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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781289

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only potentially curative option for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Mortality after HCT is high, with deaths related to relapse or transplant-related complications. Thus, identifying patients who may or may not benefit from HCT is clinically important. We identified 1514 patients with MDS enrolled in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Registry and had their peripheral blood samples sequenced for the presence of 129 commonly mutated genes in myeloid malignancies. A random survival forest algorithm was used to build the model, and the accuracy of the proposed model was assessed by concordance index. The median age of the entire cohort was 59 years. The most commonly mutated genes were ASXL1(20%), TP53 (19%), DNMT3A (15%), and TET2 (12%). The algorithm identified the following variables prior to HCT that impacted overall survival: age, TP53 mutations, absolute neutrophils count, cytogenetics per International Prognostic Scoring System-Revised, Karnofsky performance status, conditioning regimen, donor age, WBC count, hemoglobin, diagnosis of therapy-related MDS, peripheral blast percentage, mutations in RAS pathway, JAK2 mutation, number of mutations/sample, ZRSR2, and CUX1 mutations. Different variables impacted the risk of relapse post-transplant. The new model can provide survival probability at different time points that are specific (personalized) for a given patient based on the clinical and mutational variables that are listed above. The outcomes' probability at different time points may aid physicians and patients in their decision regarding HCT.

2.
Blood Adv ; 4(13): 3180-3190, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663298

RESUMO

There is a lack of large comparative study on the outcomes of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transplantation using fludarabine/busulfan (FB) and fludarabine/melphalan (FM) regimens. Adult AML patients from Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received first RIC allo-transplant between 2001 and 2015 were studied. Patients were excluded if they received cord blood or identical twin transplant, total body irradiation in conditioning, or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with in vitro T-cell depletion. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS), secondary end points were leukemia-free survival (LFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and GVHD. Multivariate survival model was used with adjustment for patient, leukemia, and transplant-related factors. A total of 622 patients received FM and 791 received FB RIC. Compared with FB, the FM group had fewer transplant in complete remission (CR), fewer matched sibling donors, and less usage of anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab. More patients in the FM group received marrow grafts and had transplantation before 2005. OS was significantly lower within the first 3 months posttransplant in the FM group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.82, P < .001), but was marginally superior beyond 3 months (HR = 0.87, P = .05). LFS was better with FM compared with FB (HR = 0.89, P = .05). NRM was significantly increased in the FM group during the first 3 months of posttransplant (HR = 3.85, P < .001). Long-term relapse was lower with FM (HR = 0.65, P < .001). Analysis restricted to patients with CR showed comparable results. In conclusion, compared with FB, the FM RIC showed a marginally superior long-term OS and LFS and a lower relapse rate. A lower OS early posttransplant within 3 months was largely the result of a higher early NRM.

3.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662346

RESUMO

While TKI are the preferred first-line treatment for chronic phase (CP) CML, alloHCT remains an important consideration. The aim is to estimate residual life expectancy (RLE) for patients initially diagnosed with CP CML based on timing of alloHCT or continuation of TKI in various settings: CP1 CML, CP2 + [after transformation to accelerated phase (AP) or blast phase (BP)], AP, or BP. Non-transplant cohort included single-institution patients initiating TKI and switched TKI due to failure. CIBMTR transplant cohort included CML patients who underwent HLA sibling matched (MRD) or unrelated donor (MUD) alloHCT. AlloHCT appeared to shorten survival in CP1 CML with overall mortality hazard ratio (HR) for alloHCT of 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-4.9; p = .02). In BP CML, there was a trend toward higher survival with alloHCT; HR = 0.7 (0.5-1.1; p = .099). AlloHCT in CP2 + [HR = 2.0 (0.8-4.9), p = .13] and AP [HR = 1.1 (0.6-2.1); p = .80] is less clear and should be determined on a case-by-case basis.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(24): 10755-10768, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393016

RESUMO

Predicting the crystallization of chiral molecules from solution is a major challenge in the chemical sciences. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics computer simulations to study the crystallization of a family of coarse-grained models of chiral molecules with a broad range of molecular shapes and interactions. Our simulations reproduce the experimental crystallization behavior of real chiral molecules, including racemic and enantiopure crystals, as well as amorphous solids. Using efficient algorithms for the packing of shapes, we enumerate millions of low-energy crystal structures for each model and analyze the thermodynamic landscape of polymorphs. In agreement with recent conjectures, our analysis shows that the ease of crystallization is largely determined by the number of competing polymorphs with low free energy. We find that this number and, hence, crystallization outcomes depend on molecular interactions in a simple way: Strongly heterogeneous interactions across molecules promote crystallization and favor the spontaneous resolution of racemic mixtures. Our results help rationalize a number of experimental observations and can provide guidance for the design of molecules and experimental conditions for desired crystallization outcomes.

