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1.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(41): 415701, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272091

RESUMO

We measure the evolution of low temperature photoluminescence in a WSe2 monolayer with increasing electron concentration level. By comparing non-resonant and resonant laser excitation, we find that the formation of negative trions is facilitated by very efficient phonon emission. The most prominent line in photolumienscence spectra in the intermediate range of carrier concentrations (below [Formula: see text] cm-2) is found to be 66 meV below the bright negative trion. Its measured properties, including low oscillator strength and the temperature dependence point to an interacting bright intervalley and dark intervalley trion state as the origin of the line.

2.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(9): 825-831, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358942

RESUMO

The interplay of Dirac physics and induced superconductivity at the interface of a 3D topological insulator (TI) with an s-wave superconductor (S) provides a new platform for topologically protected quantum computation based on elusive Majorana modes. To employ such S-TI hybrid devices in future topological quantum computation architectures, a process is required that allows for device fabrication under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here, we report on the selective area growth of (Bi,Sb)2Te3 TI thin films and stencil lithography of superconductive Nb for a full in situ fabrication of S-TI hybrid devices via molecular-beam epitaxy. A dielectric capping layer was deposited as a final step to protect the delicate surfaces of the S-TI hybrids at ambient conditions. Transport experiments in as-prepared Josephson junctions show highly transparent S-TI interfaces and a missing first Shapiro step, which indicates the presence of Majorana bound states. To move from single junctions towards complex circuitry for future topological quantum computation architectures, we monolithically integrated two aligned hardmasks to the substrate prior to growth. The presented process provides new possibilities to deliberately combine delicate quantum materials in situ at the nanoscale.

3.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 14(1): 179, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140033

RESUMO

We report on the growth of Te-doped catalyst-free InAs nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon (111) substrates. Changes in the wire morphology, i.e. a decrease in length and an increase in diameter have been observed with rising doping level. Crystal structure analysis based on transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction reveals an enhancement of the zinc blende/(wurtzite+zinc blende) segment ratio if Te is provided during the growth process. Furthermore, electrical two-point measurements show that increased Te-doping causes a gain in conductivity. Two comparable growth series, differing only in As-partial pressure by about 1 × 10-5 Torr while keeping all other parameters constant, were analyzed for different Te-doping levels. Their comparison suggests that the crystal structure is strongly affected and the conductivity gain is more distinct for wires grown at a comparably higher As-partial pressure.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 259, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670785

RESUMO

In recent years much effort has been made to increase the Sn content in GeSn alloys in order to increase direct bandgap charge carrier recombination and, therefore, to reach room temperature lasing. While being successful for the former, the increase of Sn content is detrimental, leading to increased defect concentrations and a lower thermal budget regarding processing. In this work we demonstrate strong photoluminescence enhancement in low Sn content Ge0.94Sn0.06 layers by implementing tensile strain. Fitting of the calculated photoluminescence spectra to reproduce our experimental results indicates a strain of ~1.45%, induced via an SiNx stressor layer, which is strong enough to transform the investigated layer into a direct bandgap semiconductor. Moreover, theoretical calculations, using the 8-band k·p model, show the advantages of using low Sn content tensile strained GeSn layers in respect to gain and lasing temperature. We show that low Sn content GeSn alloys have a strong potential to enable efficient room temperature lasers on electronic-photonic integrated circuits.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 30(5): 055201, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499462

RESUMO

Oxidized Si(111) substrates were pre-structured by electron beam lithography and used as a substrate for the selective growth of three-dimensional topological insulators (TI) by molecular beam epitaxy. The patterned holes were filled up by the TI, i.e. Sb2Te3 and Bi2Te3, to form nanodots. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam cross-sectioning was utilized to determine the morphology and depth profile of the nanodots. The magnetotransport measurements revealed universal conductance fluctuations originating from electron interference in phase-coherent loops. We find that these loops are oriented preferentially within the quintuple layers of the TI with only a small perpendicular contribution. Furthermore, we found clear indications of an conductivity anisotropy between different crystal orientations.

