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1.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 104: 103649, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174407

RESUMO

Recent advancements in 3D printing have revolutionized biomedical engineering by enabling the manufacture of complex and functional devices in a low-cost, customizable, and small-batch fabrication manner. Soft elastomers are particularly important for biomedical applications because they can provide similar mechanical properties as tissues with improved biocompatibility. However, there are very few biocompatible elastomers with 3D printability, and little is known about the material properties of biocompatible 3D printable elastomers. Here, we report a new framework to 3D print a soft, biocompatible, and biostable polycarbonate-based urethane silicone (PCU-Sil) with minimal defects. We systematically characterize the rheological and thermal properties of the material to guide the 3D printing process and have determined a range of processing conditions. Optimal printing parameters such as printing speed, temperature, and layer height are determined via parametric studies aimed at minimizing porosity while maximizing the geometric accuracy of the 3D-printed samples as evaluated via micro-CT. We also characterize the mechanical properties of the 3D-printed structures under quasistatic and cyclic loading, degradation behavior and biocompatibility. The 3D-printed materials show a Young's modulus of 6.9 ± 0.85 MPa and a failure strain of 457 ± 37.7% while exhibiting good cell viability. Finally, compliant and free-standing structures including a patient-specific heart model and a bifurcating arterial structure are printed to demonstrate the versatility of the 3D-printed material. We anticipate that the 3D printing framework presented in this work will open up new possibilities not only for PCU-Sil, but also for other soft, biocompatible and thermoplastic polymers in various biomedical applications requiring high flexibility and strength combined with biocompatibility, such as vascular implants, heart valves, and catheters.

2.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(1): 29-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740793

RESUMO

Two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystals are a versatile platform for optoelectronic, catalytic and quantum device studies. However, the ability to tailor their physical properties through explicit synthetic control of their morphology and dimensionality is a major challenge. Here we demonstrate a gas-phase synthesis method that substantially transforms the structure and dimensionality of TMD crystals without lithography. Synthesis of MoS2 on Si(001) surfaces pre-treated with phosphine yields high-aspect-ratio nanoribbons of uniform width. We systematically control the width of these nanoribbons between 50 and 430 nm by varying the total phosphine dosage during the surface treatment step. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy reveals that the nanoribbons are predominantly 2H phase with zig-zag edges and an edge quality that is comparable to, or better than, that of graphene and TMD nanoribbons prepared through conventional top-down processing. Owing to their restricted dimensionality, the nominally one-dimensional MoS2 nanocrystals exhibit photoluminescence 50 meV higher in energy than that from two-dimensional MoS2 crystals. Moreover, this emission is precisely tunable through synthetic control of crystal width. Directed crystal growth on designer substrates has the potential to enable the preparation of low-dimensional materials with prescribed morphologies and tunable or emergent optoelectronic properties.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 9154-9159, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738851

RESUMO

The local structure and geometry of catalytic interfaces can influence the selectivity of chemical reactions. Selectivity is often critical for the practical realization of reactions such as the electroreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2). Previously developed strategies to manipulate the structure and geometry of catalysts for electroreduction of CO2 involve complex processes or fail to efficiently alter the selectivity. Here, using a prestrained polymer, we uniaxially and biaxially compress a 60 nm gold film to form a nano-folded electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction. We observe two kinds of folds and can tune the ratio of loose to tight folds by varying the extent of prestrain in the polymer. We characterize the nano-folded catalysts using X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. We observe grain reorientation and coarsening in the nano-folded gold catalysts. We measure an enhancement of Faradaic efficiency for carbon monoxide formation with the biaxially compressed nano-folded catalyst by a factor of about nine as compared to the flat catalyst (up to 87.4%). We rationalize this observation by noting that an increase of the local pH in the tight folds of the catalyst outweighs the effects of alterations in grain characteristics. Together, our studies demonstrate that nano-folded geometries can significantly alter grain characteristics, mass transport, and catalytic performance.

