Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 42
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111999, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550078

RESUMO

Tramadol is a widely used analgesic with additional antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. This compound has been reported in continental waters reaching concentrations of µg/L as a consequence of its inefficient removal in sewage treatment plants and increasing use over time. In this study, European chubs (Squalius cephalus) were exposed to 1 µg/L of tramadol in water for 42 days with a subsequent 14 days of depuration. Our results revealed that chubs exposed to this analgesic underwent changes in their behaviour as compared to the control group. The behavioural outcome was also influenced by the individual concentration of tramadol in brain tissue. In particular, experimental fish presented anxiolytic-like effects, characterized by less bold and less social individuals. Exposed animals were less frequently out of the shelter and moved a shorter distance, indicating that they explored the new environment less during the boldness test. In the novel object recognition experiment, although they distinguished the new item, they examined it less and displayed a reduced activity. Shoal cohesion was disrupted as observed in an increased distance between individuals. After the depuration phase, this alteration remained whereas the boldness effect disappeared. Moreover, the degree of behavioural changes was correlated with the concentration of the substance in brain. According to our findings, chronic presence of tramadol in the environment can impact the fitness of exposed aquatic fauna by altering evolutionary crucial behaviours.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141801, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861950

RESUMO

Bisphenols are increasingly recognized as environmental pollutants with endocrine-disrupting potential. Nonetheless, the study of environmental occurrence and some endocrine-disrupting activities of some bisphenols came widely into focus of research only recently. The aims of the present study were to: 1) determine the predominant bisphenols in Norwegian sewage sludge and sediment and in Czech surface waters, and 2) characterize the binding of bisphenols to a transport protein transthyretin (TTR) and their (anti-)thyroid, (anti-)progestagenic, and (anti-)androgenic activities. High-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization or photoionization coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI/APPI-HRMS) and Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) in vitro reporter gene bioassays were used to detect the target compounds and to determine endocrine-disrupting activities, respectively. Bisphenol A (BPA), 4,4'-bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol E (BPE) were the most frequently found compounds in municipal sewage sludge. Furthermore, bisphenol TMC (BPTMC) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) frequently occurred in sediment and surface waters, respectively. BPA was the major contributor to Ʃ of bisphenols in Norwegian sewage sludge with exception of one sample where BPF predominated. We also monitored a few bisphenols in sediment but only BPTMC was found. BPA, BPAF and BPF were the dominant bisphenols in Czech surface waters. Some bisphenols have shown TTR binding potency (BPAF = BPF > BPA = BPE) and some have displayed the following endocrine-disrupting activities: anti-thyroid (BPAF), anti-progestagenic (BPTMC > BPA = BPAF), and anti-androgenic (BPAF > BPE > BPA > BPTMC > BPF > BPS). It is noteworthy that BPAF exhibited stronger or similarly potent endocrine-disrupting activities compared to BPA. Our results provide new insights into these less-studied endocrine-disrupting activities of environmentally relevant bisphenols and may be useful in prioritizing those compounds that deserve further attention in environmental monitoring and eco-toxicological research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Pré-Albumina , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , República Tcheca , Noruega , Fenóis , Pré-Albumina/genética
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141383, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882544

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment worldwide and considered emerging contaminants. Their effects on growth, behavior, and physiological processes of aquatic organisms have been identified even at very low concentrations. Ecotoxicological investigations have primarily focused on single compound exposure, generally at a range of concentrations. In the natural environment, pollutants seldom occur in isolation, but little is known about the effects and risks of combinations of chemicals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of concurrent exposure to six psychoactive PhACs on locomotory behavior and life history traits of clonal marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Crayfish were exposed to ~1 µg L-1 of the antidepressants sertraline, citalopram, and venlafaxine; the anxiolytic oxazepam; the opioid tramadol; and the widely abused psychostimulant methamphetamine. In the absence of shelter, exposed crayfish moved significantly shorter distances and at lower velocity and showed significantly less activity than controls. With available shelter, exposed crayfish moved significantly more distance, showed higher activity, and spent a significantly more time outside the shelter than controls. Molting, mortality, and spawning frequency did not vary significantly between the groups. Hemolymph glucose level did not vary among groups and was not correlated with observed behaviors. Results suggest that environmental concentrations of the tested compounds in combination can alter the behavior of non-target aquatic organisms as individual exposure of these compounds, which may lead to disruption of ecosystem processes due to their reduced caution in polluted conditions. Further research is needed using varied chemical mixtures, exposure systems, and habitats, considering molecular and physiological processes connected to behavior alterations.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Astacoidea , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Environ Pollut ; : 116121, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272798