6.
Nano Lett ; 18(12): 7515-7523, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419748

RESUMO

Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have attracted tremendous interest for their possibility to host massless Dirac Fermions in topologically protected surface states (TSSs), which may enable new kinds of high-speed electronics. However, recent reports have outlined the importance of band bending effects within these materials, which results in an additional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with finite mass at the surface. TI surfaces are also known to be highly inhomogeneous on the nanoscale, which is masked in conventional far-field studies. Here, we use near-field microscopy in the mid-infrared spectral range to probe the local surface properties of custom-tailored (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3 structures with nanometer precision in all three spatial dimensions. Applying nanotomography and nanospectroscopy, we reveal a few-nanometer-thick layer of high surface conductivity and retrieve its local dielectric function without assuming any model for the spectral response. This allows us to directly distinguish between different types of surface states. An intersubband transition within the massive 2DEG formed by quantum confinement in the bent conduction band manifests itself as a sharp, surface-bound, Lorentzian-shaped resonance. An additional broadband background in the imaginary part of the dielectric function may be caused by the TSS. Tracing the intersubband resonance with nanometer spatial precision, we observe changes of its frequency, likely originating from local variations of doping or/and the mixing ratio between Bi and Sb. Our results highlight the importance of studying the surfaces of these novel materials on the nanoscale to directly access the local optical and electronic properties via the dielectric function.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15557, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348982

RESUMO

Since the first demonstration of lasing in direct bandgap GeSn semiconductors, the research efforts for the realization of electrically pumped group IV lasers monolithically integrated on Si have significantly intensified. This led to epitaxial studies of GeSn/SiGeSn hetero- and nanostructures, where charge carrier confinement strongly improves the radiative emission properties. Based on recent experimental literature data, in this report we discuss the advantages of GeSn/SiGeSn multi quantum well and quantum dot structures, aiming to propose a roadmap for group IV epitaxy. Calculations based on 8-band k∙p and effective mass method have been performed to determine band discontinuities, the energy difference between Γ- and L-valley conduction band edges, and optical properties such as material gain and optical cross section. The effects of these parameters are systematically analyzed for an experimentally achievable range of Sn (10 to 20 at.%) and Si (1 to 10 at.%) contents, as well as strain values (-1 to 1%). We show that charge carriers can be efficiently confined in the active region of optical devices for experimentally acceptable Sn contents in both multi quantum well and quantum dot configurations.

8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(6): 1700955, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938172

RESUMO

Growth and characterization of advanced group IV semiconductor materials with CMOS-compatible applications are demonstrated, both in photonics. The investigated GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructures combine direct bandgap GeSn active layers with indirect gap ternary SiGeSn claddings, a design proven its worth already decades ago in the III-V material system. Different types of double heterostructures and multi-quantum wells (MQWs) are epitaxially grown with varying well thicknesses and barriers. The retaining high material quality of those complex structures is probed by advanced characterization methods, such as atom probe tomography and dark-field electron holography to extract composition parameters and strain, used further for band structure calculations. Special emphasis is put on the impact of carrier confinement and quantization effects, evaluated by photoluminescence and validated by theoretical calculations. As shown, particularly MQW heterostructures promise the highest potential for efficient next generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible group IV lasers.

9.
Nanoscale ; 9(46): 18392-18401, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147699

RESUMO

The growth, crystal structure, strain relaxation and room temperature transport characteristics of GaAs/InSb core-shell nanowires grown using molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb of 14%, a transition from island-based to layer-like growth occurs during the formation of the shell. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in combination with geometric phase analyses as well as X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation are used to investigate the strain relaxation and prove the existence of different dislocations relaxing the strain on zinc blende and wurtzite core-shell nanowire segments. While on the wurtzite phase only Frank partial dislocations are found, the strain on the zinc blende phase is relaxed by dislocations with perfect, Shockley partial and Frank partial dislocations. Even for ultrathin shells of about 2 nm thickness, the strain caused by the high lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb is relaxed almost completely. Transfer characteristics of the core-shell nanowires show an ambipolar conductance behavior whose strength strongly depends on the dimensions of the nanowires. The interpretation is given based on an electronic band profile which is calculated for completely relaxed core/shell structures. The peculiarities of the band alignment in this situation implies simultaneously occupied electron and hole channels in the InSb shell. The ambipolar behavior is then explained by the change of carrier concentration in both channels by the gate voltage.

10.
Nanoscale ; 9(43): 16735-16741, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068026

RESUMO

We report the in situ growth of crystalline aluminum (Al) and niobium (Nb) shells on indium arsenide (InAs) nanowires. The nanowires are grown on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) without foreign catalysts in the vapor-solid (VS) mode. The metal shells are deposited by electron-beam evaporation in a metal MBE. High quality superconductor/semiconductor (SC/SM) hybrid structures such as Al/InAs and Nb/InAs are of interest for ongoing research in the fields of gateable Josephson junctions and quantum information related research. Systematic investigations of the deposition parameters suitable for metal shell growth are conducted. In the case of Al, the substrate temperature, the growth rate and the shell thickness are considered. The substrate temperature as well as the angle of the impinging deposition flux are explored for Nb shells. The core-shell hybrid structures are characterized by electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. Our results show that the substrate temperature is a crucial parameter in enabling the deposition of smooth Al layers. Contrarily, Nb films are less dependent on substrate temperature but are strongly affected by the deposition angle. At a temperature of 200 °C Nb reacts with InAs, dissolving the nanowire crystal. Our investigations result in smooth metal shells exhibiting an impurity and defect free, crystalline SC/InAs interface. Additionally, we find that the SC crystal structure is not affected by stacking faults present in the InAs nanowires.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 28(44): 445202, 2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28840851

