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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111999, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550078

RESUMO

Tramadol is a widely used analgesic with additional antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. This compound has been reported in continental waters reaching concentrations of µg/L as a consequence of its inefficient removal in sewage treatment plants and increasing use over time. In this study, European chubs (Squalius cephalus) were exposed to 1 µg/L of tramadol in water for 42 days with a subsequent 14 days of depuration. Our results revealed that chubs exposed to this analgesic underwent changes in their behaviour as compared to the control group. The behavioural outcome was also influenced by the individual concentration of tramadol in brain tissue. In particular, experimental fish presented anxiolytic-like effects, characterized by less bold and less social individuals. Exposed animals were less frequently out of the shelter and moved a shorter distance, indicating that they explored the new environment less during the boldness test. In the novel object recognition experiment, although they distinguished the new item, they examined it less and displayed a reduced activity. Shoal cohesion was disrupted as observed in an increased distance between individuals. After the depuration phase, this alteration remained whereas the boldness effect disappeared. Moreover, the degree of behavioural changes was correlated with the concentration of the substance in brain. According to our findings, chronic presence of tramadol in the environment can impact the fitness of exposed aquatic fauna by altering evolutionary crucial behaviours.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 2991-3000, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587851

RESUMO

Food contamination is a major worldwide risk for human health. Dynamic plant uptake of pollutants from contaminated environments is the preferred pathway into the human and animal food chain. Mechanistic models represent a fundamental tool for risk assessment and the development of mitigation strategies. However, difficulty in obtaining comprehensive observations in the soil-plant continuum hinders their calibration, undermining their generalizability and raising doubts about their widespread applicability. To address these issues, a Bayesian probabilistic framework is used, for the first time, to calibrate and assess the predictive uncertainty of a mechanistic soil-plant model against comprehensive observations from an experiment on the translocation of carbamazepine in green pea plants. Results demonstrate that the model can reproduce the dynamics of water flow and solute reactive transport in the soil-plant domain accurately and with limited uncertainty. The role of different physicochemical processes in bioaccumulation of carbamazepine in fruits is investigated through Global Sensitivity Analysis, which shows how soil hydraulic properties and soil solute sorption regulate transpiration streams and bioavailability of carbamazepine. Overall, the analysis demonstrates the usefulness of mechanistic models and proposes a comprehensive numerical framework for their assessment and use.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141801, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861950

RESUMO

Bisphenols are increasingly recognized as environmental pollutants with endocrine-disrupting potential. Nonetheless, the study of environmental occurrence and some endocrine-disrupting activities of some bisphenols came widely into focus of research only recently. The aims of the present study were to: 1) determine the predominant bisphenols in Norwegian sewage sludge and sediment and in Czech surface waters, and 2) characterize the binding of bisphenols to a transport protein transthyretin (TTR) and their (anti-)thyroid, (anti-)progestagenic, and (anti-)androgenic activities. High-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization or photoionization coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI/APPI-HRMS) and Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) in vitro reporter gene bioassays were used to detect the target compounds and to determine endocrine-disrupting activities, respectively. Bisphenol A (BPA), 4,4'-bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol E (BPE) were the most frequently found compounds in municipal sewage sludge. Furthermore, bisphenol TMC (BPTMC) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) frequently occurred in sediment and surface waters, respectively. BPA was the major contributor to Ʃ of bisphenols in Norwegian sewage sludge with exception of one sample where BPF predominated. We also monitored a few bisphenols in sediment but only BPTMC was found. BPA, BPAF and BPF were the dominant bisphenols in Czech surface waters. Some bisphenols have shown TTR binding potency (BPAF = BPF > BPA = BPE) and some have displayed the following endocrine-disrupting activities: anti-thyroid (BPAF), anti-progestagenic (BPTMC > BPA = BPAF), and anti-androgenic (BPAF > BPE > BPA > BPTMC > BPF > BPS). It is noteworthy that BPAF exhibited stronger or similarly potent endocrine-disrupting activities compared to BPA. Our results provide new insights into these less-studied endocrine-disrupting activities of environmentally relevant bisphenols and may be useful in prioritizing those compounds that deserve further attention in environmental monitoring and eco-toxicological research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Pré-Albumina , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , República Tcheca , Noruega , Fenóis , Pré-Albumina/genética
4.
Environ Pollut ; : 116121, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272798

RESUMO

POCIS is the most widely applied passive sampler of polar organic substances, because it was one of the first commercially available samplers for that purpose on the market, but also for its applicability for a wide range of substances and conditions. Its main weakness is the variability of sampling performance with exposure conditions. In our study we took a pragmatic approach and performed in situ calibration for a set of 76 pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in five sampling campaigns in surface water, covering various temperature and flow conditions. In individual campaigns, RS were calculated for up to 47 compounds ranging from 0.01 to 0.63 L d-1, with the overall median value of 0.10 L d-1. No clear changes of RS with water temperature or discharge could be found for any of the investigated substances. The absence of correlation of experimental RS with physical-chemical properties in combination with the lack of mechanistic understanding of compound uptake to POCIS implies that practical estimation of aqueous concentrations from uptake in POCIS depends on compound-specific experimental calibration data. Performance of POCIS was compared with grab sampling of water in seven field campaigns comprising multiple sampling sites, where sampling by both methods was done in parallel. The comparison showed that for 25 of 36 tested compounds more than 50% of POCIS-derived aqueous concentrations did not differ from median of grab sampling values more than by a factor of 2. Further, for 30 of 36 compounds, more than 80% of POCIS data did not differ from grab sampling data more than by a factor of 5. When accepting this level of accuracy, in situ derived sampling rates are sufficiently robust for application of POCIS for identification of spatial and temporal contamination trends in surface waters.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115593, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254619

RESUMO

With increasing demand for aquaculture products, water reuse is likely to increase for aquaculture operations around the world. Herein, wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) represents low cost and sustainable treatment technologies to reduce nutrients and various contaminants of emerging concern from effluent. In the present study, we examined bioaccumulation of selected pharmaceuticals from several therapeutic classes by two important fish species in aquaculture with different feeding preferences (Cyprinus carpio and Sander lucioperca) and their common prey to test whether species specific accumulation occurs. Forty and nineteen from 66 selected pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were positively found in water and sediment samples, respectively from the representative WSP. After a six-month study, which corresponds to aquaculture operations, fourteen pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were detected (at a frequency of higher than 50% of samples) in at least one fish tissue collected from the WSP. We observed striking differences for species and organ specific BAFs among study compounds. Though muscle tissues consistently accumulated lower levels of the target analytes, several substances were elevated in brain, liver and kidney tissues (e.g., sertraline) of both species. Low residual concentrations of these target analytes in aquaculture products (fish fillets) suggest WSPs are promising to support the water-food nexus in aquaculture.

6.
Environ Pollut ; : 115888, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158621

RESUMO

With increasing population growth and climate change, de facto reuse practices are predicted to increase globally. We investigated a longitudinal gradient within the Uhlava River, a representative watershed, where de facto reuse is actively occurring, during Fall and Spring seasons when instream flows vary. We observed human pharmaceutical levels in the river to continuously increase from the mountainous areas upstream to downstream locations and a potable intake location, with the highest concentrations found in small tributaries. Significant relationship was identified between mass flow of pharmaceuticals and the size of human populations contributing to wastewater treatment plant discharges. Advanced ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration effectively removed pharmaceuticals from potable source waters. We observed a higher probability of encountering a number of targeted pharmaceuticals during colder Spring months when stream flows were elevated compared to warmer conditions with lower flows in the Fall despite a dilution paradigm routinely applied for surface water quality assessment and management efforts. Such observations translated to greater water quality hazards during these higher Spring flows. Future water monitoring efforts should account for periods when higher chemical uses occur, particularly in the face of climate change for regions experiencing population growth and de facto reuse.

7.
Environ Int ; 146: 106188, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096467

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

8.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126882, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957289

RESUMO

Methamphetamine, mainly consumed as an illicit drug, is a potent addictive psychostimulant that has been detected in surface water at concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per litre, especially in Middle and East Europe. The aim of this study was to expose brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) to environmental (1 µg L-1) and higher (50 µg L-1) concentrations of methamphetamine for 35 days with a four-day depuration phase to assess the possible negative effects on fish health. Degenerative liver and heart alterations, similar to those described in mammals, were observed at both concentrations, although at different intensities. Apoptotic changes in hepatocytes, revealed by activated caspase-3, were found in exposed fish. The parent compound and a metabolite (amphetamine) were detected in fish tissues in both concentration groups, in the order of kidney > liver > brain > muscle > plasma. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.13 to 80. A therapeutic plasma concentration was reached for both compounds in the high-concentration treatment. This study indicates that chronic environmental concentrations of methamphetamine can lead to health issues in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Truta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141134, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768780

