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1.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(1): 152618, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734053

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study explores the relationship of former presidents and board members of the German Society of Pathology (DGP) to National Socialism. The intention here is to concretely clarify how many of these individuals belonged to the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) or other Nazi organizations during the Third Reich; what significance any kind of Nazi past had on the candidature of individuals for board positions in the Federal Republic of Germany; and how a relationship to National Socialism impacted the careers of these individuals during the Third Reich, as well as later on, in the Federal Republic. A total of 60 pathologists were included in this study. Each of these individuals was an elected member of the DGP board during (1) the Weimar Republic, (2) the Nazi era, or (3) in the Federal Republic, and all were adults during the Third Reich. All 60 individuals in question were male university professors. Membership in the NSDAP has been verified for almost 60% of this collective, a percentage rate that is significantly higher than the average membership rate of medical doctors during the Third Reich (ca. 45%). It could also be demonstrated that a political allegiance to National Socialism had, especially amongst younger academics, quite a positive impact. Significantly, however, not one of the 7 DGP chairmen incumbent during the Third Reich were Nazi party members at the time they took office. In contrast, two-thirds of the DGP chairmen appointed until 1986 in the Federal Republic of Germany were former NSDAP members. Clearly, any earlier political commitment to National Socialism did not play a limiting role in the election of the DGP chairman in the Federal Republic. In any case, it can be shown that almost all the former NSDAP members were able to continue or even broaden their careers in the Federal Republic. This study reaches the conclusion that the DGP executive boards and board members of the Federal Republic of Germany had much closer ties to the National Socialist Party than the DGP executive boards during the Third Reich did. It is precisely this finding that confirms the historical, political, and social relevance of this research project dedicated to reappraising this era in history.

2.
Langmuir ; 35(26): 8667-8680, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173693

RESUMO

The adsorption thermodynamics of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) and its five divalent derivatives di-DMAP- n (2 ≤ n ≤ 6) with gradually increasing methylene-spacer lengths n binding to planar gold surfaces has been studied by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and density functional theory (DFT). SERS intensities of the totally symmetrical breathing mode of the pyridine ring at approximately 1007 cm-1 are used to monitor the surface coverage of the DMAP and di-DMAP- n ligands on gold surfaces at different concentrations. The equilibrium constant as a measure of the binding affinity is obtained from these measurements by using a modified Langmuir isotherm. Due to multivalent binding to the gold substrate, a characteristic enhancement of the binding affinity of di-DMAP- n compared to the monovalent DMAP is observed for all divalent species. First principles calculations of the di-DMAP- n ligands on an ideal Au(111) surface model as well as step terrace models have been performed to understand the adsorption structures and the multivalent binding enhancements. Furthermore, Raman spectra of the adsorbed molecules have been studied by first principles calculations to correlate the binding affinities to experimentally determined adsorption constants. The joint experimental and theoretical investigation of an oscillatory behavior of the binding affinity as a function of the methylene-spacer length in mono- and divalent 4-(dimethylamino)pyridines reveals that the molecular architecture plays an important role for the structure-function interplay of multivalently bound adsorbates.

3.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(4): 832-841, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626488

RESUMO

Herwig Hamperl is undoubtedly one of the most influential and prominent representatives of German pathology in the 20th century. Interestingly, he left behind an autobiography (1972) which provides information not only about pathology in the Third Reich and in post-war Germany, but above all about his own life and work. His memoirs primarily served the purpose of recording his life's work for posterity and of retaining it in collective memory. This article focuses specifically on Hamperl's description of the Third Reich. The overriding aim of the paper is to elaborate on his political role and his relationship to National Socialism, which has hardly been investigated to date. Hamperl's autobiographical statements on this very question are therefore compared with the historical facts and - where necessary - contrasted and corrected. The same applies to the image that Hamperl draws of those pathologists who were part of his professional and personal network. The study is partly based on previously unevaluated archive sources and on a reanalysis of the relevant research literature. The paper concludes that Hamperl practised pronounced "self-fashioning": His memoirs give the impression of being formally and linguistically smoothened out and are clearly misleading in terms of content. They are characterised by omissions, ornamentation, and embellishments. Thus Hamperl makes false statements on the question of his NSDAP membership and depicts himself as a politically uninvolved university teacher. Furthermore, even in retrospect, he makes hardly any critical remarks on Nazi ideology and Nazi crimes.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos
4.
Langmuir ; 34(4): 1506-1519, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272915