5.
Blood Adv ; 4(9): 1965-1973, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384540

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative therapy for myelofibrosis (MF). In this large multicenter retrospective study, overall survival (OS) in MF patients treated with allogeneic HCT (551 patients) and without HCT (non-HCT) (1377 patients) was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards model. Survival analysis stratified by the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) revealed that the first year of treatment arm assignment, due to upfront risk of transplant-related mortality (TRM), HCT was associated with inferior OS compared with non-HCT (non-HCT vs HCT: DIPSS intermediate 1 [Int-1]: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26, P < .0001; DIPSS-Int-2 and higher: HR, 0.39, P < .0001). Similarly, in the DIPSS low-risk MF group, due to upfront TRM risk, OS was superior with non-HCT therapies compared with HCT in the first-year post treatment arm assignment (HR, 0.16, P = .006). However, after 1 year, OS was not significantly different (HR, 1.38, P = .451). Beyond 1 year of treatment arm assignment, an OS advantage with HCT therapy in Int-1 and higher DIPSS score patients was observed (non-HCT vs HCT: DIPSS-Int-1: HR, 2.64, P < .0001; DIPSS-Int-2 and higher: HR, 2.55, P < .0001). In conclusion, long-term OS advantage with HCT was observed for patients with Int-1 or higher risk MF, but at the cost of early TRM. The magnitude of OS benefit with HCT increased as DIPSS risk score increased and became apparent with longer follow-up.

6.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382773

RESUMO

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm with a prevalence of 4 to 6 per 100,000 people in the USA. Treatment recommendations are risk-adapted. This study was conducted to evaluate how physicians risk-stratify patients at the time of MF diagnosis, the accuracy of the risk stratification, and its effect on treatment selection. Medical charts were reviewed at US community hematology/oncology practices in the Cardinal Health Oncology Provider Extended Network; patient clinical characteristics, risk stratification, and treatment data were collected. Physician-assigned risk categorizations were compared with data-derived risk categorizations based on the International Prognostic Scoring System, the system recommended at diagnosis. A total of 491 patients diagnosed with MF between 2012 and 2016 (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 65.4 [11.8] years; 54.8% male, 69.2% with primary MF) were included. Risk categorization was not assigned for 30.1% of patients. Of the patients with a physician-assigned risk categorization (n = 343), a scoring system was used in 49.9%. Compared with data-derived risk categorizations, 42.9% of physician-assigned risk categorizations were incorrect; 85.0% of incorrect physician-assigned risk categorizations were underestimations. Notably, 38.5% of patients with data-derived intermediate- or high-risk categorizations did not initiate treatment within 120 days of diagnosis. Among patients with data-derived intermediate risk, those with an underestimated physician-assigned risk categorization were significantly less likely to receive treatment within 120 days of diagnosis (51.6% with correct physician-assigned categorization vs 18.5% with underestimated risk categorization; P = 0.0023). These results highlight the gap in risk assessment and the importance of accurate risk stratification at diagnosis.

7.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(4): 219-225, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV) is associated with increased blood cell counts, risk of thrombosis, and symptoms including fatigue and pruritus. National guidelines support the use of hydroxyurea (HU) in high-risk patients or those with some other clinical indication for cytoreduction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: REVEAL is a prospective, observational study designed to collect data pertaining to demographics, disease burden, clinical management, patient-reported outcomes, and health care resource utilization of patients with PV in the United States. In this analysis, HU treatment patterns and outcomes were assessed from 6 months prior to enrollment to the time of discontinuation, death, or data cutoff. RESULTS: Of the 1381 patients who received HU for ≥ 3 months, the median HU exposure was 23.6 months (range, 3.1-38.5 months). The most common maximum daily HU doses were 1000 mg (30.6%) and 500 mg (30.1%); only 6.4% received ≥ 2 g/d HU. Approximately one-third (32.3%) of patients had dose adjustments, 23.8% had dose interruptions, and 257 (18.6%) discontinued HU. The most common reasons for HU discontinuations and interruptions were adverse events/intolerance (37.1% and 54.5%, respectively) and lack of efficacy (35.5% and 22.1%, respectively). Of those who received HU for ≥ 3 months, 57.1% had hematocrit values > 45% on ≥ 1 occasion, 33.1% continued to receive phlebotomies, and 27.4% had uncontrolled myeloproliferation. CONCLUSION: The results of this analysis emphasize the need for active management of patients with PV with appropriate HU dose titration to maintain blood count control while monitoring for signs and symptoms of HU intolerance.

