT and the ß-LG's efficiency in dispersing them, using cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and optical spectroscopy. Plausible binding sites of the ß-LG, responsible for the interaction of the protein with CNTs of various diameters (surface curvatures) were also investigated and were found to be in good agreement with corresponding docking calculations.


Assuntos
Lactoglobulinas/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos , Dicroísmo Circular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Modelos Moleculares , Tamanho da Partícula , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Espectrofotometria , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 260: 676-88, 2013 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23832060

RESUMO

Advanced biodegradable and non-toxic organic chelators, which are soluble in organic media, were synthesized on the basis of the S,S-ethylenediamine-disuccinate (S,S-EDDS) ligand. The modifications suggested in this work include attachment of a lipophilic hydrocarbon chain ("tail") to one or both nitrogen atoms of the S,S-EDDS. The new ligands were designed and evaluated for application in the Sediments Remediation Phase Transition Extraction (SR-PTE) process. This novel process is being developed for the simultaneous removal of both heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated soils, sediments or sludge. The new chelators were designed to bind various target metal ions, to promote extraction of these ions into organic solvents. Several variations of attached tails were synthesized and tested. The results for one of them, N,N'-bis-dodecyl-S,S-EDDS (C24-EDDS), showed that the metal-ligand complexes are concentrated in the organic-rich phase in the Phase Transition Extraction process (more than 80%). Preliminary applications of the SR-PTE process with the C24-EDDS ligand were conducted also on actually contaminated sludge (field samples). The extraction of five toxic metals, namely, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was examined. In general, the extraction performance of the new ligand was not less than that of S,S-EDDS when a sufficient ligand-to-extracted ion ratio (about 4:1 was applied.


Assuntos
Quelantes/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bioensaio , Cádmio/química , Poluição Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Chumbo/química , Ligantes , Metais/química , Metais Pesados/química , Nitrogênio/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Esgotos , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solventes/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluição da Água
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 51(29): 7162-5, 2012 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22499527

RESUMO

Control over the T(c) value of high-T(c) superconductors by self-assembled monolayers is demonstrated (T(c) = critical temperature). Molecular control was achieved by adsorption of polar molecules on the superconductor surface (see scheme) that change its carrier concentration through charge transport or light-induced polarization.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(20): 8468-73, 2012 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22537250

RESUMO

Control over molecular scale electrical properties within nano junctions is demonstrated, utilizing site-directed C(60) targeting into protein macromolecules as a doping means. The protein molecules, self-assembled in a miniaturized transistor device, yield robust and reproducible operation. Their device signal is dominated by an active center that inverts affinity upon guest incorporation and thus controls the properties of the entire macromolecule. We show how the leading routes of electron transport can be drawn, spatially and energetically, on the molecular level and, in particular, how the dopant effect is dictated by its "strategic" binding site. Our findings propose the extension of microelectronic methodologies to the nanometer scale and further present a promising platform for ex situ studies of biochemical processes.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Transistores Eletrônicos , Animais , Bovinos , Condutividade Elétrica , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Propriedades de Superfície
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