RESUMO

The cellular uptake and dissolution of trigonal silver nanoprisms (edge length 42 ± 15 nm, thickness 8 ± 1 nm) and mostly spherical silver nanoparticles (diameter 70 ± 25 nm) in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC's) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were investigated. Both particles are stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with the prisms additionally stabilized by citrate. The nanoprisms dissolved slightly in pure water but strongly in isotonic saline or at pH 4, corresponding to the lowest limit for the pH during cellular uptake. The tips of the prisms became rounded within minutes due to their high surface energy. Afterward, the dissolution process slowed down due to the presence of both PVP stabilizing Ag{100} sites and citrate blocking Ag{111} sites. On the contrary, nanospheres, solely stabilized by PVP, dissolved within 24 h. These results correlate with the finding that particles in both cell types have lost >90% of their volume within 24 h. hMSC's took up significantly more Ag from nanoprisms than from nanospheres, whereas HaCaT cells showed no preference for one particle shape. This can be rationalized by the large cellular interaction area of the plateletlike nanoprisms and the bending stiffness of the cell membranes. hMSC's have a highly flexible cell membrane, resulting in an increased uptake of plateletlike particles. HaCaT cells have a membrane with a 3 orders of magnitude higher Young's modulus than for hMSC. Hence, the energy gain due to the larger interaction area of the nanoprisms is compensated for by the higher energy needed for cell membrane deformation compared to that for spheres, leading to no shape preference.

5.
Langmuir ; 33(30): 7494-7502, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28718292

RESUMO

Nanostructured surfaces play an important role in modern science and technology. In particular, ordered arrangements of nonclose-packed nanoparticles created by self-assembly offer a versatile route to prepare systems, which can be used in various applications such as sensing, plasmonic devices or antireflection coatings. Self-assembly based systems are particularly appealing as preparation is rather simple. The ability of nanoparticle systems to form nonclosed packed monolayers by self-assembly depends on the balance of various energetic contributions in particular the adsorption energy, the lateral barrier for diffusion and the repulsion between particles. Even for simple model systems such as the monodispersed silica particles adsorbed on a bare gold surface investigated here, none of these quantities is easy to determine experimentally. To this end, we will report on a detailed characterization of the adsorption in particular with respect to the structural properties of the above-mentioned model system. Based on experimental results obtained by using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) it is possible to determine the electrostatic pair potential from the lateral arrangement of the nano particles in the limit of low coverage.

6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4341, 2017 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659574

RESUMO

All over the world, different types of nanomaterials with a diversified spectrum of applications are designed and developed, especially in the field of nanomedicine. The great variety of nanoparticles (NPs), in vitro test systems and cell lines led to a vast amount of publications with conflicting data. To identify the decisive principles of these variabilities, we conducted an intercomparison study of collaborating laboratories within the German DFG Priority Program SPP1313, using well-defined experimental parameters and well-characterized NPs. The participants analyzed the in vitro biocompatibility of silica and polymer NPs on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nanoparticle mediated effects on cell metabolism, internalization, and inflammation were measured. All laboratories showed that both nanoparticle formulations were internalized and had a low cytotoxicity profile. Interestingly, small variations in nanoparticle preparation, cell handling and the type of culture slide influenced the nanoparticle stability and the outcomes of cell assays. The round robin test demonstrated the importance of the use of clearly defined and characterized NPs and parameters for reproducible results across laboratories. Comparative analyses of in vitro screening methods performed in multiple laboratories are absolutely essential to establish robust standard operation procedure as a prerequisite for sound hazard assessment of nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fenômenos Químicos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Polímeros/síntese química
7.
J Biol Chem ; 291(27): 14170-84, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226546

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as components of drugs or cosmetics and hold great promise for biomedicine, yet their effects on cell physiology remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that clathrin-independent dynamin 2-mediated caveolar uptake of surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) impairs cell viability due to lysosomal dysfunction. We show that internalized SiNPs accumulate in lysosomes resulting in inhibition of autophagy-mediated protein turnover and impaired degradation of internalized epidermal growth factor, whereas endosomal recycling proceeds unperturbed. This phenotype is caused by perturbed delivery of cargo via autophagosomes and late endosomes to SiNP-filled cathepsin B/L-containing lysosomes rather than elevated lysosomal pH or altered mTOR activity. Given the importance of autophagy and lysosomal protein degradation for cellular proteostasis and clearance of aggregated proteins, these results raise the question of beneficial use of NPs in biomedicine and beyond.