8.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(3): 571-579, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549386

RESUMO

There is a high risk of voriconazole failure in those with subtherapeutic drug concentrations, which is more common in CYP2C19 (cytochrome P450 2C19) rapid/ultrarapid metabolizers (RMs/UMs). We evaluated CYP2C19 genotype-guided voriconazole dosing on drug concentrations and clinical outcomes in adult allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Poor (PMs), intermediate (IMs), and normal metabolizers (NMs) received voriconazole 200 mg twice daily; RMs/UMs received 300 mg twice daily. Steady-state trough concentrations were obtained after 5 days, targeting 1.0-5.5 mg/L. Of 89 evaluable patients, 29% had subtherapeutic concentrations compared with 50% in historical controls (P < 0.001). Zero, 26%, 50%, and 16% of PMs, IMs, NMs, and RMs/UMs were subtherapeutic. Voriconazole success rate was 78% compared with 54% in historical controls (P < 0.001). No patients experienced an invasive fungal infection (IFI). Genotype-guided dosing resulted in $4,700 estimated per patient savings as compared with simulated controls. CYP2C19 genotype-guided voriconazole dosing reduced subtherapeutic drug concentrations and effectively prevented IFIs.

9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(3): 472-479, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669399

RESUMO

It remains unknown whether the administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting BCR-ABL1 after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is associated with improved outcomes for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In this registry study, we analyzed clinical outcomes of 390 adult patients with CML who underwent transplantation between 2007 and 2014 and received maintenance TKI following HCT (n = 89) compared with no TKI maintenance (n = 301), as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. All patients received TKI therapy before HCT. The majority of patients had a disease status of first chronic phase at HCT (n = 240; 62%). The study was conducted as a landmark analysis, excluding patients who died, relapsed, had chronic graft-versus-host disease, or were censored before day +100 following HCT. Of the 89 patients who received TKI maintenance, 77 (87%) received a single TKI and the other 12 (13%) received multiple sequential TKIs. The most common TKIs used for maintenance were dasatinib (n = 50), imatinib (n = 27), and nilotinib (n = 27). As measured from day +100, the adjusted estimates for 5-year relapse (maintenance, 35% versus no maintenance, 26%; P = .11), leukemia-free survival (maintenance, 42% versus no maintenance, 44%; P = .65), or overall survival (maintenance, 61% versus no maintenance, 57%; P = .61) did not differ significantly between patients receiving TKI maintenance or no maintenance. These results remained unchanged in multivariate analysis and were not modified by disease status before transplantation. In conclusion, our data from this day +100 landmark analysis do not demonstrate a significant impact of maintenance TKI therapy on clinical outcomes. The optimal approach to TKI administration in the post-transplantation setting in patients with CML remains undetermined.

10.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3052-3061, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648336

RESUMO

Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) is expressed on progenitor cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) is detectable during homeostasis and increases in hypoplasia due to genetic defects or treatment with cytoreductive agents. Conversely, Flt3+ AML is associated with depletion of Flt3L to undetectable levels. After induction chemotherapy, Flt3L is restored in patients entering complete remission (CR) but remains depressed in those with refractory disease. Weekly sampling reveals marked differences in the kinetics of Flt3L response during the first 6 weeks of treatment, proportionate to the clearance of blasts and cellularity of the bone marrow. In the UK NCRI AML17 trial, Flt3L was measured at day 26 in a subgroup of 140 patients with Flt3 mutation randomized to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lestaurtinib or placebo. In these patients, attainment of CR was associated with higher Flt3L at day 26 (Mann-Whitney UP < .0001). Day 26 Flt3L was also associated with survival; Flt3L ≤291 pg/mL was associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS), and Flt3L >1185 pg/mL was associated with higher overall survival (OS; P = .0119). The separation of EFS and OS curves increased when minimal residual disease (MRD) status was combined with Flt3L measurement, and Flt3L retained a near-significant association with survival after adjusting for MRD in a proportional hazards model. Serial measurement of Flt3L in patients who had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant for AML illustrates the potential value of monitoring Flt3L to identify relapse. Measurement of Flt3L is a noninvasive test with the potential to inform clinical decisions in patients with AML.

