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PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251841, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038460


Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) infection included the spread of highly pathogenic AIV in commercial poultry and backyard flocks in the spring of 2015. This resulted in estimated losses of more than $8.5 million from federal government expenditures, $1.6 billion from direct losses to produces arising from destroyed turkey and chicken egg production, and economy-wide indirect costs of $3.3 billion from impacts on retailers and the food service industries. Additionally, these outbreaks resulted in the death or depopulation of nearly 50 million domestic birds. Domesticated male ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were trained to display a specific conditioned behavior (i.e. active scratch alert) in response to feces from AIV-infected mallards in comparison to feces from healthy ducks. In order to establish that ferrets were identifying samples based on odors associated with infection, additional experiments controlled for potentially confounding effects, such as: individual duck identity, housing and feed, inoculation concentration, and day of sample collection (post-infection). A final experiment revealed that trained ferrets could detect AIV infection status even in the presence of samples from mallards inoculated with Newcastle disease virus or infectious laryngotracheitis virus. These results indicate that mammalian biodetectors are capable of discriminating the specific odors emitted from the feces of non-infected versus AIV infected mallards, suggesting that the health status of waterfowl can be evaluated non-invasively for AIV infection via monitoring of volatile fecal metabolites. Furthermore, in situ monitoring using trained biodetectors may be an effective tool for assessing population health.

Patos/virologia , Furões/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Odorantes/análise , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Perus/virologia
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 1910-1965, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176063


African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are considered to be three of the most detrimental animal diseases and are currently foreign to the U.S. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens can have tremendous impacts in terms of livestock morbidity and mortality events, production losses, forced trade restrictions, and costs associated with treatment and control. The United States is the world's top producer of beef for domestic and export use and the world's third-largest producer and consumer of pork and pork products; it has also recently been either the world's largest or second largest exporter of pork and pork products. Understanding the routes of introduction into the United States and the potential economic impact of each pathogen are crucial to (a) allocate resources to prevent routes of introduction that are believed to be more probable, (b) evaluate cost and efficacy of control methods and (c) ensure that protections are enacted to minimize impact to the most vulnerable industries. With two scoping literature reviews, pulled from global data, this study assesses the risk posed by each disease in the event of a viral introduction into the United States and illustrates what is known about the economic costs and losses associated with an outbreak.

Febre Suína Africana , Febre Aftosa , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Peste Suína Clássica/epidemiologia , Peste Suína Clássica/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Gado , Suínos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
J Environ Manage ; 237: 488-494, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825781


Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a non-native invasive species in the United States that cause significant economic loss, transmit disease, and inflict damage upon natural resources, agriculture, livestock, and property. Geographic distribution of wild pigs in the United States has nearly tripled since 1982, with anthropogenic influences playing a significant role in the expansion. In this regard, there is speculation that a driver of the expansion may be human-mediated movement of wild pigs to new areas for the purpose of sport hunting. In response, states have implemented a variety of wild pig control policies, including legal restrictions on their transport. The success of such policies depends, in part, on their level of public support, which in turn may be influenced by individuals' attitudes concerning wild pigs, their interest in maintaining wild pig populations (e.g., for sport hunting), and their knowledge and awareness of the threats wild pigs pose. Multiple regression was used to analyze data collected from a nationwide survey concerning attitudes toward wild pigs and policies that restrict their transport. Results indicate that a majority of individuals in the United States have negative attitudes toward wild pigs and support policies that restrict their transport and penalize transgressors. Consistent with other invasive species research, findings suggest that as knowledge and awareness of wild pigs increase, so too does support for policies restricting and penalizing transport of wild pigs. Contrary to previous studies, this research also finds that hunters are more likely to support restrictions on wild pig transport than are non-hunters. Overall, these findings suggest that legal restrictions on the transport of wild pigs, even in states with large hunter populations, enjoy broad public support and may help to curb the expansion of wild pig populations.

Espécies Introduzidas , Sus scrofa , Agricultura , Animais , Atitude , Humanos , Recursos Naturais , Suínos , Estados Unidos