RESUMO

POCIS is the most widely applied passive sampler of polar organic substances, because it was one of the first commercially available samplers for that purpose on the market, but also for its applicability for a wide range of substances and conditions. Its main weakness is the variability of sampling performance with exposure conditions. In our study we took a pragmatic approach and performed in situ calibration for a set of 76 pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in five sampling campaigns in surface water, covering various temperature and flow conditions. In individual campaigns, RS were calculated for up to 47 compounds ranging from 0.01 to 0.63 L d-1, with the overall median value of 0.10 L d-1. No clear changes of RS with water temperature or discharge could be found for any of the investigated substances. The absence of correlation of experimental RS with physical-chemical properties in combination with the lack of mechanistic understanding of compound uptake to POCIS implies that practical estimation of aqueous concentrations from uptake in POCIS depends on compound-specific experimental calibration data. Performance of POCIS was compared with grab sampling of water in seven field campaigns comprising multiple sampling sites, where sampling by both methods was done in parallel. The comparison showed that for 25 of 36 tested compounds more than 50% of POCIS-derived aqueous concentrations did not differ from median of grab sampling values more than by a factor of 2. Further, for 30 of 36 compounds, more than 80% of POCIS data did not differ from grab sampling data more than by a factor of 5. When accepting this level of accuracy, in situ derived sampling rates are sufficiently robust for application of POCIS for identification of spatial and temporal contamination trends in surface waters.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115593, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254619

RESUMO

With increasing demand for aquaculture products, water reuse is likely to increase for aquaculture operations around the world. Herein, wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) represents low cost and sustainable treatment technologies to reduce nutrients and various contaminants of emerging concern from effluent. In the present study, we examined bioaccumulation of selected pharmaceuticals from several therapeutic classes by two important fish species in aquaculture with different feeding preferences (Cyprinus carpio and Sander lucioperca) and their common prey to test whether species specific accumulation occurs. Forty and nineteen from 66 selected pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were positively found in water and sediment samples, respectively from the representative WSP. After a six-month study, which corresponds to aquaculture operations, fourteen pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were detected (at a frequency of higher than 50% of samples) in at least one fish tissue collected from the WSP. We observed striking differences for species and organ specific BAFs among study compounds. Though muscle tissues consistently accumulated lower levels of the target analytes, several substances were elevated in brain, liver and kidney tissues (e.g., sertraline) of both species. Low residual concentrations of these target analytes in aquaculture products (fish fillets) suggest WSPs are promising to support the water-food nexus in aquaculture.

6.
Environ Pollut ; : 115888, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158621

RESUMO

With increasing population growth and climate change, de facto reuse practices are predicted to increase globally. We investigated a longitudinal gradient within the Uhlava River, a representative watershed, where de facto reuse is actively occurring, during Fall and Spring seasons when instream flows vary. We observed human pharmaceutical levels in the river to continuously increase from the mountainous areas upstream to downstream locations and a potable intake location, with the highest concentrations found in small tributaries. Significant relationship was identified between mass flow of pharmaceuticals and the size of human populations contributing to wastewater treatment plant discharges. Advanced ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration effectively removed pharmaceuticals from potable source waters. We observed a higher probability of encountering a number of targeted pharmaceuticals during colder Spring months when stream flows were elevated compared to warmer conditions with lower flows in the Fall despite a dilution paradigm routinely applied for surface water quality assessment and management efforts. Such observations translated to greater water quality hazards during these higher Spring flows. Future water monitoring efforts should account for periods when higher chemical uses occur, particularly in the face of climate change for regions experiencing population growth and de facto reuse.

7.
Chemosphere ; : 128656, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172666

RESUMO

Despite their low concentrations in many aquatic environments, evidence exists to suggest that herbicides do affect non-target organisms. Given that burrowing is a primary life-history trait in crayfish, herbicides could potentially have serious negative effects on these ecologically important freshwater macroinvertebrates. In this study, we exposed the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii to terbuthylazine (a triazine) and metazachlor (a chloroacetanilide) at an environmental concentration of 2.0 µg/L for 28 days, and then observed their burrowing behaviour for two days. The metazachlor-exposed males excavated a greater number of burrows than the other tested groups, with comparable depths and volumes relative to individual specimen weight. The relative depth and volume of female burrows were identical in all groups. The natural habit of female crayfish of constructing deeper burrows than males was marginally significant in the control and META groups but was not significant for relative volume. The hypothesized adverse effects of chronic exposure to real environmental concentrations of herbicides were not documented in terms of either relative depth or volume. However, the increased number of burrows in metazachlor-exposed animals may mean that this invasive species will cause greater damage to embankments and river banks. The mechanisms behind these effects require closer study.

8.
Environ Int ; 146: 106188, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096467

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

9.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126882, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957289

RESUMO

Methamphetamine, mainly consumed as an illicit drug, is a potent addictive psychostimulant that has been detected in surface water at concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per litre, especially in Middle and East Europe. The aim of this study was to expose brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) to environmental (1 µg L-1) and higher (50 µg L-1) concentrations of methamphetamine for 35 days with a four-day depuration phase to assess the possible negative effects on fish health. Degenerative liver and heart alterations, similar to those described in mammals, were observed at both concentrations, although at different intensities. Apoptotic changes in hepatocytes, revealed by activated caspase-3, were found in exposed fish. The parent compound and a metabolite (amphetamine) were detected in fish tissues in both concentration groups, in the order of kidney > liver > brain > muscle > plasma. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.13 to 80. A therapeutic plasma concentration was reached for both compounds in the high-concentration treatment. This study indicates that chronic environmental concentrations of methamphetamine can lead to health issues in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Truta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141134, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768780

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals may enter soils due to the application of treated wastewater or biosolids. Their leakage from soils towards the groundwater, and their uptake by plants is largely controlled by sorption and degradation of those compounds in soils. Standard laboratory batch degradation and sorption experiments were performed using soil samples obtained from the top horizons of seven different soil types and 6 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, irbesartan, fexofenadine, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole), which were applied either as single-solute solutions or as mixtures (not for sorption). The highest dissipation half-lives were observed for citalopram (average DT50,S for a single compound of 152 ±â€¯53.5 days) followed by carbamazepine (106.0 ±â€¯17.5 days), irbesartan (24.4 ±â€¯3.5 days), fexofenadine (23.5 ±â€¯20.9 days), clindamycin (10.8 ±â€¯4.2 days) and sulfamethoxazole (9.6 ±â€¯2.0 days). The simultaneous application of all compounds increased the half-lives (DT50,M) of all compounds (particularly carbamazepine, citalopram, fexofenadine and irbesartan), which is likely explained by the negative impact of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin) on soil microbial community. However, this trend was not consistent in all soils. In several cases, the DT50,S values were even higher than the DT50,M values. Principal component analyses showed that while knowledge of basic soil properties determines grouping of soils according sorption behavior, knowledge of the microbial community structure could be used to group soils according to the dissipation behavior of tested compounds in these soils. The derived multiple linear regression models for estimating dissipation half-lives (DT50,S) for citalopram, clindamycin, fexofenadine, irbesartan and sulfamethoxazole always included at least one microbial factor (either amount of phosphorus in microbial biomass or microbial biomarkers derived from phospholipid fatty acids) that deceased half-lives (i.e., enhanced dissipations). Equations for citalopram, clindamycin, fexofenadine and sulfamethoxazole included the Freundlich sorption coefficient, which likely increased half-lives (i.e., prolonged dissipations).