11.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(9): 579-584.e1, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) have PV-related symptoms at diagnosis; these symptoms might develop or worsen with time. Symptoms have been shown to negatively affect quality of life and interfere with daily activities. To our knowledge, an analysis to evaluate the relationship between blood count control and symptoms has not been published. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Prospective Observational Study of Patients with Polycythemia Vera in US Clinical Practices (REVEAL; NCT02252159) is a multicenter, noninterventional, nonrandomized prospective observational study of patients with PV in the United States. Patients included were required to have a complete blood count result within 30 days before completing the at-enrollment Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Self-Assessment Form Total Symptom Score (MPN-SAF TSS). Symptom severity was compared between those who had blood count control versus those who did not. RESULTS: At the time of enrollment, 1714 patients (94.5%) were being managed with cytoreductive therapy; 468 patients (25.8%) had complete hematologic remission (CHR), 1614 patients (89.0%) had ≥1 controlled blood count, and 1122 patients (61.9%) had ≥2 controlled blood counts. Mean MPN-SAF TSSs were similar across patients in different blood count control groups. Fatigue was the most frequently reported symptom. The severity of individual symptoms, except those of pruritus and night sweats, was not affected by CHR or the number of blood counts that were controlled. CONCLUSION: Symptom burden in patients with PV can persist despite control of blood counts, which suggests some discordance between laboratory values and symptom burden. Consequently, regular monitoring of symptom burden should be factored into the assessment of disease control.

12.
Blood Adv ; 3(13): 1939-1949, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253596

RESUMO

This open-label, phase 1 study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and maximum tolerated dose of AMG 232, an investigational oral, selective mouse double minute 2 homolog inhibitor in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AMG 232 was administered orally once daily for 7 days every 2 weeks (7 on/off) at 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, or 960 mg as monotherapy (arm 1) or at 60 mg with trametinib 2 mg (arm 2). Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), adverse events (AEs), pharmacokinetics, clinical and pharmacodynamic response, and expression of p53 target genes were assessed. All 36 patients received AMG 232. No DLTs occurred in arm 1, and 360 mg was the highest test dose; dose escalation was halted due to gastrointestinal AEs at higher doses. One of ten patients in arm 2 had a DLT (grade 3 fatigue); 60 mg was the highest dose tested with trametinib. Common treatment-related AEs (any grade) included nausea (58%), diarrhea (56%), vomiting (33%), and decreased appetite (25%). AMG 232 exhibited linear pharmacokinetics unaffected by coadministration with trametinib. Serum macrophage inhibitor cytokine-1 and bone marrow expression of BAX, PUMA, P21, and MDM2 increased during treatment. Of 30 evaluable patients, 1 achieved complete remission, 4 had morphologic leukemia-free state, and 1 had partial remission. Four of 13 (31%) TP53-wild-type patients and 0 of 3 (0%) TP53-mutant patients were responders. AMG 232 was associated with gastrointestinal AEs at higher doses but had acceptable pharmacokinetics, on-target effects, and promising clinical activity warranting further investigation in patients with relapsed/refractory AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02016729.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(16): 5143-5155, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253630

