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1.
Insects ; 10(5)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052441

RESUMO

The holometabolous insect order Trichoptera (caddisflies) includes more known species than all of the other primarily aquatic orders of insects combined. They are distributed unevenly; with the greatest number and density occurring in the Oriental Biogeographic Region and the smallest in the East Palearctic. Ecosystem services provided by Trichoptera are also very diverse and include their essential roles in food webs, in biological monitoring of water quality, as food for fish and other predators (many of which are of human concern), and as engineers that stabilize gravel bed sediment. They are especially important in capturing and using a wide variety of nutrients in many forms, transforming them for use by other organisms in freshwaters and surrounding riparian areas. The general pattern of evolution for trichopteran families is becoming clearer as more genes from more taxa are sequenced and as morphological characters are becoming understood in greater detail. This increasingly credible phylogeny provides a foundation for interpreting and hypothesizing the functional traits of this diverse order of freshwater organisms and for understanding the richness of the ecological services corresponding with those traits. Our research also is gaining insight into the timing of evolutionary diversification in the order. Correlations for the use of angiosperm plant material as food and case construction material by the earliest ancestors of infraorder Plenitentoria-by at least 175 Ma-may provide insight into the timing of the origin of angiosperms.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 499-524, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077928

RESUMO

Effective identification of species using short DNA fragments (DNA barcoding and DNA metabarcoding) requires reliable sequence reference libraries of known taxa. Both taxonomically comprehensive coverage and content quality are important for sufficient accuracy. For aquatic ecosystems in Europe, reliable barcode reference libraries are particularly important if molecular identification tools are to be implemented in biomonitoring and reports in the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). We analysed gaps in the two most important reference databases, Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) and NCBI GenBank, with a focus on the taxa most frequently used in WFD and MSFD. Our analyses show that coverage varies strongly among taxonomic groups, and among geographic regions. In general, groups that were actively targeted in barcode projects (e.g. fish, true bugs, caddisflies and vascular plants) are well represented in the barcode libraries, while others have fewer records (e.g. marine molluscs, ascidians, and freshwater diatoms). We also found that species monitored in several countries often are represented by barcodes in reference libraries, while species monitored in a single country frequently lack sequence records. A large proportion of species (up to 50%) in several taxonomic groups are only represented by private data in BOLD. Our results have implications for the future strategy to fill existing gaps in barcode libraries, especially if DNA metabarcoding is to be used in the monitoring of European aquatic biota under the WFD and MSFD. For example, missing species relevant to monitoring in multiple countries should be prioritized for future collaborative programs. We also discuss why a strategy for quality control and quality assurance of barcode reference libraries is needed and recommend future steps to ensure full utilisation of metabarcoding in aquatic biomonitoring.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Biota , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biblioteca Gênica , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)
3.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 94(2): 368-387, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136362

RESUMO

Species reintroductions - the translocation of individuals to areas in which a species has been extirpated with the aim of re-establishing a self-sustaining population - have become a widespread practice in conservation biology. Reintroduction projects have tended to focus on terrestrial vertebrates and, to a lesser extent, fishes. Much less effort has been devoted to the reintroduction of invertebrates into restored freshwater habitats. Yet, reintroductions may improve restoration outcomes in regions where impoverished regional species pools limit the self-recolonisation of restored freshwaters. We review the available literature on macroinvertebrate reintroductions, focusing on identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that determine their success or failure. Our study reveals that freshwater macroinvertebrate reintroductions remain rare, are often published in the grey literature and, of the attempts made, approximately one-third fail. We identify life-cycle complexity and remaining stressors as the two factors most likely to affect reintroduction success, illustrating the unique challenges of freshwater macroinvertebrate reintroductions. Consideration of these factors by managers during the planning process and proper documentation - even if a project fails - may increase the likelihood of successful outcomes in future reintroduction attempts of freshwater macroinvertebrates.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Bivalves/fisiologia , Ephemeroptera/fisiologia , Extinção Biológica , Variação Genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Neópteros/fisiologia , Odonatos/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Qualidade da Água
4.
Zookeys ; (773): 79-108, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026662