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adsorção , Solo , Sulfametoxazol , Águas Residuárias/análise
11.
PeerJ ; 8: e9356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714655

RESUMO

Background: The aquatic environment has been contaminated with various anthropogenic pollutants, including psychoactive compounds that may alter the physiology and behavior of free-living organisms. The present study focused on the condition and related mortality of the juvenile chub (Squalius cephalus). The aim of the study was to test whether the adverse effects of the antidepressants sertraline and citalopram, the analgesic tramadol and the illicit drug methamphetamine, on fish condition exist under environmentally relevant concentrations and whether these effects persist after a depuration period. Innovative analyses of the fish brain concentrations of these compounds were performed with the aim to show relationship between compound brain tissue concentration and fish condition. Methods: The laboratory experiment consisted of 42 days of exposure and a subsequent 14-day depuration period with regular monitoring of the condition and mortality of exposed and control fish. Identical methodology, including individual brain concentration analyses for the tested compounds, was applied for all substances. Additional study on feeding under sertraline exposure was also conducted. The feeding was measured from the 28th day of the exposure, three times in a week, by observation of food intake during 15 minutes in social environment. Results: The effects of particular psychoactive compounds on chub condition varied. While sertraline induced a lower condition and increased mortality, the effects of methamphetamine were inverse, and tramadol and citalopram had no significant effect at all. Individual brain concentrations of the tested compounds showed that the effects of sertraline and methamphetamine on fish condition were increased with brain concentration increases. Additionally, the food intake was reduced in case of sertraline. In contrast, there was no relationship between tramadol and citalopram brain tissue concentration and fish condition, suggesting that the concentration-dependent effect is strongly compound-specific. Methamphetamine was the only compound with a persistent effect after the depuration period. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the brain concentration evidence approach and suggest that changes in fish condition and other related parameters can be expected in freshwater ecosystems polluted with specific psychoactive compounds.

12.
J Contam Hydrol ; 234: 103680, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682147

RESUMO

Sorption of pharmaceuticals, which can occur in soils, may differ when present in a soil solution as a single compound or in a solution with other pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the sorption isotherms described by the Freundlich equations were evaluated for 6 compounds, which were applied in solutions of a single pharmaceutical, two pharmaceuticals or all pharmaceuticals to seven soils. Study mainly focused on a behavior of fexofenadine and irbesartan that occurred in soils in 3 forms (cationic, zwitter-ionic or neutral, anionic). Sorption of both compounds slightly increased (in some soils) when applied together, largely increased when applied with carbamazepine (neutral), and extremely increased when applied in solutions with citalopram (strongly sorbed cation), which could be explained by a cooperative multilayer sorption on soil constituents. On the other hand, sorption of both compounds moderately decreased when applied with clindamycin (cation and neutral) or sulfamethoxazole (neutral or anion). The magnitude of an increase or decrease in the Freundlich sorption coefficient (KF) for a particular compound depended on soil conditions, a form of compound's molecule and its interaction with molecules of other compounds. Despite sorption being influenced by other compound(s) in solution, the KF coefficients evaluated for a particular compound under the different conditions were mostly correlated with the same soil properties: KF,CAR with an organic carbon content, KF,CIT and KF,CLI with a base cation saturation, KF,SUL with hydrolytic acidity, and KF,FEX and KF,IRB with sorption complex saturation.

13.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531944

RESUMO

Water from wastewater treatment plants contains concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds as high as micrograms per liter, which can adversely affect fish health and behavior, and contaminate the food chain. Here, we tested the ability of the common carp hepatic S9 fraction to produce the main metabolites from citalopram, metoprolol, sertraline, and venlafaxine. Metabolism in fish S9 fractions was compared to that in sheep. The metabolism of citalopram was further studied in fish. Our results suggest a large difference in the rate of metabolites formation between fish and sheep. Fish hepatic S9 fractions do not show an ability to form metabolites from venlafaxine, which was also the case for sheep. Citalopram, metoprolol, and sertraline were metabolized by both fish and sheep S9. Citalopram showed concentration-dependent N-desmethylcitalopram formation with Vmax = 1781 pmol/min/mg and Km = 29.7 µM. The presence of ellipticine, a specific CYP1A inhibitor, in the incubations reduced the formation of N-desmethylcitalopram by 30-100% depending on the applied concentration. These findings suggest that CYP1A is the major enzyme contributing to the formation of N-desmethylcitalopram. In summary, the results from the present in vitro study suggest that common carp can form the major metabolites of citalopram, metoprolol, and sertraline.

14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(18): 4353-4361, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372276

RESUMO

Recent state-of-the-art methods developed for the analysis of polar xenobiotics from different types of biological matrices usually employ liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. However, there are limitations when a small amount of sample mass is available. For example, individual benthic invertebrates or fish tissue samples often weigh less than 100 mg (e.g., brain, liver) but are necessary to understand environmental fate and bioaccumulation dynamics. We developed ultra-fast methods based on a direct sample introduction technique. This included coupling laser diode thermal desorption with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS). We then quantitated a common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (citalopram) in brain tissues of individual juvenile fish after in vivo exposure to environmentally relevant concentration. Two mass spectrometric methods based on low (LDTD-APCI-triple quadrupole (QqQ)-MS/MS) and high (LDTD-APCI-high-resolution product scan (HRPS)) resolutions were developed and evaluated. Individual instrument conditions were optimized to achieve an accurate and robust analytical method with minimum sample preparation requirements. We achieved very good recovery (97-108%) across the range of 1-100 ng g-1 for LDTD-APCI-HRPS. LDTD-APCI-QqQ-MS/MS showed poorer performance due to interferences from the matrix at the lowest concentration level. LDTD-APCI ionization was successfully validated for analysis of non-filtered sample extracts. Evaluation of final methods was performed for a set of real fish brain samples, including comparison of LDTD-APCI-HRPS with a previously validated LC-heated electrospray ionization-HRPS method. This new LDTD-APCI-HRPS method avoids the chromatographic step and provides important benefits such as analysis of limited sample masses, lower total sample volume (typically µL), and reduction in analysis time per sample run to a few seconds. Graphical abstract.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245179

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH), a central nervous system stimulant used as a recreational drug, is frequently found in surface waters at potentially harmful concentrations. To determine effects of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant levels on nontarget organisms, we analysed cardiac and locomotor responses of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus to acute stress during a 21-day exposure to METH at 1 µg L-1 followed by 14 days depuration. Heart rate and locomotion were recorded over a period of 30 min before and 30 min after exposure to haemolymph of an injured conspecific four times during METH exposure and four times during the depuration phase. Methamphetamine-exposed crayfish showed a weaker cardiac response to stress than was observed in controls during both exposure and depuration phases. Similarly, methamphetamine-exposed crayfish, during METH exposure, showed lower locomotor reaction poststressor application in contrast to controls. Results indicate biological alterations in crayfish exposed to METH at low concentration level, potentially resulting in a shift in interactions among organisms in natural environment.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Metanfetamina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 113981, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041008

RESUMO

In the last decades, the use of organic ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters) has increased worldwide, and these compounds are now considered emerging contaminants of many freshwater ecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the effects of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) on a freshwater invertebrate community and on associated ecological functions. For that, artificial streams were used, and a natural invertebrate benthic community was exposed to sediments contaminated with two concentrations of 4-MBC. Effects were evaluated regarding macroinvertebrate abundance and community structure, as well as leaf decomposition and primary production. Results showed that the macroinvertebrate community parameters and leaf decomposition rates were not affected by 4-MBC exposure. On the other hand, primary production was strongly reduced. This study highlights the importance of higher tier ecotoxicity experiments for the assessment of the effects of low concentrations of organic UV-filters on freshwater invertebrate community structure and ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Cânfora/análogos & derivados , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cânfora/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Água Doce/química , Invertebrados/fisiologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135138, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000346