Assuntos
Lisossomos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas , Dióxido de Silício/metabolismo , Endocitose , Células HeLa , Humanos
8.
J Control Release ; 228: 159-169, 2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26948381

RESUMO

Nanogels are water soluble cross-linked polymer networks with nanometer size dimensions that can be designed to incorporate different types of compounds and are promising carrier systems for drugs and biological molecules. In this study, the interactions of thermoresponsive nanogels (tNGs) with the human skin barrier and underlying epidermis cells were investigated with the aim of using such macromolecules to improve dermal and transdermal drug delivery. The investigated tNGs were made of acrylated dendritic polyglycerol, as water soluble cross-linker, and of oligo ethylene glycol methacrylate (OEGMA) as subunit conferring thermoresponsive properties. tNGs with different polymer transition temperatures were tagged with Rhodamine B (RhdB) and analyzed for their physicochemical properties. We found that tNGs with cloud point temperatures (Tcps) of 38 °C (tNG-RhdB-T38) lost softness (measured by PeakForce quantitative nanomechanics, QNM) and aggregated to bigger sized particles (measured as increase of particle average size by dynamic light scattering, DLS) when temperature changed from 15 to 37 °C. On the contrary, at the same conditions, tNGs with higher Tcps (tNG-RhdB-T55) did not show any significant changes of these characteristics. Applied on excised human skin, both tNGs penetrated deep in the stratum corneum (SC). Small amounts of tNGs were detected also in cells of the viable epidermis. Interestingly, whereas tNG softness correlated with higher penetration in SC, a better cellular uptake was observed for the thermoresponsive tNG-RhdB-T38. We conclude that soft nanocarriers possess a high SC penetration ability and that thermoresponsive nanogels are attractive carrier systems for the targeting of drugs to epidermis cells.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Géis/farmacocinética , Glicerol/farmacocinética , Polímeros/farmacocinética , Pele/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Géis/química , Glicerol/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas/análise , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Absorção Cutânea , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3525-35, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919385

RESUMO

In light of the importance of nanostructured surfaces for a variety of technological applications, the quest for simple and reliable preparation methods of ordered, nanometer ranged structures is ongoing. Herein, a versatile method to prepare ordered, non-close-packed arrangements of nanoparticles on centimeter sized surfaces by self-assembly is described using monodisperse (118-162 nm Ø), amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles as an exploratory example. It is shown that the arrangement of the particles is governed by the interplay between the electrostatic repulsion between the particles and the interaction between particles and surfaces. The latter is tuned by the properties of the particles such as their surface roughness as well as the chemistry of the linkage. Weak dispersive interactions between amino groups and gold surfaces are compared to a covalent amide linkage of the amino groups with carboxylic acid functionalized self-assembled monolayers. It was shown that the order of the former systems may suffer from capillary forces between particles during the drying process, while the covalently bonded systems do not. In turn, covalently bonded systems can be dried quickly, while the van der Waals bonded systems require a slow drying process to minimize aggregation. These highly ordered structures can be used as templates for the formation of a second, ordered, non-close-packed layer of nanoparticles exemplified for larger polystyrene particles (Ø 368 ± 14 nm), which highlights the prospect of this approach as a simple preparation method for ordered arrays of nanoparticles with tunable properties.

10.
Anal Chem ; 87(20): 10642-9, 2015 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26394850

RESUMO

Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is frequently used to investigate adsorption of nanometer-sized objects such as proteins, viruses, or organic as well as inorganic nanoparticles from solution. The interpretation of the data obtained for heterogeneous adsorbate layers is not straightforward in particular if the systems exhibit sizable amounts of dissipation. In this study we investigate the deposition of monodisperse, amine functionalized silica nanoparticles on gold surfaces using QCM with dissipation (QCM-D) to obtain frequency and dissipation changes during adsorption from the liquid phase. These investigations are combined with ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements to study both coverage as well as lateral arrangement of the particles. An ordered layer of particles is found at saturation coverage due to the charged particle surface resulting in a repulsive interaction between the particles. The repulsion ensures a minimal distance between the particles, which leads to a saturation coverage of 15% for particles of 137 nm diameter. The frequency shift is shown to be a linear function of coverage which is a behavior expected for an elastic medium according to the Sauerbrey equation. However, the system shows a strong dependence of the normalized frequency shift on the overtones as well as a large dissipation, which is a clear indication for a system with viscoelastic properties. The analysis of the data show that a reliable determination of the adsorbed mass solely on the basis of QCM-D results is not possible, but additional information as determined by SEM in the present case is required to determine the coverage. From a correlation of the QCM-D results with the structural characterization it is possible to infer that the dissipation is a long ranged phenomenon. A lower boundary of the interaction length could be derived being twice the particle diameter for the particles studied here. In contrast to that the frequency response behaves like local phenomenon.