RESUMO

Himalopsyche Banks, 1940 (Trichoptera, Rhyacophilidae) is a genus of caddisflies inhabiting mountain and alpine environments in Central and East Asia and the Nearctic. Of 53 known species, only five species have been described previously in the aquatic larval stage. We perform life stage association using three strategies (GMYC, PTP, and reciprocal monophyly) based on fragments of two molecular markers: the nuclear CAD, and the mitochondrial COI gene. A total of 525 individuals from across the range of Himalopsyche (Himalayas, Hengduan Shan, Tian Shan, South East Asia, Japan, and western North America) was analysed and 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in our dataset delimited. Four distinct larval types of Himalopsyche are uncovered, and these are defined as the phryganea type, japonica type, tibetana type, and gigantea type and a comparative morphological characterisation of the larval types is presented. The larval types differ in a number of traits, most prominently in their gill configuration, as well as in other features such as setal configuration of the pronotum and presence/absence of accessory hooks of the anal prolegs.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 628-629: 1191-1199, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045541

RESUMO

Large rivers cover and function over large spatial extents. Accordingly, the detailed assessment of their morphology is complex. Here, a methodology is presented to assess large rivers' morphology (LaRiMo) based on free datasets of geographic information systems. This approach could help to achieve a comparable, transboundary assessment of large river morphology to support the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The analyses are based on seven parameters describing processes and characteristics related to large river morphology. These parameters are evaluated for and compared between the rivers Danube, Elbe and Loire. A significantly higher amount of gravel and sand bars within the river bed strongly supported the overall higher morphological status of the Loire. A PCA highlighted that the parameters Wetlands, Active Riparian Zones and Free Flowing Sections similarly described a good morphological situation. In contrast, Canal, Dams and Impervious Surface indicated bad morphological conditions. Finally, the approach was successfully validated with data from a detailed, field-based morphological assessment for the Danube. LaRiMo represents an efficient and cost-effective approach to assess large river morphology across large extents. This method provides comparable results across countries and regions.

6.
Zookeys ; (766): 63-77, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930479

RESUMO

The Ethiopian caddisfly fauna comprises 85 species, including 10 Oecetis species and three Lepidostoma species. In this context we provide the first species-level descriptions of Ethiopian caddisfly larvae. We describe and illustrate the larvae of O. mizrain and L. scotti, with additional notes on their habitats and distribution.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 1295-1310, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801222

RESUMO

The bioassessment of aquatic ecosystems is currently based on various biotic indices that use the occurrence and/or abundance of selected taxonomic groups to define ecological status. These conventional indices have some limitations, often related to difficulties in morphological identification of bioindicator taxa. Recent development of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding could potentially alleviate some of these limitations, by using DNA sequences instead of morphology to identify organisms and to characterize a given ecosystem. In this paper, we review the structure of conventional biotic indices, and we present the results of pilot metabarcoding studies using environmental DNA to infer biotic indices. We discuss the main advantages and pitfalls of metabarcoding approaches to assess parameters such as richness, abundance, taxonomic composition and species ecological values, to be used for calculation of biotic indices. We present some future developments to fully exploit the potential of metabarcoding data and improve the accuracy and precision of their analysis. We also propose some recommendations for the future integration of DNA metabarcoding to routine biomonitoring programs.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ecossistema
8.
Zootaxa ; 4370(2): 171-179, 2018 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689863

RESUMO

In this contribution, we describe Isoperla vjosae sp. nov. from Albania. We characterize males, females, and larvae of the new species collected at the Vjosa River using morphological and molecular approaches. Isoperla vjosae sp.nov. is a member of the I. tripartita group, which is widely distributed in the Balkans. This new endemic species is being threatened by a proposed hydroelectric power dam on the Vjosa River impacting the type locality - a large, shifting gravel, low altitude River - an atypical habitat for larvae of the I. tripartita group. For the first time we use molecular tools to delineate Isoperla species from the Balkans.


Assuntos
Insetos , Albânia , Animais , Península Balcânica , Ecossistema , Feminino , Larva , Masculino
9.
Zootaxa ; 4379(1): 74-86, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689974

RESUMO

This contribution describes the previously unknown larva of Adicella cremisa Malicky 1972. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given and the important diagnostic features are highlighted on micrographs. Within the genus Adicella the hitherto known larvae differ in color patterns of the head capsule, the morphology of the posterior process of abdominal segment I, and in setation patterns on the metanotum, metasternum, abdominal segment IX, and anal prolegs. With respect to zoogeography, A. filicornis and A. reducta are widespread throughout Europe whereas A. cremisa is restricted to European Ecoregions 3 (Italian Mainland), 5 (Dinaric Western Balkan: Slovenia, Croatia), 9 (Central Highlands: Austria) and 11 (Hungarian Plains; Vienna). Based on mandible morphology, A. cremisa is likely a collector-gatherer and shredder.


Assuntos
Insetos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Áustria , Croácia , Europa (Continente) , Larva , Eslovênia
10.
Zookeys ; (711): 131-140, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134032

RESUMO

Adicella syriaca is a leptocerid caddisfly distributed throughout the Balkan Peninsula, the Carpathians, the Hungarian Lowlands, the Pontic Province, and the Caucasus. This paper describes the previously unknown larva of this species, based on material from the Greek island of Corfu. Information on the morphology of the fifth larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. A key to the known larvae of the European species of Adicella McLachlan, 1877 is provided. In the context of existing identification keys, the larva of Adicella syriaca Ulmer, 1907 keys together with Adicella cremisa Malicky, 1972, but the species pair can be easily separated by the number of setae on the pro- and mesonotum, and setation patterns on abdominal dorsum IX.

11.
BMC Evol Biol ; 17(1): 129, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taxonomy offers precise species identification and delimitation and thus provides basic information for biological research, e.g. through assessment of species richness. The importance of molecular taxonomy, i.e., the identification and delimitation of taxa based on molecular markers, has increased in the past decade. Recently developed exploratory tools now allow estimating species-level diversity in multi-locus molecular datasets. RESULTS: Here we use molecular species delimitation tools that either quantify differences in intra- and interspecific variability of loci, or divergence times within and between species, or perform coalescent species tree inference to estimate species-level entities in molecular genetic datasets. We benchmark results from these methods against 14 morphologically readily differentiable species of a well-defined subgroup of the diverse Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Using a 3798 bp (6 loci) molecular data set we aim to corroborate a geographically isolated new species by integrating comparative morphological studies and molecular taxonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that only multi-locus species delimitation provides taxonomically relevant information. The data further corroborate the new species Drusus zivici sp. nov. We provide differential diagnostic characters and describe the male, female and larva of this new species and discuss diversity patterns of Drusinae in the Balkans. We further discuss potential and significance of molecular species delimitation. Finally we argue that enhancing collaborative integrative taxonomy will accelerate assessment of global diversity and completion of reference libraries for applied fields, e.g., conservation and biomonitoring.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Animais , Península Balcânica , Feminino , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/genética , Masculino , Filogenia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 573: 1472-1480, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515014