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a prognostic model and cytogenetic risk classification for previously treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) undergoing reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 606 patients with CLL who underwent RIC allogeneic HCT between 2008 and 2014 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. RESULTS: On the basis of multivariable models, disease status, comorbidity index, lymphocyte count, and white blood cell count at HCT were selected for the development of prognostic model. Using the prognostic score, we stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk [4-year progression-free survival (PFS) 58%, 42%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, P < 0.0001; 4-year overall survival (OS) 70%, 57%, 54%, and 38%, respectively, P < 0.0001]. We also evaluated karyotypic abnormalities together with del(17p) and found that del(17p) or ≥5 abnormalities showed inferior PFS. Using a multivariable model, we classified cytogenetic risk into low, intermediate, and high (P < 0.0001). When the prognostic score and cytogenetic risk were combined, patients with low prognostic score and low cytogenetic risk had prolonged PFS (61% at 4 years) and OS (75% at 4 years). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients with previously treated CLL who underwent RIC HCT, we developed a robust prognostic scoring system of HCT outcomes and a novel cytogenetic-based risk stratification system. These prognostic models can be used for counseling patients, comparing data across studies, and providing a benchmark for future interventions. For future study, we will further validate these models for patients receiving targeted therapies prior to HCT.

14.
Blood Adv ; 3(12): 1826-1836, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201170

RESUMO

HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (Haplo-HCT) using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) has improved donor availability. However, a matched sibling donor (MSD) is still considered the optimal donor. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we compared outcomes after Haplo-HCT vs MSD in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). Data from 1205 adult CR1 AML patients (2008-2015) were analyzed. A total of 336 patients underwent PT-Cy-based Haplo-HCT and 869 underwent MSD using calcineurin inhibitor-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The Haplo-HCT group included more reduced-intensity conditioning (65% vs 30%) and bone marrow grafts (62% vs 7%), consistent with current practice. In multivariable analysis, Haplo-HCT and MSD groups were not different with regard to overall survival (P = .15), leukemia-free survival (P = .50), nonrelapse mortality (P = .16), relapse (P = .90), or grade II-IV acute GVHD (P = .98). However, the Haplo-HCT group had a significantly lower rate of chronic GVHD (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.48; P < .001). Results of subgroup analyses by conditioning intensity and graft source suggested that the reduced incidence of chronic GVHD in Haplo-HCT is not limited to a specific graft source or conditioning intensity. Center effect and minimal residual disease-donor type interaction were not predictors of outcome. Our results indicate a lower rate of chronic GVHD after PT-Cy-based Haplo-HCT vs MSD using calcineurin inhibitor-based GVHD prophylaxis, but similar other outcomes, in patients with AML in CR1. Haplo-HCT is a viable alternative to MSD in these patients.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(14): 6013-6021, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889948

RESUMO

Self-assembly of nanocrystals is a promising route for creating macroscale materials that derive function from the properties of their nanoscale building blocks. While much progress has been made assembling nanocrystals into different superlattices, controlling the relative orientations of nanocrystals in those lattices remains a challenge. Here, we combine experiments with computer simulations to study the self-assembly of patchy heterostructural nanocrystals (HNCs), consisting of near-spherical quantum dots decorated with regular arrangements of small gold satellites, into close-packed superlattices with pronounced orientational alignment of HNCs. Our simulations indicate that the orientational alignment is caused by van der Waals interactions between gold patches and is sensitive to the interparticle distance in the superlattice. We demonstrate experimentally that the degree and type of orientational alignment can be controlled by changing ligand populations on HNCs. This study provides guidance for the design and fabrication of nanocrystal superlattices with enhanced structural control.

16.
Blood Adv ; 3(4): 670-680, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808685

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant is a potential curative therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Delineating the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect as a function of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) offers the potential to improve survival. We examined 5215 transplant recipients with ALL reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research registry. Overall survival (OS) was compared according to the presence and severity of GVHD and evaluated in 3 cohorts: 2593 adults in first or second complete remission (CR1/CR2), 1619 pediatric patients in CR1/CR2, and 1003 patients with advanced (CR ≥3 or active disease) ALL. For patients in CR1/CR2, development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) or chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was associated with lower risk of relapse than no GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49-0.69). Patients with advanced ALL developing grades III and IV aGVHD or cGVHD were also at lower risk of relapse (HRs varied from 0.52 to 0.67). Importantly, adult and children in CR1/CR2 with grades I and II aGVHD without cGVHD experienced the best OS compared with no GVHD (reduction of mortality with HR, 0.83-0.76). Increased nonrelapse mortality accompanied grades III and IV aGVHD (HRs varied from 2.69 to 3.91) in all 3 cohorts and abrogated any protection from relapse, resulting in inferior OS. Patients with advanced ALL had better OS (reduction in mortality; HR, 0.69-0.73) when they developed cGVHD with or without grades I and II aGVHD. In conclusion, GVHD was associated with an increased GVL effect in ALL. GVL exerted a net beneficial effect on OS only if associated with low-grade aGVHD in CR1/CR2 or with cGVHD in advanced ALL.