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals may enter soils due to the application of treated wastewater or biosolids. Their leakage from soils towards the groundwater, and their uptake by plants is largely controlled by sorption and degradation of those compounds in soils. Standard laboratory batch degradation and sorption experiments were performed using soil samples obtained from the top horizons of seven different soil types and 6 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, irbesartan, fexofenadine, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole), which were applied either as single-solute solutions or as mixtures (not for sorption). The highest dissipation half-lives were observed for citalopram (average DT50,S for a single compound of 152 ±â€¯53.5 days) followed by carbamazepine (106.0 ±â€¯17.5 days), irbesartan (24.4 ±â€¯3.5 days), fexofenadine (23.5 ±â€¯20.9 days), clindamycin (10.8 ±â€¯4.2 days) and sulfamethoxazole (9.6 ±â€¯2.0 days). The simultaneous application of all compounds increased the half-lives (DT50,M) of all compounds (particularly carbamazepine, citalopram, fexofenadine and irbesartan), which is likely explained by the negative impact of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin) on soil microbial community. However, this trend was not consistent in all soils. In several cases, the DT50,S values were even higher than the DT50,M values. Principal component analyses showed that while knowledge of basic soil properties determines grouping of soils according sorption behavior, knowledge of the microbial community structure could be used to group soils according to the dissipation behavior of tested compounds in these soils. The derived multiple linear regression models for estimating dissipation half-lives (DT50,S) for citalopram, clindamycin, fexofenadine, irbesartan and sulfamethoxazole always included at least one microbial factor (either amount of phosphorus in microbial biomass or microbial biomarkers derived from phospholipid fatty acids) that deceased half-lives (i.e., enhanced dissipations). Equations for citalopram, clindamycin, fexofenadine and sulfamethoxazole included the Freundlich sorption coefficient, which likely increased half-lives (i.e., prolonged dissipations).


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adsorção , Solo , Sulfametoxazol , Águas Residuárias/análise
10.
PeerJ ; 8: e9356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714655

RESUMO

Background: The aquatic environment has been contaminated with various anthropogenic pollutants, including psychoactive compounds that may alter the physiology and behavior of free-living organisms. The present study focused on the condition and related mortality of the juvenile chub (Squalius cephalus). The aim of the study was to test whether the adverse effects of the antidepressants sertraline and citalopram, the analgesic tramadol and the illicit drug methamphetamine, on fish condition exist under environmentally relevant concentrations and whether these effects persist after a depuration period. Innovative analyses of the fish brain concentrations of these compounds were performed with the aim to show relationship between compound brain tissue concentration and fish condition. Methods: The laboratory experiment consisted of 42 days of exposure and a subsequent 14-day depuration period with regular monitoring of the condition and mortality of exposed and control fish. Identical methodology, including individual brain concentration analyses for the tested compounds, was applied for all substances. Additional study on feeding under sertraline exposure was also conducted. The feeding was measured from the 28th day of the exposure, three times in a week, by observation of food intake during 15 minutes in social environment. Results: The effects of particular psychoactive compounds on chub condition varied. While sertraline induced a lower condition and increased mortality, the effects of methamphetamine were inverse, and tramadol and citalopram had no significant effect at all. Individual brain concentrations of the tested compounds showed that the effects of sertraline and methamphetamine on fish condition were increased with brain concentration increases. Additionally, the food intake was reduced in case of sertraline. In contrast, there was no relationship between tramadol and citalopram brain tissue concentration and fish condition, suggesting that the concentration-dependent effect is strongly compound-specific. Methamphetamine was the only compound with a persistent effect after the depuration period. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the brain concentration evidence approach and suggest that changes in fish condition and other related parameters can be expected in freshwater ecosystems polluted with specific psychoactive compounds.

11.
J Contam Hydrol ; 234: 103680, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682147

RESUMO

Sorption of pharmaceuticals, which can occur in soils, may differ when present in a soil solution as a single compound or in a solution with other pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the sorption isotherms described by the Freundlich equations were evaluated for 6 compounds, which were applied in solutions of a single pharmaceutical, two pharmaceuticals or all pharmaceuticals to seven soils. Study mainly focused on a behavior of fexofenadine and irbesartan that occurred in soils in 3 forms (cationic, zwitter-ionic or neutral, anionic). Sorption of both compounds slightly increased (in some soils) when applied together, largely increased when applied with carbamazepine (neutral), and extremely increased when applied in solutions with citalopram (strongly sorbed cation), which could be explained by a cooperative multilayer sorption on soil constituents. On the other hand, sorption of both compounds moderately decreased when applied with clindamycin (cation and neutral) or sulfamethoxazole (neutral or anion). The magnitude of an increase or decrease in the Freundlich sorption coefficient (KF) for a particular compound depended on soil conditions, a form of compound's molecule and its interaction with molecules of other compounds. Despite sorption being influenced by other compound(s) in solution, the KF coefficients evaluated for a particular compound under the different conditions were mostly correlated with the same soil properties: KF,CAR with an organic carbon content, KF,CIT and KF,CLI with a base cation saturation, KF,SUL with hydrolytic acidity, and KF,FEX and KF,IRB with sorption complex saturation.

12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(18): 4353-4361, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372276

RESUMO

Recent state-of-the-art methods developed for the analysis of polar xenobiotics from different types of biological matrices usually employ liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. However, there are limitations when a small amount of sample mass is available. For example, individual benthic invertebrates or fish tissue samples often weigh less than 100 mg (e.g., brain, liver) but are necessary to understand environmental fate and bioaccumulation dynamics. We developed ultra-fast methods based on a direct sample introduction technique. This included coupling laser diode thermal desorption with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS). We then quantitated a common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (citalopram) in brain tissues of individual juvenile fish after in vivo exposure to environmentally relevant concentration. Two mass spectrometric methods based on low (LDTD-APCI-triple quadrupole (QqQ)-MS/MS) and high (LDTD-APCI-high-resolution product scan (HRPS)) resolutions were developed and evaluated. Individual instrument conditions were optimized to achieve an accurate and robust analytical method with minimum sample preparation requirements. We achieved very good recovery (97-108%) across the range of 1-100 ng g-1 for LDTD-APCI-HRPS. LDTD-APCI-QqQ-MS/MS showed poorer performance due to interferences from the matrix at the lowest concentration level. LDTD-APCI ionization was successfully validated for analysis of non-filtered sample extracts. Evaluation of final methods was performed for a set of real fish brain samples, including comparison of LDTD-APCI-HRPS with a previously validated LC-heated electrospray ionization-HRPS method. This new LDTD-APCI-HRPS method avoids the chromatographic step and provides important benefits such as analysis of limited sample masses, lower total sample volume (typically µL), and reduction in analysis time per sample run to a few seconds. Graphical abstract.

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(12): 13501-13511, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026368

RESUMO

Within this study, we were interested in the effects of wastewater on the development of antimicrobial resistance. Microorganisms can relatively promptly adapt to evolutionary pressures of the environment, including antibiotics. Therefore, we tested how the adaptability of the model microorganism Salmonella enterica is affected by wastewater full of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, and other micropollutants. Wastewater samples had been taken from effluent of hospitals and from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) Petrzalka influent and effluent. In these samples, presence of 38 substances was monitored. The highest concentration was observed in case of tramadol, citalopram, venlafaxine, cotinine, atenolol, valsartan, carbamazepine, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin. According to this data, we focused also on individual pharmaceutical compounds presented in wastewater samples in elevated concentrations. Effect on resistance development of two pain relief medications (carbamazepine, tramadol), hypotensive medications (atenolol, valsartan), and the nicotine metabolite (cotinine) was also investigated. For this study, we employed concentrations presented in wastewater as well as in urine of patients and/or users. To determine the frequency of mutations leading to ciprofloxacin resistance, we applied the modified Ames test employing the strain Salmonella Typhimurium. Resistance index increased in the case of all wastewater samples from conventional hospitals where we observed a 1.22-1.69-fold increase of mutations leading to ciprofloxacin resistance. Tested compounds caused rise of resistance index in lower concentrations found in wastewater. The most significant increase of resistance index was detected after carbamazepine treatment.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
14.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114150, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062094