4.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 7941-7949, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658417

RESUMO

Two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have been extensively studied in a variety of planar optoelectronic devices. Three-dimensional (3D) optoelectronic structures offer unique advantages including omnidirectional responses, multipolar detection, and enhanced light-matter interactions. However, there has been limited success in transforming monolayer 2DLMs into reconfigurable 3D optoelectronic devices due to challenges in microfabrication and integration of these materials in truly 3D geometries. Here, we report an origami-inspired self-folding approach to reversibly transform monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) into functional 3D optoelectronic devices. We pattern and integrate monolayer MoS2 and gold (Au) onto differentially photo-cross-linked thin polymer (SU8) films. The devices reversibly self-fold due to swelling gradients in the SU8 films upon solvent exchange. We fabricate a wide variety of optically active 3D MoS2 microstructures including pyramids, cubes, flowers, dodecahedra, and Miura-oris, and we simulate the self-folding mechanism using a coarse-grained mechanics model. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and optoelectronic characterization, we demonstrate that the 3D self-folded MoS2 structures show enhanced light interaction and are capable of angle-resolved photodetection. Importantly, the structures are also reversibly reconfigurable upon solvent exchange with high tunability in the optical detection area. Our approach provides a versatile strategy to reversibly configure 2D materials in 3D optoelectronic devices of broad relevance to flexible and wearable electronics, biosensing, and robotics.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(31): 28289-28295, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291075

RESUMO

Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) is a unique polymer with highly desirable properties such as resistance to chemical degradation, biocompatibility, hydrophobicity, antistiction, and low friction coefficient. However, due to its high melt viscosity, it is not possible to three-dimensional (3D)-print PTFE structures using nozzle-based extrusion. Here, we report a new and versatile strategy for 3D-printing PTFE structures using direct ink writing (DIW). Our approach is based on a newly formulated PTFE nanoparticle ink and thermal treatment process. The ink was formulated by mixing an aqueous dispersion of surfactant-stabilized PTFE nanoparticles with a binding gum to optimize its shear-thinning properties required for DIW. We developed a multistage thermal treatment to fuse the PTFE nanoparticles, solidify the printed structures, and remove the additives. We have extensively characterized the rheological and mechanical properties and processing parameters of these structures using imaging, mechanical testing, and statistical design of experiments. Importantly, several of the mechanical and structural properties of the final-printed PTFE structures resemble that of compression-molded PTFE, and additionally, the mechanical properties are tunable. We anticipate that this versatile approach facilitates the production of 3D-printed PTFE components using DIW with significant potential applications in engineering and medicine.

6.
ACS Nano ; 13(5): 4883-4892, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070882

RESUMO

Inspired by biological organisms, soft engineered robots seek to augment the capabilities of rigid robots by providing safe, compliant, and flexible interfaces for human-machine interactions. Soft robots provide significant advantages in applications ranging from pick-and-place, prostheses, wearables, and surgical and drug-delivery devices. Conventional soft robots are typically composed of elastomers or gels, where changes in material properties such as stiffness or swelling control actuation. However, soft materials have limited electronic and optical performance, mechanical rigidity, and stability against environmental damage. Atomically thin two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have excellent electrical, optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and have been used to create ultrathin interconnects, transistors, photovoltaics, photocatalysts, and biosensors. Importantly, although 2DLMs have high in-plane stiffness and rigidity, they have high out-of-plane flexibility and are soft from that point of view. In this Perspective, we discuss the use of 2DLMs either in their continuous monolayer state or as composites with elastomers and hydrogels to create soft three-dimensional (3D) robots, with a focus on origami-inspired approaches. We classify the field, outline major methods, and highlight challenges toward seamless integration of hybrid materials to create multifunctional robots with the characteristics of soft devices.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(8): 8492-8498, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694051

RESUMO

The distribution of periodic patterns of materials with radial or bilateral symmetry is a universal natural design principle. Among the many biological forms, tubular shapes are a common motif in many organisms, and they are also important for bioimplants and soft robots. However, the simple design principle of strategic placement of 3D printed segments of swelling and nonswelling materials to achieve widely different functionalities is yet to be demonstrated. Here, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of segmented 3D printed gel tubes composed of an active thermally responsive swelling gel (poly N-isopropylacrylamide) and a passive thermally nonresponsive gel (polyacrylamide). Using finite element simulations and experiments, we report a variety of shape changes including uniaxial elongation, radial expansion, bending, and gripping based on two gels. Actualization and characterization of thermally induced shape changes are of key importance to robotics and biomedical engineering. Our studies present rational approaches to engineer complex parameters with a high level of customization and tunability for additive manufacturing of dynamic gel structures.