Assuntos
Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(4): 656-663, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597277

RESUMO

Pharmacogenetics influences oral tacrolimus exposure; however, little data exist regarding i.v. tacrolimus. We investigated the impact of genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 on i.v. tacrolimus exposure and toxicity in adult patients receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for hematologic malignancies. Germline DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and genotyped for CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms. Continuous i.v. infusion of tacrolimus .03 mg/kg/day was initiated on day +5 post-transplant, and steady-state blood concentrations were measured 4days later. We evaluated the association between phenotypes and prevalence of nontherapeutic target concentrations (below or above 5 to 15 ng/mL) as well as tacrolimus-related toxicities. Of 63 patients, 28.6% achieved the target concentration; 71.4% were >15ng/mL, which was more common in CYP3A4 intermediate/normal metabolizers (compared with rapid) and those with at least 1 ABCB1 C2677T loss-of-function allele (P < .05). ABCB1 C2677T was significantly associated with concentrations >15ng/mL (odds ratio, 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 23.6; P = .004) and tacrolimus-related toxicities (odds ratio, 7.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 55.2; P = .02). ABCB1 C2677T and CYP3A4 are important determinants of i.v. tacrolimus exposure, whereas ABCB1 C2677T also impacts tacrolimus-related toxicities in stem cell transplants.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(5): 1980-1988, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628775

RESUMO

Self-assembly of nanocrystals into functional materials requires precise control over nanoparticle interactions in solution that are dominated by organic ligands that densely cover the surface of nanocrystals. Recent experiments have demonstrated that small truncated-octahedral nanocrystals can self-assemble into a range of superstructures with different translational and orientational order of nanocrystals. The origin of this structural diversity remains unclear. Here, we use molecular dynamics computer simulations to study the self-assembly of these nanocrystals over a broad range of ligand lengths and solvent conditions. Our model, which is based on a coarse-grained description of ligands and solvent effects, reproduces the experimentally observed superstructures, including recently observed superlattices with partial and short-ranged orientational alignment of nanocrystals. We show that small differences in nanoparticle shape, ligand length and coverage, and solvent conditions can lead to markedly different self-assembled superstructures due to subtle changes in the free energetics of ligand interactions. Our results rationalize the large variety of different reported superlattices self-assembled from seemingly similar particles and can serve as a guide for the targeted self-assembly of nanocrystal superstructures.

19.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(4): 785-790, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579967

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common and important complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Reactivation of BK virus is its most common cause. The more intense immunosuppressive regimens administered to recipients of grafts from alternative donors have been reported to account for the increased susceptibility to HC in this population. This study compares patients undergoing HCT with either a haploidentical donor or a matched related donor, all of whom received identical immunosuppression with a post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based regimen. The incidence of HC was significantly higher in the patients receiving a haploidentical graft (P = .01). The higher incidence of HC in haploidentical graft recipients is therefore directly related to the inherent immune deficiency that follows HLA-mismatched transplantation, independent of the intensity of pharmacologic immunosuppression. This finding carries significant clinical impact for the prevention and treatment of HC in haploidentical graft recipients.


Assuntos
Cistite/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Transplante Haploidêntico/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Haploidêntico/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(3): 3407-3416, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589251

RESUMO

We report the preparation and characterization of charged nanoporous membranes by self-assembly of "hairy" silica nanoparticles (HNPs) functionalized with polyelectrolyte copolymer brushes. We show that HNP membranes possess high water flux, have well-defined pore sizes, and rejection up to 80% of charged species in solution. The properties of these membranes can be tuned by controlling the length and composition of polymer brushes and the electrolyte concentration in solution. We demonstrate that membrane pore sizes undergo changes of up to 40% in response to changes in the ionic strength of the salt solution. Using MD computer simulations of a coarse-grained model, we link these tunable properties to the conformations of polymer chains in the spaces between randomly packed HNPs. As polymer length increases, the polymers fill the interparticle gaps, and the pore size decreases markedly. On the basis of their straightforward fabrication and tunable properties, HNP membranes may find applications in size- and charge-selective separations, water desalination, and responsive devices.

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