RESUMO

Environmental monitoring and surveillance studies of pharmaceuticals routinely examine occurrence of substances without current information on human consumption patterns. We selected 10 streams with diverse annual flows and differentially influenced by population densities to examine surface water occurrence and fish accumulation of select psychoactive medicines, for which consumption is increasing in the Czech Republic. We then tested whether passive sampling can provide a useful surrogate for exposure to these substances through grab sampling, body burdens of young of year fish, and tissue specific accumulation of these psychoactive contaminants. We identified a statistically significant (p < 0.05) relationship between ambient grab samples and passive samplers in these streams when psychoactive contaminants were commonly quantitated by targeted liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, though we did not observe relationships between passive samplers and tissue specific pharmaceutical accumulation. We further observed smaller lotic systems with elevated contamination when municipal effluent discharges from more highly populated cities contributed a greater extent of instream flows. These findings identify the importance of understanding age and species specific differences in fish uptake, internal disposition, metabolism and elimination of psychoactive drugs across surface water quality gradients.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cidades , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Água
15.
Addiction ; 115(1): 109-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wastewater-based epidemiology is an additional indicator of drug use that is gaining reliability to complement the current established panel of indicators. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess spatial and temporal trends of population-normalized mass loads of benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in raw wastewater over 7 years (2011-17); (ii) address overall drug use by estimating the average number of combined doses consumed per day in each city; and (iii) compare these with existing prevalence and seizure data. DESIGN: Analysis of daily raw wastewater composite samples collected over 1 week per year from 2011 to 2017. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Catchment areas of 143 wastewater treatment plants in 120 cities in 37 countries. MEASUREMENTS: Parent substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA) and the metabolites of cocaine (benzoylecgonine) and of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol) were measured in wastewater using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Daily mass loads (mg/day) were normalized to catchment population (mg/1000 people/day) and converted to the number of combined doses consumed per day. Spatial differences were assessed world-wide, and temporal trends were discerned at European level by comparing 2011-13 drug loads versus 2014-17 loads. FINDINGS: Benzoylecgonine was the stimulant metabolite detected at higher loads in southern and western Europe, and amphetamine, MDMA and methamphetamine in East and North-Central Europe. In other continents, methamphetamine showed the highest levels in the United States and Australia and benzoylecgonine in South America. During the reporting period, benzoylecgonine loads increased in general across Europe, amphetamine and methamphetamine levels fluctuated and MDMA underwent an intermittent upsurge. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of wastewater to quantify drug loads provides near real-time drug use estimates that globally correspond to prevalence and seizure data.

16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109912, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706240

RESUMO

Synthetic progestins are emerging contaminants of the aquatic environment with endocrine disrupting potential. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestins gestodene, and drospirenone on sex differentiation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by histological analysis. To gain insights into the mechanisms behind the observations from the in vivo experiment on sex differentiation, we analyzed expression of genes involved in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes, histology of hepatopancreas, and in vitro bioassays. Carp were continuously exposed to concentrations of 2 ng/L of single progestins (gestodene or drospirenone) or to their mixture at concentration 2 ng/L of each. The exposure started 24 h after fertilization of eggs and concluded 160 days post-hatching. Our results showed that exposure of common carp to a binary mixture of drospirenone and gestodene caused increased incidence of intersex (32%) when compared to clean water and solvent control groups (both 3%). Intersex most probably was induced by a combination of multiple modes of action of the studied substances, namely anti-gonadotropic activity, interference with androgen receptor, and potentially also with HPT axis or estrogen receptor.


Assuntos
Androstenos/toxicidade , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Norpregnenos/toxicidade , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual/genética
17.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109407, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472377

RESUMO

Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants, which may contain various contaminants including pharmaceuticals, is often used as a soil amendment. These contaminants may subsequently be taken up by plants. In the present study we examined uptake of select pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge applied to soils by spinach plants. Seven soils were amended with sewage sludge from two wastewater treatment plants (A and B). Concentrations of compounds in plant tissues (roots and leaves) of spinach planted 45 days in these soils under greenhouse conditions were evaluated after harvest. The largest bioaccumulation in the roots and leaves was observed for sertraline (bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of 3.3-37.9 and 1-13.4, respectively), tramadol (1.3-10.0 and 4.8-30.0), and carbamazepine (2.2-17.2 and 6.1-48.8) and its metabolite carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (not-quantified to 7.3 and 9.3-96.7). Elevated bioaccumulation in spinach roots was also identified for telmisartan (3.0-20.3) and miconazole (4.3-15.1), and leaves for metoprolol acid (not-quantified to 24.3). BAF values resulting from application of sludge B were similar to or moderately higher than BAFs from sludge A. The BAF values of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide in all tissues were negatively correlated with soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). This negative correlation between BAF and CEC was also observed for tramadol (A-roots and B-leaves), citalopram (B-roots), and telmisartan (B-roots) or between BAF and clay content for metoprolol acid (A-leaves and B-roots), tramadol (B-roots and A-leaves) and venlafaxine (B-roots). However, in the case of some other compounds (i.e. sertraline, amitriptyline, mirtazapine, metoprolol), uptake and the subsequent translocation and transformation from 3 soils of a higher pH and base cation saturation (Stagnic Chernozem Siltic, Haplic Chernozem and Greyic Phaeozem) significantly differed from 4 soils with a lower pH and base cation saturation (Haplic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol, Dystric Cambisol and Arenosol Epieutric). Such observations proved strong compound dependent influences of soil conditions on various compounds bioaccumulations in plants and necessity of studying these processes always in diverse soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Esgotos , Spinacia oleracea , Águas Residuárias
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31812-31821, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487008