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) have been increasingly detected in freshwater and marine waterbodies worldwide and are recognized as major emerging micropollutant threat to the aquatic environment. Despite their low concentrations in the environment, there is evidence of effects on non-target aquatic organisms in natural habitats. To assess the potential effects of PhACs on its burrowing behavior, we exposed the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii to methamphetamine or tramadol at the environmentally relevant concentration of 1 µg/L. Methamphetamine-exposed females constructed burrows of lower depth and volume relative to individual weight than did controls. Tramadol-exposed females consistently exhibited a tendency for smaller burrows, but this difference was not significant. Exposed males showed a non-significant tendency to excavate larger burrows compared with the control. Control and tramadol-treated females maintained the natural tendency of constructing relatively deeper and/or larger-volume burrows compared with males. This sex-related pattern was not detected in the methamphetamine group. The rate of human therapeutic PhAC usage is relatively stable year-round, and impacts on crayfish burrowing can be particularly damaging during periods of drought, when the dilution of waste waters is reduced, and burrowing becomes a critical survival strategy. Our results suggest that an increasingly broad range of environmental impacts of PhACs on non-target organisms can be expected in natural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Ecossistema , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Meio Ambiente , Água Doce , Humanos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114150, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062094

RESUMO

Environmental monitoring and surveillance studies of pharmaceuticals routinely examine occurrence of substances without current information on human consumption patterns. We selected 10 streams with diverse annual flows and differentially influenced by population densities to examine surface water occurrence and fish accumulation of select psychoactive medicines, for which consumption is increasing in the Czech Republic. We then tested whether passive sampling can provide a useful surrogate for exposure to these substances through grab sampling, body burdens of young of year fish, and tissue specific accumulation of these psychoactive contaminants. We identified a statistically significant (p < 0.05) relationship between ambient grab samples and passive samplers in these streams when psychoactive contaminants were commonly quantitated by targeted liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, though we did not observe relationships between passive samplers and tissue specific pharmaceutical accumulation. We further observed smaller lotic systems with elevated contamination when municipal effluent discharges from more highly populated cities contributed a greater extent of instream flows. These findings identify the importance of understanding age and species specific differences in fish uptake, internal disposition, metabolism and elimination of psychoactive drugs across surface water quality gradients.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cidades , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Água
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105222, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212248

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds are major contaminants of aquatic environments that show direct and indirect effects on aquatic organisms even at low concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the illicit drug methamphetamine and the antidepressant sertraline on clonal marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Crayfish exposed to the environmentally relevant concentrations of methamphetamine of ∼1 µg L-1 did not exhibit significant differences from unexposed controls in distance moved, velocity, and activity level with or without available shelter. Sertraline-exposed (∼1 µg L-1) crayfish were significantly more active, regardless of available shelter, and moved greater distances when shelter was available, compared to control crayfish. Crayfish exposed to methamphetamine and sertraline spent significantly more time outside the shelters compared to controls. Sertraline-exposed crayfish spawned more frequently and showed higher mortality than controls. The results suggest that the low environmental concentrations of the tested compounds could alter the behavior and life history traits of crayfish, resulting in higher reproductive effort and mortality.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Sertralina/toxicidade , Animais , Invertebrados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 669: 983-990, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970465

RESUMO

Organic UV-filters are emergent contaminants continuously released into the aquatic ecosystems. These compounds are persistent showing potential for bioaccumulation. Partial life-cycle tests may underestimate the toxicity of UV-filters especially since these compounds have shown to act as endocrine disruptors. In the present study, the benthic aquatic insect Chironomus riparius was exposed to a gradient of Benzophenone-3 (BP3) concentrations over two generations to assess effects over a full life cycle from the first-instar larvae in the parental (P) generation (emergence, fecundity and fertility) until emergence in the subsequent generation (filial - F1). Recovery from exposure was also assessed after one generational exposure. Our results showed that concentrations of up to 8mg BP3/kg, elicited no effects regarding emergence rate and development time of C. riparius in the P generation. Our results also showed that C. riparius fecundity was not affected by BP3 exposure, but a strong dose-response relationship was observed for fertility with none of the egg ropes hatching at 8mg BP3/kg. Regarding effects observed in the F1 generation, emergence and development time were impaired by continuous exposure to BP3. Moreover, reduced emergence and changes in development time were observed in the F1 generation maintained in control/clean conditions but whose parents were exposed to BP3. Results found in this two-generational study clearly show reproductive effects of BP3 on C. riparius that would not be detected using standard tests. Full life cycle and multigenerational assays are critical to properly evaluate the population level effects of endocrine disrupting compounds such as organic UV-filters.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/toxicidade , Chironomidae/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Protetores Solares/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Chironomidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA