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Pathol Res Pract ; 215(5): 1076-1082, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871915


The German physician Maximilian Borst (1869-1946) was undoubtedly one of the best-known and most renowned pathologists worldwide of his time. His work on tissue transplantation and cancer research set international standards. Furthermore his career in Germany was also almost unprecedented: He was appointed to a chair of pathology at a young age during the German Reich, continued his career seamlessly in the Weimar Republic and was even able to expand his career in the Third Reich. Finally, after the end of the Nazi regime, he was among the group of university teachers who were considered to be politically unencumbered. The background to this favourable classification - and to Borst's unbroken career - was the fact that he had not joined the NSDAP in the Third Reich. Accordingly, he was considered apolitical. But is this reading tenable in the case of Maximilian Borst and does it stand up to critical historical scrutiny? What was the nature of Borst's relationship to the Nazi regime and what was his political position? It is precisely these questions that are the focus of this article. The study is primarily based on archival sources. In addition, a systematic analysis was performed of the relevant international research literature on Max Borst's life and work and on the history of cancer research in the Third Reich in particular. The paper comes to the conclusion that Borst demonstrably served the Nazi regime after 1933. However, Borst's closeness and loyalty to the National Socialists was not revealed through formal memberships of organisations such as the NSDAP or the SS, but rather through a number of influential positions in the field of health policy which were offered to him during the Third Reich. There is no doubt that the transfer of such functions presupposed "political reliability" and "loyalty to the line" on the part of the officeholder. Borst's often assumed inner distance to politics in general and to National Socialism in particular is just as incorrect as his alleged harassment by the Nazi bureaucratic system.

Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologistas/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(2): 395-403, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553604


The name of the Hamburg pathologist Carl August Krauspe (1895-1983) is closely linked to the history of the "European Society of Pathology" (ESP) and the "German Pathological Society" (DGP): He was one of the founding fathers of the ESP, became its vice president, and was appointed an honorary member in 1983. From 1953-1962 he also served as secretary of the DGP and editor of the association's proceedings. In 1962/63 he finally held the chairmanship of the DGP. Most of the publications about Carl Krauspe accordingly pay tribute to these professional functions and offices. Hardly mentioned - let alone critically discussed - is the fact that Krauspe joined the "Nazi Party" (NSDAP), the Storm Detachment (SA) and other Nazi organizations after Hitler's "seizure of power". The content and tenor of Krauspe's reports on politically exposed colleagues have also hardly been examined. With this in mind, the present study pursues the goal of exploring Krauspe's political role and his possible involvement in National Socialism. It is based on previously unexamined archival sources and a reanalysis of the relevant research literature. The paper points out that Krauspe willingly served the Nazi regime during the Third Reich. Thanks to his "loyalty to the party" he was able to significantly advance his own career after 1933. In addition, individual examples show that Krauspe's "expert reports" on colleagues before 1945, but also in post-war Germany, were obviously ideologically influenced. After 1945 he failed to make a late personal contribution to the making of amends for Nazi injustice.

Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologia/história , Sociedades Médicas/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX