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1.
Eur Spine J ; 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a paucity of literature identifying factors that influence the back and neck pain (BNP)-workplace absenteeism relationship. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between BNP and workplace absenteeism and potential mediating variables in a large sample of the US population. METHODS: Nationally representative data collected in 2019 from the RAND American Life Panel (ALP) were used for this retrospective study. Workplace absenteeism was defined as the number of days of absence in the past 12 months for health-related reasons (count variable), while BNP corresponded to the presence of back pain due to spinal stenosis, back pain due to other causes, or neck pain (dichotomous variable). Control variables included sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, education, occupation, annual family income, health insurance, obesity, and diabetes. There were eight influential variables (depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, alcohol dependence, opioid dependence, walking difficulty, standing difficulty, and sitting difficulty). The association between BNP and workplace absenteeism was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: There were 1,471 adults aged 22-83 years included in this study (52.9% of men; mean [standard deviation] age 44.5 [13.0] years). After adjusting for control variables, BNP was positively and significantly associated with workplace absenteeism (incidence rate ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.83). Walking, standing, and sitting difficulties individually explained between 24 and 43% of this association. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace interventions focusing on the management of BNP and overcoming difficulties in walking, standing, and sitting, potentially utilizing exercise, therapy, and ergonomic interventions, may prevent absenteeism.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055523

RESUMO

Contemporary performance and accessibility are features that enable mobile devices to be increasingly beneficial in the context of optimizing the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Smartphones have the potential to effectively support psychotherapeutic interventions among adolescents and young adults who require them. In the present study, the use and subjective influence of a smartphone app with content from dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was investigated among transitional age youth (TAY) with borderline personality disorder, focusing on suicidality and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), in a natural setting. A longitudinal qualitative approach was used by means of individual semi-structured interviews, where participants were asked about their experiences and associated emotions before and after a testing period of 30 days. A total of 13 TAY with a diagnosed borderline personality disorder between the ages of 18 and 23 were included. Six overarching themes were identified through qualitative text analysis: (1) experiences with DBT skills, (2) phenomenon of self-harm, (3) feelings connected with self-harm, (4) dealing with disorder-specific symptoms, (5) prevention of self-harm, and (6) attitude toward skills apps. In general, the provision of an app with DBT content achieved a positive response among participants. Despite a small change in the perception of suicidality and NSSI, participants could imagine its benefits by integrating their use of the app as a supportive measure for personal psychotherapy sessions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol use and perceived change in alcohol consumption (before and during the pandemic) in Brazilians during the COVID-19 pandemic, its correlates, and association with depressive, anxiety and co-occurring depressive and anxiety symptoms (D&A). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 992 individuals in self-isolation. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess whether participants were drinking during self-isolation and whether they changed their drinking behavior (drinking less, more, or no change) from before to during the pandemic. D&A symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI). RESULTS: A total of 68.5% of participants reported alcohol consumption during the pandemic, and 22.7% of these reported increased alcohol use. Smoking was positively associated with alcohol consumption during the pandemic. Alcohol consumption was associated with anxiety (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.85, p<0.01) and D&A (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.87, p=0.033) symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking during self-isolation was prevalent and associated with risk factors for alcohol use disorders. The long-term effects of high drinking rates and increased consumption should be proactively monitored and assessed.

5.
Sex Res Social Policy ; : 1-21, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608404

RESUMO

Introduction: In Europe, young sexual and gender minority (SGM) people continue to face discrimination in the labour sector despite advances in legislation towards their acceptance and equal treatment. Non-discrimination policy strategies helping SGM individuals are not equally enforced in all contexts, making it difficult for many SGM individuals to disclose their identity, hence undermining their health and well-being. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted between October 2020 and February 2021 with 55 SGM youth (18-27 years) having work experience from Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Results: From the analysis, three overarching themes were significant: (1) societal discrimination played a major role in sociocultural factors and policy considerations, (2) workplace discrimination had distinct factors and impacts on SGM individuals and (3) SGM inclusion should use strategies to ensure workplace diversity and equality. Conclusions: SGM individuals from contexts of poor acceptance tended to hide their identity in the workplace, while transgender and non-binary individuals were prone to experience force-disclosure and discrimination in all aspects of employment. There is a lack of resolute reaction from policy makers in managing problems faced by SGM people in workplaces. New laws improving the status of SGM people need to be further adopted, staff training should be implemented, and managers are crucial in achieving an inclusive climate in the workplace.Policy ImplicationsIt is essential to implement policies on how to effectively handle problems faced by sexual and gender minority people in the workplace.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501758

RESUMO

Measures implemented to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have resulted in a decrease in physical activity (PA) while sedentary behaviour increased. The aim of the present study was to explore associations between PA and mental health in Austria during COVID-19 social restrictions. In this web-based cross-sectional study (April-May 2020) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sitting time, and time spent outdoors were self-reported before and during self-isolation. Mental well-being was assessed with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. The majority of the participants (n = 652) were female (72.4%), with a mean age of 36.0 years and a standard deviation (SD) of 14.4. Moreover, 76.5% took part in ≥30 min/day of MVPA, 53.5% sat ≥10 h/day, and 66.1% spent ≥60 min/day outdoors during self-isolation. Thirty-eight point five percent reported high mental well-being, 40.5% reported depressive symptoms, and 33.9% anxiety symptoms. Participating in higher levels of MVPA was associated with higher mental well-being (odds ratio = OR: 3.92; 95% confidence interval = 95%CI: 1.51-10.15), less depressive symptoms (OR: 0.44; 95%CI: 0.29-0.66) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 0.62; 95%CI: 0.41-0.94), and less loneliness (OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.31-0.69). Participants sitting <10 h/day had higher odds of mental well-being (OR: 3.58; 95%CI: 1.13-11.35). Comparable results were found for spending ≥60 min/day outdoors. Maintaining one's MVPA levels was associated with higher mental well-being (OR = 8.61, 95%CI: 2.68-27.62). In conclusion, results show a positive association between PA, time spent outdoors and mental well-being during COVID-19 social restrictions. Interventions aiming to increase PA might mitigate negative effects of such restrictions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Postura Sentada , Adulto , Áustria , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(5): 1026-1030, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the association between several oral health outcomes and cancer in adults living in Spain. METHODS: Data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 were analysed. Seven oral health outcomes (dental caries, dental extraction, dental filling, gingival bleeding, tooth movement, dental material and missing tooth) were assessed with questions with 'yes' and 'no' options. Cancer was assessed and defined with the following yes-no question: 'Have you ever been diagnosed with malignant tumours?'. The relationship of each oral health outcome and the number of poor oral health outcomes with cancer was studied in regression models adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, smoking and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: This study included 23 089 participants aged 15-103 years [45.9% of males; mean (standard deviation) age 53.4 (18.9) years]. The prevalence of cancer was 5.0% in the overall population. After adjusting for several potential confounding factors, all oral health outcomes except missing tooth were significantly and positively associated with cancer [odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.15 for dental filling to 1.48 for dental extraction]. In addition, there was a positive and significant association between the number of poor oral health outcomes and cancer (OR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.22). CONCLUSIONS: On a nationally representative sample of 23 089 participants in Spain, poorer oral health outcomes were found in participants with history of cancer, with positive associations between several oral health outcomes as well as the number of poor oral health outcomes and cancer.

8.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, no attempt has been made to collate literature on the relationship between the social environmental impact of COVID-19 and erectile dysfunction. The aim of this explorative review was to assess and compare the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in male healthcare workers and males during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A systematic review of major databases from inception to February 2021 was conducted. Prevalence data were extracted, and a random-effects meta-analysis was undertaken. OUTCOMES: The pooled prevalence of ED amongst healthcare workers working in COVID-19 specific environments, and non-healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Of 52 initial studies, six were included for the final analysis. The pooled prevalence of ED in healthcare workers working in a COVID-19 environment was 63.6% (95% CI 20.3-92.3%), and in non-healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic was 31.9% (95% CI 19.5-47.6%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ED in healthcare workers working in COVID-19 environments was higher than representative samples and is of concern. Sexual health (and by extension, overall health), should be a priority when considering ways to care for this population. Considering the social environmental impact of COVID-19 on sexual health and in particular on ED, it is important to provide adequate psychological support systems and to promote quality of life with particular attention to sexual health.

9.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In aging healthcare professionals, multiple stressors such as night work may affect life and work satisfaction and risk for chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease [CVD]). In this pilot study we compared workability, quality of life (QoL), and CVD risk markers between night shift and day workers. METHODS: We included 70 hospital employees (mean age 52 ±â€¯4 years, 91.4% female): 32 rotating night shift workers (> 3 nights/month) and 38 permanent day workers. In addition to sociodemographic, lifestyle, and sleep characteristics, we assessed i) workability index (WAI), ii) QoL (World Health Organization Quality of Life [WHOQOL-Bref]) and iii) CVD risk markers, i.e. carotid ultrasound measurements, and biomarkers (NTproBNP, CRP, IL­6, LDL, ferritin, copper, zinc, and selenium). WAI, QoL, and CVD risk markers were compared between night and day workers. In a subgroup of participants (N = 38) with complete data, we used quantile regression analysis to estimate age and multivariate adjusted differences in biomarker levels. RESULTS: We found no differences in the domains of QoL (physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environment) and WAI scores between night and day workers. Night shift workers were less likely to report excellent workability than day workers, although differences were not statistically significant. Night shift workers reported more sleep problems (73.1% vs. 55.6%) and tended to have lower zinc levels and higher inflammatory markers (CRP, IL­6, ferritin), but differences were not significant after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Workability, QoL and CVD markers did not significantly differ between rotating night shift and day workers in this small pilot study. Sleep problems and inflammatory marker levels carry implications for occupational health.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome closely linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Thus, it is important to identify factors associated with the development of frailty. It was the aim of this study to examine, if, and to what extent partner loss, a highly stressful life event, affects frailty trajectories of community dwelling adults aged 50 or older. METHODS: Using six waves of panel data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we investigated the effect of partner loss on frailty trajectories estimating growth curve models. Our sample included 183 502 observations of 83 494 community-dwelling individuals aged 50 or older from 21 European countries collected between 2004 and 2017. Frailty was measured using the validated sex-specific SHARE-Frailty-Instrument including muscular weakness, unintended weight loss, decrease in walking capacity, low physical activity and exhaustion. RESULTS: Our sample contained 79 874 participants who lived in a partnership during their entire observational period and 3620 participants who lost their partner during their observational period. Both men (ß=0.184 (95% CI: -0.017 to 0.386), p=0.073) and women (ß=0.237 (95% CI: 0.106 to 0.369), p<0.001) showed initial effects of partner loss on frailty, but while only women gradually recovered over time (ß=-0.023 (95% CI: -0.039 to -0.008), p=0.002), among men, the effect of partner loss persisted (ß<0.001 (95% CI: -0.029 to 0.029), p=0.998). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that partner loss is followed by elevated frailty. However, while women's frailty tended to recover from partner loss over time, men's frailty remained elevated. Notable individual differences in the response of frailty trajectories to partner loss suggest the existence of effect modifiers.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199049

RESUMO

Medical care of transgender and non-binary (TNB) patients if often a complex interdisciplinary effort involving a variety of healthcare workers (HCWs) and services. Physicians not only act as gatekeepers to routine or transitioning therapies but are also HCWs with the most intimate and time-intensive patient interaction, which influences TNB patients' experiences and health behaviors and healthcare utilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the physician-patient relationship in a sample of TNB individuals within the Austrian healthcare system, and explore its associations with sociodemographic, health-, and identity-related characteristics. A cross-sectional study utilizing an 56-item online questionnaire, including the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire 9 (PDRQ-9), was carried out between June and October 2020. The study involved TNB individuals 18 or older, residing in Austria, and previously or currently undergoing medical transition. In total, 91 participants took part, of whom 33.0% and 25.3% self-identified as trans men and trans women, respectively, and 41.8% as non-binary. Among participants, 82.7% reported being in the process of medical transitioning, 58.1% perceived physicians as the most problematic HCWs, and 60.5% stated having never or rarely been taken seriously in medical settings. Non-binary participants showed significantly lower PDRQ-9 scores, reflecting a worse patient-physician relationship compared to trans male participants. TNB patients in Austria often report negative experiences based on their gender identity. Physicians should be aware of these interactions and reflect potentially harmful behavioral patterns in order to establish unbiased and trustful relations.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Áustria , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1361-1372, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction after cancer treatment are clinically important complications, but their exact prevalence by various kinds of cancer site and type of treatment is unknown. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the available evidence and provide pooled estimates for prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction in relation to all cancer sites and identify characteristics associated with EjD in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and case-control studies. We searched 4 electronic databases (Medline®, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Embase®) until July 22, 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting the prevalence of EjD in male patients with cancer were included in this review. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted calculating prevalence proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence proportions were calculated for the incidences of EjD by cancer site and type of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 64 studies (a total of 10,057 participants) were included for analysis. The most common cancer sites were bladder, colon, testis and rectum. The prevalence rates of EjD after surgical intervention ranged from 14.5% (95% CI 2.2-56.3) in colon cancer to 53.0% (95% CI 23.3-80.7) in bladder cancer. The prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 6.8% (95% CI 0.8-39.1) in bladder cancer to 68.7% (95% CI 55.2-79.6) in cancer of the rectum. CONCLUSIONS: In a large study-level meta-analysis, we looked at a high prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction at various cancer sites and across different treatment types. Prospective studies of EjD and erectile dysfunction after various kinds of cancer treatments are warranted.

13.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 96: 104438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062309

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between food insecurity and fall-related injury among older adults from six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the extent to which this association is mediated by mental health. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Past 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Fall-related injury referred to those that occurred in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: Data on 14,585 adults aged ≥65 years [mean (SD) age 72.5 (11.5) years; 54.9% females] were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, severe food insecurity (versus no food insecurity) was associated with 1.95 (95%CI = 1.11-3.41) times higher odds for fall-related injury. Moderate food insecurity was not significantly associated with fall-related injury (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 0.81-2.25). The mediation analysis showed that 37.3%, 21.8%, 17.7%, and 14.0% of the association between severe food insecurity and fall-related injury was explained by anxiety, sleep problems, depression, and cognition, respectively. CONCLUSION: Severe food insecurity was associated with higher odds for injurious falls among older adults in LMICs, and a large proportion of this association may be explained by mental health complications. Interventions to improve mental health among those who are food insecure and a strong focus on societal and government efforts to reduce food insecurity may contribute to a decrease in injurious falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069124

RESUMO

The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA) and prolonged sedentary behavior (SB) were high before the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Measures that were taken by governments (such as home confinement) to control the spread of COVID-19 may have affected levels of PA and SB. This cross-sectional study among South American adults during the first months of COVID-19 aims to (i) compare sitting time (ST), screen exposure, moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) before and during lockdown to sociodemographic correlates and (ii) to assess the impact of lockdown on combinations of groups reporting meeting/not-meeting PA recommendations and engaging/not-engaging excessive ST (≥7 h/day). Bivariate associations, effect sizes, and multivariable linear regressions were used. Adults from Argentina (n = 575) and Chile (n = 730) completed an online survey with questions regarding demographics, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases. Mean reductions of 42.7 and 22.0 min./day were shown in MPA and VPA, respectively; while increases of 212.4 and 164.3 min./day were observed in screen and ST, respectively. Those who met PA recommendations and spent <7 h/day of ST experienced greatest changes, reporting greater than 3 h/day higher ST and more than 1.5 h/day lower MVPA. Findings from the present study suggest that efforts to promote PA to South American adults during and after COVID-19 restrictions are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Argentina , Chile , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Postura Sentada
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071312

RESUMO

Laparoscopy is a procedure that ultimately reduces hospital stay time and speeds up post-operative recovery. It is mainly performed in high-income countries but its implementation in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing. However, no aggregate data exist regarding the outcomes of this procedure in resource-limited settings. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of laparoscopy recorded from January 2007 to March 2017 at the Department of Surgery of Beira to assess the related outcomes. Moreover, we performed a systematic review of the laparoscopic practices and outcomes in low-income countries. Data from the Department of Surgery of Beira identified 363 laparoscopic procedures, mainly relating to gynecological diseases, cholelithiasis, and appendicectomy with only a 1.6% complication rate (6 cases) and a 1.9% conversion rate (7 cases) to open surgery. The systematic review showed a pooled risk of overall complications significantly lower in laparoscopic vs. open appendicectomy (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.19-0.97; I2 = 85.7%) and a significantly lower risk of infection (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.43-0.65; I2 = 0.00%). The pooled SMD in operation duration in laparoscopic vs. open appendectomy was 0.58 (95% CI -0.00; 1.15; I2 = 96.52), while the pooled SMD in hospitalization days was -1.35 (95% CI -1.87; -0.82; I2 = 96.41). Laparoscopy is an expensive procedure to adopt as it requires new equipment and specialized trained health workers. However, it could reduce post-operative costs and complications, especially in terms of infections. It is crucial to increase its accessibility, acceptability, and quality particularly in LMICs, especially during this COVID-19 era when the reduction of patient hospitalization is essential.


Assuntos
Apendicite , COVID-19 , Laparoscopia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Sport Sci Health ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108999

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic imposed major changes on daily-life routine worldwide. To the best of our knowledge, no study quantified the changes on moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) and its correlates in Brazilians. This study aimed to (i) evaluate the changes (pre versus during pandemic) in time spent in MVPA and SB in self-isolating Brazilians during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (ii) to explore correlates. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective, self-report online web survey, evaluating the time spent in MVPA and SB pre and during the COVID-19 pandemic in self-isolating people in Brazil. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical measures, and time in self-isolation were also obtained. Changes in MVPA and SB and their correlates were explored using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Models were adjusted for covariates. Results: A total of 877 participants (72.7% women, 53.7% young adults [18-34 years]) were included. Overall, participants reported a 59.7% reduction (95% CI 35.6-82.2) in time spent on MVPA during the pandemic, equivalent to 64.28 (95% CI 36.06-83.33) minutes per day. Time spent in SB increased 42.0% (95% CI 31.7-52.5), corresponding to an increase of 152.3 (95% CI 111.9-192.7) minutes per day. Greater reductions in MVPA and increases in SB were seen in younger adults, those not married, those employed, and those with a self-reported previous diagnosis of a mental disorder. Conclusions: People in self-isolation significantly reduced MVPA levels and increased SB. Public health strategies are needed to mitigate the impact of self-isolation on MVPA and SB. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11332-021-00788-x.

17.
Occup Environ Med ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) individuals are often subjected to negative attitudes in the workplace, which may lead to non-disclosure of their sexual orientation and/or gender identities. We aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace disclosure of sexual or gender identity (ie, 'outness'; being 'out') and to examine its associations with workplace characteristics in LGBTI workers in Austria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analysed sociodemographic, work-related and well-being-related data from self-identifying gender and/or sexual minority participants elicited by an online questionnaire between February and June 2017. From the initial 1268 respondents, 1177 (93%) provided complete data and were included in the subsequent analyses. RESULTS: The largest proportion of the sample were 26-35 years old (39.1%), cisgender gay men (40.0%) in full-time employment (63.9%). Overall, 51.7% of the sample were 'out' at the workplace. Being bisexual (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.81), the provision of antidiscrimination guidelines in the workplace (OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.90), living alone (OR=0.50, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.79) and in shared households (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.96) were associated with a decreased likelihood of being 'out' at work.Factors associated with being 'out' at work were being middle aged (36-45 years old; OR=1.74, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.85), having been in employment for >10 years (OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.81), an LGBTI-friendly work environment (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.91), labour-management antidiscrimination contract (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.32) and work council protections (OR=1.56, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.36). CONCLUSIONS: Instating antidiscrimination protections might facilitate 'outness' of LGBTI workers and lead to a better promotion of diversity in the workplace.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 57-64, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023748