RESUMO

Low-temperature transport in nanowires is accompanied by phase-coherent effects, which are observed as modulation of the conductance in an external magnetic field. In the GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires investigated here, these are h/e flux periodic oscillations in a magnetic field aligned parallel to the nanowire axis and aperiodic universal conductance fluctuations in a field aligned perpendicularly to the nanowire axis. Both electron interference effects are used to analyse the phase coherence of the system. Temperature-dependent measurements are carried out, in order to derive the phase coherence lengths in the cross-sectional plane as well as along the nanowire sidewalls. It is found that these values show a strong anisotropy, which can be explained by the crystal structure of the GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowire. For nanowires with a radius as low as 45 nm, flux periodic oscillations were observed up to a temperature of 55 K.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15704, 2017 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604672

RESUMO

Three-dimensional topological insulators host surface states with linear dispersion, which manifest as a Dirac cone. Nanoscale transport measurements provide direct access to the transport properties of the Dirac cone in real space and allow the detailed investigation of charge carrier scattering. Here we use scanning tunnelling potentiometry to analyse the resistance of different kinds of defects at the surface of a (Bi0.53Sb0.47)2Te3 topological insulator thin film. We find the largest localized voltage drop to be located at domain boundaries in the topological insulator film, with a resistivity about four times higher than that of a step edge. Furthermore, we resolve resistivity dipoles located around nanoscale voids in the sample surface. The influence of such defects on the resistance of the topological surface state is analysed by means of a resistor network model. The effect resulting from the voids is found to be small compared with the other defects.

13.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14976, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429708

RESUMO

New three-dimensional (3D) topological phases can emerge in superlattices containing constituents of known two-dimensional topologies. Here we demonstrate that stoichiometric Bi1Te1, which is a natural superlattice of alternating two Bi2Te3 quintuple layers and one Bi bilayer, is a dual 3D topological insulator where a weak topological insulator phase and topological crystalline insulator phase appear simultaneously. By density functional theory, we find indices (0;001) and a non-zero mirror Chern number. We have synthesized Bi1Te1 by molecular beam epitaxy and found evidence for its topological crystalline and weak topological character by spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The dual topology opens the possibility to gap the differently protected metallic surface states on different surfaces independently by breaking the respective symmetries, for example, by magnetic field on one surface and by strain on another surface.

14.
Small ; 13(16)2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160408

RESUMO

SiGeSn ternaries are grown on Ge-buffered Si wafers incorporating Si or Sn contents of up to 15 at%. The ternaries exhibit layer thicknesses up to 600 nm, while maintaining a high crystalline quality. Tuning of stoichiometry and strain, as shown by means of absorption measurements, allows bandgap engineering in the short-wave infrared range of up to about 2.6 µm. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiments indicate ternaries near the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, proving their potential for ternary-based light emitters in the aforementioned optical range. The ternaries' layer relaxation is also monitored to explore their use as strain-relaxed buffers, since they are of interest not only for light emitting diodes investigated in this paper but also for many other optoelectronic and electronic applications. In particular, the authors have epitaxially grown a GeSn/SiGeSn multiquantum well heterostructure, which employs SiGeSn as barrier material to efficiently confine carriers in GeSn wells. Strong room temperature light emission from fabricated light emitting diodes proves the high potential of this heterostructure approach.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(9): 8371-8377, 2017 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28234444

RESUMO

The lattice mismatch between CdSe and ZnSe is known to limit the thickness of ZnSe/CdSe quantum wells on GaAs (001) substrates to about 2-3 monolayers. We demonstrate that this thickness can be enhanced significantly by using In0.12Ga0.88As pseudo substrates, which generate alternating tensile and compressive strains in the ZnSe/CdSe/ZnSe layers resulting in an efficient strain compensation. This method enables to design CdSe/ZnSe quantum wells with CdSe thicknesses ranging from 1 to 6 monolayers, covering the whole visible spectrum. The strain compensation effect is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and supported by molecular statics simulations. The model approach with the supporting experimental measurements is sufficiently general to be also applied to other highly mismatched material combinations for the design of advanced strained heterostructures.