13.
Faraday Discuss ; 181: 85-102, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25972038

RESUMO

5-6 nm gold nanoparticles were prepared by hydrolytic decomposition of [NMe4][Au(CF3)2] and functionalized in situ with mono- and multivalent thiolated PEG ligands. Time-dependent changes of the nanoparticles were monitored in aqueous NaCl, NaBr, and NaI solutions by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, and HRTEM. The purely sterically protected particles are stable in ≤1 M NaCl and NaBr solutions, regardless of the valence of the ligands. At higher concentrations (≥2 M), the monovalent stabilized particles show minor reaction limited colloidal aggregation. In NaBr but not in NaCl solutions a minor Ostwald ripening also occurs. The divalent stabilized particles remain colloidally stable in both halide solutions, even if the temperature is raised or the concentration is increased above 2 M. In ≤1 M aqueous NaI solutions the particles remain stable. Above, the monovalent stabilized particles undergo an oxidative reaction, resulting in a time-dependent shift and broadening of the absorbance spectrum. Finally, this process slows down while the width of the spectra slightly narrows. The kinetics of this process can be described by a two-step sigmoidal process, comprising a slow induction period where active species are formed, followed by a fast growth and aggregation process. The increasing concentration of fused structures from the aggregates during this process results in a narrowing of the size distributions. The divalent stabilized particles show only some minor broadening and a slight shift of the absorbance spectra in ≤3 M NaI solutions. These observations confirm the excellent stability of the multivalent stabilized particles from this chloride-free particle synthesis.

14.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 6: 263-80, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25671170

RESUMO

The increasing interest and recent developments in nanotechnology pose previously unparalleled challenges in understanding the effects of nanoparticles on living tissues. Despite significant progress in in vitro cell and tissue culture technologies, observations on particle distribution and tissue responses in whole organisms are still indispensable. In addition to a thorough understanding of complex tissue responses which is the domain of expert pathologists, the localization of particles at their sites of interaction with living structures is essential to complete the picture. In this review we will describe and compare different imaging techniques for localizing inorganic as well as organic nanoparticles in tissues, cells and subcellular compartments. The visualization techniques include well-established methods, such as standard light, fluorescence, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy as well as more recent developments, such as light and electron microscopic autoradiography, fluorescence lifetime imaging, spectral imaging and linear unmixing, superresolution structured illumination, Raman microspectroscopy and X-ray microscopy. Importantly, all methodologies described allow for the simultaneous visualization of nanoparticles and evaluation of cell and tissue changes that are of prime interest for toxicopathologic studies. However, the different approaches vary in terms of applicability for specific particles, sensitivity, optical resolution, technical requirements and thus availability, and effects of labeling on particle properties. Specific bottle necks of each technology are discussed in detail. Interpretation of particle localization data from any of these techniques should therefore respect their specific merits and limitations as no single approach combines all desired properties.

15.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 5: 1944-65, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25383306

RESUMO

PVP-capped silver nanoparticles with a diameter of the metallic core of 70 nm, a hydrodynamic diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of -20 mV were prepared and investigated with regard to their biological activity. This review summarizes the physicochemical properties (dissolution, protein adsorption, dispersability) of these nanoparticles and the cellular consequences of the exposure of a broad range of biological test systems to this defined type of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles dissolve in water in the presence of oxygen. In addition, in biological media (i.e., in the presence of proteins) the surface of silver nanoparticles is rapidly coated by a protein corona that influences their physicochemical and biological properties including cellular uptake. Silver nanoparticles are taken up by cell-type specific endocytosis pathways as demonstrated for hMSC, primary T-cells, primary monocytes, and astrocytes. A visualization of particles inside cells is possible by X-ray microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and combined FIB/SEM analysis. By staining organelles, their localization inside the cell can be additionally determined. While primary brain astrocytes are shown to be fairly tolerant toward silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles induce the formation of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSB) and lead to chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster fibroblast cell lines (CHO9, K1, V79B). An exposure of rats to silver nanoparticles in vivo induced a moderate pulmonary toxicity, however, only at rather high concentrations. The same was found in precision-cut lung slices of rats in which silver nanoparticles remained mainly at the tissue surface. In a human 3D triple-cell culture model consisting of three cell types (alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells), adverse effects were also only found at high silver concentrations. The silver ions that are released from silver nanoparticles may be harmful to skin with disrupted barrier (e.g., wounds) and induce oxidative stress in skin cells (HaCaT). In conclusion, the data obtained on the effects of this well-defined type of silver nanoparticles on various biological systems clearly demonstrate that cell-type specific properties as well as experimental conditions determine the biocompatibility of and the cellular responses to an exposure with silver nanoparticles.

