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Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 5, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797222


Lake Cajititlán is a shallow body of water located in an endorheic basin in western Mexico. This lake receives excess fertilizer runoff from agriculture and approximately 2.3 Hm3 per year of poorly treated wastewater from three municipal treatment plants. Thirteen water quality parameters were monitored at five sampling points within the lake over 9 years. The objective of this work was to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of the water quality and to identify the sources of data variability in order to assess the influence and the impact of different natural and anthropogenic processes. One-way ANOVA tests, principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and discriminant analysis (DA) were implemented. The one-way ANOVA showed that biochemical oxygen demand and pH present statistically significant spatial variations and that alkalinity, total chloride, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, total hardness, ammonia, pH, total dissolved solids, and temperature present statistically significant temporal variations. PCA results explained both natural and anthropogenic processes and their relationship with water quality data. The CA results suggested there is no significant spatial variation in the water quality of the lake because of lake mixing caused by wind. The most significant parameters for spatial variations were pH, NO3-, and NO2-, consistent with the configuration of point and nonpoint sources that affect the lake's water quality. The temporal DA results suggested that conductivity, hardness, NO2-, pH, and temperature were the most significant parameters to discriminate between seasons. The temporal behavior of these parameters was associated with the transport pathways of seasonal contaminants.

Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Análise Multivariada , Qualidade da Água , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , México , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 396, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123902


Lake Cajititlán is an endorheic tropical lake located in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, which has suffered the consequences of high levels of eutrophication. This study assessed the presence of heavy metals and metalloids in Lake Cajititlán to ascertain possible risks to its aquatic biota and the environment. Eleven monitoring sites were selected throughout the lake; from each site, one sample was taken from the sediments and another from the sediment-water interface by using an Ekman dredger and a Van Dorn bottle, respectively. The measured metals in each sample were As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al. The results showed the following sequence of heavy metal concentrations Al > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr, wherein Al had the highest average concentration and Cr had the lowest. As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were practically undetectable. Because the predominant rock in the lake basin is volcanic tuff and the soil is vertisol, the high quantities of Al and Fe suggest the weathering of the basin's minerals. The analyses of the sediment-water samples contained small amounts of dissolved Al, Fe, and Mn. According to the Håkanson equations with Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn, the calculations of the contamination degree and ecological risk revealed that the presence of metals and metalloids does not present a potential risk to the aquatic biota; nonetheless, the water is not suitable for local human consumption due to an unrelated factor associated with nutrient and bacteriological contamination. The results show that heavy metals in the sediments were dispersed throughout the lake mostly because of the weathering of minerals from the local basin and not because of the punctual discharges of the pollutants from the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, to ensure that the small amounts of dissolved metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) do not affect the aquatic biota, the fish species and phytoplankton need to be internally analyzed.

Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecologia , Eutrofização , Peixes , Humanos , Lagos/análise , México , Medição de Risco/métodos , Solo/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/análise
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(2): 92, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671653


Lake Cajititlán is a shallow water body located in an endorheic basin in western Mexico at 1551 m a.s.l. The surface area is 1744 ha, maximum storage volume achieved is 70.89 Hm3, and maximum depth is 5.4 m at its maximum capacity. The lake has experienced significant changes in its level because of drought conditions in recent years. Because the lake has shallow features and is settled in a closed basin with rapid population growth, the lake water has suffered severe anthropogenic contamination causing damages in its intrinsic esthetic, social, environmental, and economic values.

Lagos/química , Qualidade da Água , Clorofila/análise , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , México , Oxigênio/análise , Fotossíntese , Poluição da Água/análise