16.
Nano Lett ; 17(1): 128-135, 2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27991790

RESUMO

We present low-temperature magnetotransport measurements on GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires contacted by regular source-drain leads as well as laterally attached Hall contacts, which only touch parts of the nanowire sidewalls. Low-temperature measurements between source and drain contacts show typical phase coherent effects, such as universal conductance fluctuations in a magnetic field aligned perpendicularly to the nanowire axis as well as Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations in a parallel aligned magnetic field. However, the signal between the Hall contacts shows a Hall voltage buildup, when the magnetic field is turned perpendicular to the nanowire axis while current is driven through the wire using the source-drain contacts. At low temperatures, the phase coherent effects measured between source and drain leads are superimposed on the Hall voltage, which can be explained by nonlocal probing of large segments of the nanowire. In addition, the Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations are also observed in the magnetoconductance at magnetic fields aligned parallel to the nanowire axis, using the laterally contacted leads. This measurement geometry hereby directly corresponds to classical Aharonov-Bohm experiments using planar quantum rings. In addition, the Hall voltage is used to characterize the nanowires in terms of charge carrier concentration and mobility, using temperature- and gate-dependent measurements as well as measurements in tilted magnetic fields. The GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowire used in combination with laterally attached contacts is therefore the ideal system to three-dimensionally combine quantum ring experiments using the cross-sectional plane and Hall experiments using the axial nanowire plane.

17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 29493, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27581169

RESUMO

We report on low-temperature transport and electronic band structure of p-type Sb2Te3 nanowires, grown by chemical vapor deposition. Magnetoresistance measurements unravel quantum interference phenomena, which depend on the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowires. The observation of periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations is attributed to transport in topologically protected surface states in the Sb2Te3 nanowires. The study of universal conductance fluctuations demonstrates coherent transport along the Aharonov-Bohm paths encircling the rectangular cross-section of the nanowires. We use nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on single nanowires (nano-ARPES) to provide direct experimental evidence on the nontrivial topological character of those surface states. The compiled study of the bandstructure and the magnetotransport response unambiguosly points out the presence of topologically protected surface states in the nanowires and their substantial contribution to the quantum transport effects, as well as the hole doping and Fermi velocity among other key issues. The results are consistent with the theoretical description of quantum transport in intrinsically doped quasi-one-dimensional topological insulator nanowires.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(34): 22484-92, 2016 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27504951

RESUMO

Density dependent growth and optical properties of periodic arrays of GaAs nanowires (NWs) by fast selective area growth MOVPE are investigated. As the period of the arrays is decreased from 500 nm down to 100 nm, a volume growth enhancement by a factor of up to four compared with the growth of a planar layer is observed. This increase is explained as resulting from increased collection of precursors on the side walls of the nanowires due to the gas flow redistribution in the space between the NWs. Normal spectral reflectance of the arrays is strongly reduced compared with a flat substrate surface in all fabricated arrays. Electromagnetic modeling reveals that this reduction is caused by antireflective action of the nanowire arrays and nanowire-diameter dependent light absorption. Irrespective of the periodicity and diameter, Raman scattering and grazing angle X-ray diffraction show signal from zinc blende and wurtzite phases, the latter originating from stacking faults as observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectra contain intense surface phonons peaks, whose intensity depends strongly on the nanowire diameters as a result of potential structural changes and as well as variations of optical field distribution in the nanowires.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 55(17): 8381-6, 2016 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551948

RESUMO

This report presents a systematic study on the effect of zinc (Zn) carboxylate precursor on the structural and optical properties of red light emitting InP nanocrystals (NCs). NC cores were assessed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When moderate Zn:In ratios in the reaction pot were used, the incorporation of Zn in InP was insufficient to change the crystal structure or band gap of the NCs, but photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) increased dramatically compared with pure InP NCs. Zn was found to incorporate mostly in the phosphate layer on the NCs. PL, PLQY, and time-resolved PL (TRPL) show that Zn carboxylates added to the precursors during NC cores facilitate the synthesis of high-quality InP NCs by suppressing nonradiative and sub-band-gap recombination, and the effect is visible also after a ZnS shell is grown on the cores.

20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 27716, 2016 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291288

RESUMO

Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators with exotic 'topologically protected' surface conducting modes. It has recently been pointed out that when stacked together, interactions between surface modes can induce diverse phases including the TI, Dirac semimetal, and Weyl semimetal. However, currently a full experimental understanding of the conditions under which topological modes interact is lacking. Here, working with multilayers of the TI Sb2Te3 and the band insulator GeTe, we provide experimental evidence of multiple topological modes in a single Sb2Te3-GeTe-Sb2Te3 structure. Furthermore, we show that reducing the thickness of the GeTe layer induces a phase transition from a Dirac-like phase to a gapped phase. By comparing different multilayer structures we demonstrate that this transition occurs due to the hybridisation of states associated with different TI films. Our results demonstrate that the Sb2Te3-GeTe system offers strong potential towards manipulating topological states as well as towards controlledly inducing various topological phases.

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