16.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 524, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25276110

RESUMO

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days.

17.
Nanoscale ; 6(16): 9646-54, 2014 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24991655

RESUMO

Monodisperse small iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) or dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) are prepared. They are highly stable in aqueous solutions as well as physiological media. In particular, oleic acid capped iron oxide particles (core diameter = 11 ± 1 nm) were modified by a ligand exchange process in a one pot synthesis with dPG and dPGS bearing phosphonate as anchor groups. Dynamic light scattering measurements performed in water and different biological media demonstrate that the hydrodynamic diameter of the particles is only slightly increased by the ligand exchange process resulting in a final diameter of less than 30 nm and that the particles are stable in these media. It is also revealed by magnetic resonance studies that their magnetic relaxivity is reduced by the surface modification but it is still sufficient for high contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Additionally, incubation of dPGS functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles with human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed a 50% survival at 85 nM (concentration of nanoparticles). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies demonstrate that the dPGS functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles inhibit L-selectin ligand binding whereas the particles containing only dPG do not show this effect. Experiments in a flow chamber with human myelogenous leukemia cells confirmed L-selectin inhibition of the dPGS functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and with that the L-selectin mediated leukocyte adhesion. These results indicate that dPGS functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are a promising contrast agent for inflamed tissue probed by MRI.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/química , Glicerol/química , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Polímeros/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Contraste/toxicidade , Glicerol/toxicidade , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Polímeros/toxicidade
18.
Nanomedicine ; 10(7): 1571-81, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24768631

RESUMO

The skin is a potential site of entry for nanoparticles (NP) but the role of disease-associated barrier disturbances on the path and extent of skin penetration of NP remains to be characterized. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess promising potential for various medical applications. Here, effects of different skin barrier disruptions on the penetration of N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS) functionalized SiO2-NP were studied. AHAPS-SiO2-NP (55±6 nm diameter) were topically applied on intact, tape stripped or on inflamed skin of SKH1 mice with induced allergic contact dermatitis for one or five consecutive days, respectively. Penetration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP through the skin was not observed regardless of the kind of barrier disruption. However, only after subcutaneous injection, AHAPS-SiO2-NP were incorporated by macrophages and transported to the regional lymph node only. Adverse effects on cells or tissues were not observed. In conclusion, AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem to not cross the normal or perturbed mouse skin. From the clinical editor: Skin is a potential site of entry for nanoparticles; however, it is poorly understood how skin diseases may alter this process. In tape-stripped skin and allergic contact dermatitis models the delivery properties of AHAPS-SiO2 nanoparticles remained unchanged, and in neither case were these NP-s able to penetrate the skin. No adverse effects were noted on the skin in these models and control mice.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/fisiopatologia , Nanopartículas , Dióxido de Silício , Pele/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Absorção Cutânea
19.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 5: 2363-73, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25551064

RESUMO

The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle-skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

20.
Langmuir ; 29(36): 11217-26, 2013 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23906521

RESUMO

Unprotected ("naked") gold nanoparticles with high monodispersity ([d], 5.5± 0.5 nm) were obtained in a facile and single-step microwave-assisted hydrolytic decomposition of the molecular precursor [NMe4][Au(CF3)2]. Given their chloride-free surface chemistry, the as-obtained gold nanoparticles were in situ functionalized with mono-, di-, and trivalent thiolated PEG ligands in order to study the influence of multivalent character of the ligands on the stability of the colloidal solutions. For this purpose, a novel tridentate ligand was synthesized and the previously reported syntheses of mono- and divalent thiol ligands were improved. Owing to the pristine character of the Au nanoparticles no ligand exchange was required, and the colloidal and chemical stability of the mono- and multivalent functionalized particles purely depended on the ligating ability of the thiolated groups. In situ-functionalized Au nanoparticles showed a strikingly (2 orders of magnitude higher) improved stability against small nucleophiles such as sodium cyanide compared to gold nanoparticles coated with citrate ligands and functionalized via a ligand-exchange reaction. The monovalent thiol PEG ligand produced most stable colloids against cyanide, which is explained by a strongly increased numerical ligand-density on the surface. Gold colloids stabilized by di- and trivalent ligands exhibited high stability in aqueous solutions with high NaCl concentrations (2 M) in contrast to those functionalized with the monovalent PEG ligand, which were only temporally stable in dilute NaCl solutions. The beneficial effect of the multivalence of the ligands was further demonstrated by the incorporation of an additional chelating ligand (dithiothreitol) to the colloidal dispersions.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Ditiotreitol/química , Ligantes , Cianeto de Sódio/química
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