RESUMO

AIM: Anxiety may be a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but there is a scarcity of data on this association especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association between anxiety and MCI among older adults residing in six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa), and the mediational effect of sleep problems in this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, meta-analysis, and mediation analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: The final sample included 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities [mean (standard deviation) age 62.1 (15.6) years; 48.3% males]. Country-wise analysis showed a positive association between anxiety and MCI in all countries (OR 1.35-14.33). The pooled estimate based on meta-analysis with random effects was OR=2.27 (95%CI=1.35-3.83). Sleep problems explained 41.1% of this association. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with anxiety had higher odds for MCI in LMICs. Future studies should examine whether preventing anxiety or addressing anxiety among individuals with MCI can lead to lower risk for dementia onset in LMICs, while the role of sleep problems in this association should be investigated in detail.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , Ansiedade , China , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Vida Independente , Índia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Federação Russa , África do Sul
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806553

RESUMO

Restrictions of free movement have been proven effective in tackling the spread of COVID-19 disease. However, sensitive populations submitted to longer periods of restrictions may experience detrimental effects in significant areas of their lifestyle, such as sexual activity. This study examines sexual activity during the COVID-19 confinement in Spain. A survey distributed through an institutional social media profile served to collect data, whereas chi-squared tests, t-tests, analyses of variance, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess differences among sample subgroups. A total of 71.3% adults (N = 536) (72.8% female) reported engaging in sexual activity with a weekly average of 2.39 times (SD = 1.80), with significant differences favoring males, middle age, married/in a domestic relationship (p < 0.001), employed (p < 0.005), medium-high annual household income, living outside the Iberian Peninsula, and smoking and alcohol consumption. Analyses adjusted for the complete set of control variables showed significant odds for a lower prevalence of weekly sexual activity in women (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.72). Interventions to promote sexual activity in confined Spanish adults may focus on groups with lower sexual activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Espanha
20.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(706): e372-e380, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in male survivors of cancer across cancer types has not been systematically analysed. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of ED in all types of cancer and identify characteristics associated with ED in survivors of cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) of cross-sectional studies. METHOD: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE were searched, targeting reports published from inception to 1 February 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting prevalence of ED in male patients with cancer and using a validated tool for detection of ED were included. A random-effects MA model was used to pool prevalence of ED as absolute estimates at three different stages, that is, 'healthy', 'at diagnosis', and 'after treatment'. A univariate MA regression including the three-level group variable as the only independent variable was used to assess the difference in ED prevalence across the three groups. Further MAs were conducted for studies involving patients at diagnosis and after treatment, and statistical inferences were made with setting for multiple testing controlling for a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05. RESULTS: In total, 1301 studies were assessed for inclusion. Of these, 141 were potentially eligible and subsequently scrutinised in full text. Finally, 43 studies were included with a total of 13 148 participants. Overall, pooled data of the included studies showed an ED prevalence of 40.72% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31.80 to 50.29) in patients with cancer, with prevalences of 28.60% (95% CI = 12.10 to 53.83) at time of diagnosis and 42.70% (95% CI = 32.97 to 53.03) after treatment, with significant difference between these two stages and across cancer locations, controlling for an FDR <0.05. CONCLUSION: Erectile dysfunction was particularly high in male survivors of cancer and was associated with cancer treatment, cancer site, and age.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Neoplasias , Estudos Transversais , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes
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