RESUMO

Various types of micropollutants, e.g., pharmaceuticals and their metabolites and resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms, are usually found in hospital wastewaters. The aim of this paper was to study the presence of 74 frequently used pharmaceuticals, legal and illegal drugs, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in 5 hospital wastewaters in Slovakia and Czechia and to compare the efficiency of several advanced oxidations processes (AOPs) for sanitation and treatment of such highly polluted wastewaters. The occurrence of micropollutants and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was investigated by in-line SPE-LC-MS/MS technique and cultivation on antibiotic and antibiotic-free selective diagnostic media, respectively. The highest maximum concentrations were found for cotinine (6700 ng/L), bisoprolol (5200 ng/L), metoprolol (2600 ng/L), tramadol (2400 ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (1500 ng/L), and ranitidine (1400 ng/L). In the second part of the study, different advanced oxidation processes, modified Fenton reaction, ferrate(VI), and oxidation by boron-doped diamond electrode were tested in order to eliminate the abovementioned pollutants. Obtained results indicate that the modified Fenton reaction and application of boron-doped diamond electrode were able to eliminate almost the whole spectrum of selected micropollutants with efficiency higher than 90%. All studied methods achieved complete removal of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria present in hospital wastewaters.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Boro , Cromatografia Líquida , República Tcheca , Diamante , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletrodos , Hospitais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Eslováquia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Water Res ; 162: 437-445, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301473

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global health crisis, driven largely by overuse and misuse of antibiotics. However, there are examples in which the production of these antimicrobial agents has polluted the environment with active antibiotic residues, selecting for antibiotic resistant bacteria and the genes they carry. In this work, we have used shotgun metagenomics to investigate the taxonomic structure and resistance gene composition of sludge communities in a treatment plant in Croatia receiving wastewater from production of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin. We found that the total abundance of antibiotic resistance genes was three times higher in sludge from the treatment plant receiving wastewater from pharmaceutical production than in municipal sludge from a sewage treatment plant in Zagreb. Surprisingly, macrolide resistance genes did not have higher abundances in the industrial sludge, but genes associated with mobile genetic elements such as integrons had. We conclude that at high concentrations of antibiotics, selection may favor taxonomic shifts towards intrinsically resistant species or strains harboring chromosomal resistance mutations rather than acquisition of mobile resistance determinants. Our results underscore the need for regulatory action also within Europe to avoid release of antibiotics into the environment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos , Croácia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Europa (Continente) , Genes Bacterianos , Macrolídeos , Esgotos
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105222, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212248

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds are major contaminants of aquatic environments that show direct and indirect effects on aquatic organisms even at low concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the illicit drug methamphetamine and the antidepressant sertraline on clonal marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Crayfish exposed to the environmentally relevant concentrations of methamphetamine of ∼1 µg L-1 did not exhibit significant differences from unexposed controls in distance moved, velocity, and activity level with or without available shelter. Sertraline-exposed (∼1 µg L-1) crayfish were significantly more active, regardless of available shelter, and moved greater distances when shelter was available, compared to control crayfish. Crayfish exposed to methamphetamine and sertraline spent significantly more time outside the shelters compared to controls. Sertraline-exposed crayfish spawned more frequently and showed higher mortality than controls. The results suggest that the low environmental concentrations of the tested compounds could alter the behavior and life history traits of crayfish, resulting in higher reproductive effort and mortality.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Sertralina/toxicidade , Animais , Invertebrados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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