8.
Nano Lett ; 19(3): 1409-1417, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30433789

RESUMO

Biological samples such as cells have complex three-dimensional (3D) spatio-molecular profiles and often feature soft and irregular surfaces. Conventional biosensors are based largely on 2D and rigid substrates, which have limited contact area with the entirety of the surface of biological samples making it challenging to obtain 3D spatially resolved spectroscopic information, especially in a label-free manner. Here, we report an ultrathin, flexible skinlike biosensing platform that is capable of conformally wrapping a soft or irregularly shaped 3D biological sample such as a cancer cell or a pollen grain, and therefore enables 3D label-free spatially resolved molecular spectroscopy via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Our platform features an ultrathin thermally responsive poly( N-isopropylacrylamide)-graphene-nanoparticle hybrid skin that can be triggered to self-fold and wrap around 3D micro-objects in a conformal manner due to its superior flexibility. We highlight the utility of this 3D biosensing platform by spatially mapping the 3D molecular signatures of a variety of microparticles including silica microspheres, spiky pollen grains, and human breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas/química , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Ouro/química , Humanos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Análise Espectral Raman
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(1): 151-159, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525417

RESUMO

Soft-robotic devices such as polymeric microgrippers offer the possibility for pick and place of fragile biological cargo in hard-to-reach conduits with potential applications in drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery, and biomedical engineering. Previously, millimeter-sized self-folding thermomagnetically responsive soft grippers have been designed, fabricated, and utilized for pick-and-place applications but there is a concern that such devices could get lost or left behind after their utilization in practical clinical applications in the human body. Consequently, strategies need to be developed to ensure that these soft-robotic devices are biodegradable so that they would disintegrate if left behind in the body. In this paper, we describe the photopatterning of bilayer gels composed of a thermally responsive high-swelling poly(oligoethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate ( Mn = 500)-bis(2-methacryloyl)oxyethyl disulfide), P(OEGMA-DSDMA), and a low-swelling poly(acrylamide- N, N'-bis(acyloyl)cystamine) hydrogel, in the shape of untethered grippers. These grippers can change shape in response to thermal cues and open and close due to the temperature-induced swelling of the P(OEGMA-DSDMA) layer. We demonstrate that the grippers can be doped with magnetic nanoparticles so that they can be moved using magnetic fields or loaded with chemicals for potential applications as drug-eluting theragrippers. Importantly, they are also biodegradable at physiological body temperature (∼37 °C) on the basis of cleavage of disulfide bonds by reduction. This approach that combines thermoresponsive shape change, magnetic guidance, and biodegradability represents a significant advance to the safe implementation of untethered shape-changing biomedical devices and soft robots for medical and surgical applications.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Hidrogéis , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Robótica , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Resinas Acrílicas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Metacrilatos/química
10.
Opt Lett ; 43(18): 4465-4468, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211891

RESUMO

The ability to concentrate the electrical field into sub-wavelength volumes is a key benefit sought and, to a certain degree, found within the discipline of plasmonics. This ability is restricted only by the ohmic loss in noble metals and, recently, in the infrared region, metals are beginning to face a challenge from emerging alternative media: phononic (i.e., relying on surface phonon polaritons) and photonic (i.e., relying on high refractive index) all-dielectric structures, and highly doped semiconductors, all of them having smaller intrinsic loss than metals. In this Letter, we compare the degree of enhancement and its spectral selectivity for different media and confirm that, while one can obtain sharper resonant features with all-dielectric structures, the magnitude of the field enhancement is invariably higher with metals such as gold and copper, primarily due to a higher density of electrons. On the whole, depending on the application, metals and dielectrics have their own unique advantages.

11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(4): 1700731, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721420

RESUMO

Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have proved to be useful tools for characterizing electrically active cells such as cardiomyocytes and neurons. While there exist a number of integrated electronic chips for recording from small populations or even single cells, they rely primarily on the interface between the cells and 2D flat electrodes. Here, an approach that utilizes residual stress-based self-folding to create individually addressable multielectrode interfaces that wrap around the cell in 3D and function as an electrical shell-like recording device is described. These devices are optically transparent, allowing for simultaneous fluorescence imaging. Cell viability is maintained during and after electrode wrapping around the cel and chemicals can diffuse into and out of the self-folding devices. It is further shown that 3D spatiotemporal recordings are possible and that the action potentials recorded from cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes display significantly higher signal-to-noise ratios in comparison with signals recorded with planar extracellular electrodes. It is anticipated that this device can provide the foundation for the development of new-generation MEAs where dynamic electrode-cell interfacing and recording substitutes the traditional method using static electrodes.

12.
Small ; 14(27): e1702497, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749014

RESUMO

Interfacing nano/microscale elements with biological components in 3D contexts opens new possibilities for mimicry, bionics, and augmentation of organismically and anatomically inspired materials. Abiotic nanoscale elements such as plasmonic nanostructures, piezoelectric ribbons, and thin film semiconductor devices interact with electromagnetic fields to facilitate advanced capabilities such as communication at a distance, digital feedback loops, logic, and memory. Biological components such as proteins, polynucleotides, cells, and organs feature complex chemical synthetic networks that can regulate growth, change shape, adapt, and regenerate. Abiotic and biotic components can be integrated in all three dimensions in a well-ordered and programmed manner with high tunability, versatility, and resolution to produce radically new materials and hybrid devices such as sensor fabrics, anatomically mimetic microfluidic modules, artificial tissues, smart prostheses, and bionic devices. In this critical Review, applications of small scale devices in 3D hybrid integration, biomicrofluidics, advanced prostheses, and bionic organs are discussed.

13.
Acc Chem Res ; 51(2): 436-444, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359913

RESUMO

With the discovery of graphene, significant research has focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of ultrathin materials. Graphene has also brought into focus other ultrathin materials composed of organics, polymers, inorganics, and their hybrids. Together, these ultrathin materials have unique properties of broad significance. For example, ultrathin materials have a large surface area and high flexibility which can enhance conformal contact in wearables and sensors leading to improved sensitivity. When porous, the short transverse diffusion length in these materials allows rapid mass transport. Alternatively, when impermeable, these materials behave as an ultrathin barrier. Such controlled permeability is critical in the design of encapsulation and drug delivery systems. Finally, ultrathin materials often feature defect-free and single-crystal-like two-dimensional atomic structures resulting in superior mechanical, optical, and electrical properties. A unique property of ultrathin materials is their low bending rigidity, which suggests that they could easily be bent, curved, or folded into 3D shapes. In this Account, we review the emerging field of 2D to 3D shape transformations of ultrathin materials. We broadly define ultrathin to include materials with a thickness below 100 nm and composed of a range of organic, inorganic, and hybrid compositions. This topic is important for both fundamental and applied reasons. Fundamentally, bending and curving of ultrathin films can cause atomistic and molecular strain which can alter their physical and chemical properties and lead to new 3D forms of matter which behave very differently from their planar precursors. Shape change can also lead to new 3D architectures with significantly smaller form factors. For example, 3D ultrathin materials would occupy a smaller space in on-chip devices or could permeate through tortuous media which is important for miniaturized robots and smart dust applications. Our Account highlights several differences between ultrathin and traditional shape change materials. The latter is typically associated with hydrogels, liquid crystals, or shape memory elastomers. As compared to bulk materials, ultrathin materials can much more easily bend and fold due to the significantly reduced bending modulus. Consequently, it takes much less energy to alter the shape of ultrathin materials, and even small environmental stimuli can trigger a large response. Further, the energy barriers between different configurations are small which allow a variety of conformations and enhances programmability. Finally, due to their ultrathin nature, the shape changes are typically not slowed down by sluggish mass or thermal transport, and thus, responses can be much faster than those of bulk materials. The latter point is important in the design of high-speed actuators. Consequently, ultrathin materials could enable low-power, rapid, programmable, and complex shape transformations in response to a broad range of stimuli such as pH, temperature, electromagnetic fields, or chemical environments. The Account also includes a discussion of applications, important challenges, and future directions.

14.
Rob Auton Syst ; 103: 111-121, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481825

RESUMO

Miniaturized grippers that possess an untethered structure are suitable for a wide range of tasks, ranging from micromanipulation and microassembly to minimally invasive surgical interventions. In order to robustly perform such tasks, it is critical to properly estimate their overall configuration. Previous studies on tracking and control of miniaturized agents estimated mainly their 2D pixel position, mostly using cameras and optical images as a feedback modality. This paper presents a novel solution to the problem of estimating and tracking the 3D position, orientation and configuration of the tips of submillimeter grippers from marker-less visual observations. We consider this as an optimization problem, which is solved using a variant of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. The proposed approach has been implemented in a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) which allows a user to track the submillimeter agents online. The proposed approach has been evaluated on several image sequences obtained from a camera and on B-mode ultrasound images obtained from an ultrasound probe. The sequences show the grippers moving, rotating, opening/closing and grasping biological material. Qualitative results obtained using both hydrogel (soft) and metallic (hard) grippers with different shapes and sizes ranging from 750 microns to 4 mm (tip to tip), demonstrate the capability of the proposed method to track the agent in all the video sequences. Quantitative results obtained by processing synthetic data reveal a tracking position error of 25 ± 7 µm and orientation error of 1.7 ± 1.3 degrees. We believe that the proposed technique can be applied to different stimuli responsive miniaturized agents, allowing the user to estimate the full configuration of complex agents from visual marker-less observations.

15.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 39(4)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250859

RESUMO

Untethered, millimeter-scale, stimuli-responsive shape change structures are critical to the function of autonomous devices, smart materials, and soft robotics. Temperature in a range compatible with physiological or ambient environmental conditions is an excellent cue to trigger actuation of soft structures for practical biomimetic applications. Previously, a range of thermally responsive self-folding soft structures has been described and utilized in a variety of applications from tissue engineering to minimally invasive surgery. In order to extend these concepts to more complex devices, thermally responsive bilayer structures composed of poly[oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] (POEGMA) gels that swell at three different temperatures are described. The lower critical solution temperature and volume transition temperature of POEGMA are tuned by varying the side chain length and the extent of copolymerization. The swelling properties of the POEGMA gels are characterized and a multilayer photopatterning process is described that is used to create soft biomimetic structures that change shape in a sequential manner while displaying multistate behaviors.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/síntese química , Polímeros/síntese química , Engenharia Tecidual , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Humanos , Metacrilatos/química , Polietilenoglicóis , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0187441, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236716

RESUMO

The design and control of untethered microrobotic agents has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. This technology truly possesses the potential to revolutionize the field of minimally invasive surgery and microassembly. However, miniaturization and reliable actuation of micro-fabricated grippers are still challenging at sub-millimeter scale. In this study, we design, manufacture, characterize, and control four similarly-structured semi-rigid thermoresponsive micro-grippers. Furthermore, we develop a closed loop-control algorithm to demonstrate and compare the performance of the said grippers when moving in hard-to-reach and unpredictable environments. Finally, we analyze the grasping characteristics of three of the presented designs. Overall, not only does the study demonstrate motion control in unstructured dynamic environments-at velocities up to 3.4, 2.9, 3.3, and 1 body-lengths/s with 980, 750, 250, and 100 µm-sized grippers, respectively-but it also aims to provide quantitative data and considerations to help a targeted design of magnetically-controlled thin micro-grippers.


Assuntos
Ar , Desenho de Equipamento , Magnetismo , Robótica/instrumentação , Temperatura Ambiente , Água , Miniaturização , Movimento (Física)
17.
J Microbio Robot ; 12(1): 45-52, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082127

RESUMO

The use of small, maneuverable, untethered and reconfigurable robots could provide numerous advantages in various micromanipulation tasks. Examples include microassembly, pick-and-place of fragile micro-objects for lab-on-a-chip applications, assisted hatching for in-vitro fertilization and minimally invasive surgery. This study assesses the potential of soft untethered magnetic grippers as alternatives or complements to conventional tethered or rigid micromanipulators. We demonstrate closed-loop control of untethered grippers and automated pick-and-place of biological material on porcine tissue in an unstructured environment. We also demonstrate the ability of the soft grippers to recognize and sort non-biological micro-scale objects. The fully autonomous nature of the experiments is made possible by the integration of planning and decision-making algorithms, as well as by closed-loop temperature and electromagnetic motion control. The grippers are capable of completing pick-and-place tasks of biological material at an average velocity of 1.8 ±0.71 mm/s and a drop-off error of 0.62 ±0.22 mm. Color-sensitive sorting of three micro-scale objects is completed at a velocity of 1.21 ±0.68 mm/s and a drop-off error of 0.85 ±0.41 mm. Our findings suggest that improved autonomous untethered grippers could augment the capabilities of current soft-robotic instruments especially in advancedtasks involving manipulation.

18.
Sci Adv ; 3(10): e1701084, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989963

RESUMO

Graphene and other two-dimensional materials have unique physical and chemical properties of broad relevance. It has been suggested that the transformation of these atomically planar materials to three-dimensional (3D) geometries by bending, wrinkling, or folding could significantly alter their properties and lead to novel structures and devices with compact form factors, but strategies to enable this shape change remain limited. We report a benign thermally responsive method to fold and unfold monolayer graphene into predesigned, ordered 3D structures. The methodology involves the surface functionalization of monolayer graphene using ultrathin noncovalently bonded mussel-inspired polydopamine and thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes. The functionalized graphene is micropatterned and self-folds into ordered 3D structures with reversible deformation under a full control by temperature. The structures are characterized using spectroscopy and microscopy, and self-folding is rationalized using a multiscale molecular dynamics model. Our work demonstrates the potential to design and fabricate ordered 3D graphene structures with predictable shape and dynamics. We highlight applicability by encapsulating live cells and creating nonlinear resistor and creased transistor devices.

19.
Science ; 357(6356): 1126-1130, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912239

RESUMO

Shape-changing hydrogels that can bend, twist, or actuate in response to external stimuli are critical to soft robots, programmable matter, and smart medicine. Shape change in hydrogels has been induced by global cues, including temperature, light, or pH. Here we demonstrate that specific DNA molecules can induce 100-fold volumetric hydrogel expansion by successive extension of cross-links. We photopattern up to centimeter-sized gels containing multiple domains that undergo different shape changes in response to different DNA sequences. Experiments and simulations suggest a simple design rule for controlled shape change. Because DNA molecules can be coupled to molecular sensors, amplifiers, and logic circuits, this strategy introduces the possibility of building soft devices that respond to diverse biochemical inputs and autonomously implement chemical control programs.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Hidrogéis/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Opt Express ; 25(12): 13588-13601, 2017 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28788902

RESUMO

The multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials are known to be capable of imaging with sub-wavelength resolution. In this work performance of these "hyperbolic lenses" is analyzed in depth by employing commonly used transfer matrix method as well as the eigen-mode approach, the latter offering a clear physical insight into the operation of hyperbolic imagers and revealing their fundamental limitations. The resolution of multilayer structures is shown to decrease with the number of layers not only due to increased loss but also because of the severe suppression of large spatial frequencies caused by the cancellation between symmetric and antisymmetric eigen-modes. Additionally, the resolution is strongly affected by the granularity and fill ratio. In the end, hyperbolic metamaterials can create an image with subwavelength resolution only at very close distance to the object and hence limiting their utility.

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