RESUMO

The operation of storage hydropower plants is commonly linked to frequent fluctuations in discharge and water level (hydropeaking) of downstream river stretches and is often accompanied by cooling or warming of the water body downstream (cold or warm thermopeaking, respectively). The objective of this study is to assess the single and combined effects of hydropeaking and cold thermopeaking on the drift of selected aquatic macroinvertebrates in experimental flumes. The study specifically aims to (1) investigate the macroinvertebrate drift induced by hydropeaking, (2) identify taxon-specific drift patterns following combined hydropeaking and cold thermopeaking and (3) quantify diurnal drift differences under both impact types. Overall, hydropeaking induced significantly higher drift rates of most macroinvertebrate taxa. Combined hydropeaking and cold thermopeaking, however, revealed reduced total drift rates, however with strong taxon-specific response patterns. Hydropeaking during night led to significantly higher drift rates than during daytime, while in combination with thermopeaking the same trend was observable, although insignificant. Taxon-specific analysis revealed lower drift rates following hydropeaking for rheophilic and interstitial taxa (e.g. Leuctra sp., Hydropsyche sp.), whereas many limnophilic taxa adapted to low current showed markedly increased drift (e.g. Lepidostoma hirtum and Leptoceridae). In line with previous studies, our results confirm a significant loss of limnophilic macroinvertebrate taxa following hydraulic stress. The mitigating effect of cold thermopeaking might be explained by behavioural patterns, but requires further investigation to clarify if macroinvertebrates actively avoid drift and intrude into the interstitial, when cold water is discharged. Our results imply that river restoration projects must address the hydrological regime and, if necessary need to include suitable management schemes for hydropower plants. Besides operative management measures, the construction of reservoirs to buffer hydropeaks or the diversion of hydropeaks into larger water bodies could mitigate hydropeaking effects and foster biological recovery including limnophilic taxa.


Assuntos
Biota , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Rios/química , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Dinâmica Populacional , Movimentos da Água
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 571: 1370-82, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450262

RESUMO

A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >200 contaminants to benthic macroinvertebrates in the Danube River using the Toxic Unit approach. Furthermore, we evaluated correlations between several stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and biological indices commonly used for the ecological status assessment of aquatic ecosystems. We also performed several variation partitioning analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of contaminants and other abiotic parameters (i.e. habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations, water quality parameters) to the structural and biological trait variation of the invertebrate community. The results of this study show that most biological indices significantly correlate to parameters related to habitat and physico-chemical conditions, but showed limited correlation with the calculated toxic pressure. The calculated toxic pressure, however, showed little variation between sampling sites, which complicates the identification of pollution-induced effects. The results of this study show that the variation in the structure and trait composition of the invertebrate community are mainly explained by habitat and water quality parameters, whereas hydromorphological alterations play a less important role. Among the water quality parameters, physico-chemical parameters such as suspended solids, nutrients or dissolved oxygen explained a larger part of the variation in the invertebrate community as compared to metals or organic contaminants. Significant correlations exist between some physico-chemical measurements (e.g. nutrients) and some chemical classes (i.e. pharmaceuticals, chemicals related to human presence) which constitute important multiple stressor groups. This study demonstrates that, in large rivers like the Danube, the variation in the invertebrate community seems to be more related to varying habitat and physico-chemical conditions than to chemical pollution.


Assuntos
Biota/efeitos dos fármacos , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água
14.
Zootaxa ; 4093(4): 559-565, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27073321

RESUMO

This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Rhyacophila meyeri McLachlan 1879. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of R. meyeri keys together with R. stigmatica (Kolenati 1859). The species pair can be separated by differences in the setation pattern at the anterior pronotal border and maximum head width. With respect to zoogeography, Rhyacophila meyeri is reported from Switzerland and northern Italy whereas R. stigmatica is restricted to the Austrian, German and Swiss Alps and northern Slovenia (Cianficconi 2002; Graf et al. 2008; Lubini-Ferlin & Vicentini 2005; Malicky 2009; Robert 2004).

15.
Zootaxa ; 4085(3): 431-437, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27069351

RESUMO

A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorumsp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorumsp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe - a supposedly well-explored region.

16.
Zookeys ; (559): 107-24, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27006607

RESUMO

In this paper we describe Drusus sharrensis sp. n., from the Sharr Mountains in Kosovo. Males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus krusniki Malicky, 1981, Drusus kerek Oláh, 2011 and Drusus juliae Oláh, 2011 but differ mainly in exhibiting (1) a differently shaped spinose area on tergite VIII; (2) intermediate appendages anteriorly curved in lateral view with broad tips in dorsal view; (3) inferior appendages with a distinct dorsal protrusion in the proximal half. Females of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus krusniki, Drusus kerek, Drusus juliae, and Drusus plicatus Radovanovic, 1942 but mainly differ in (1) segment X that is longer than the supragenital plate with distinctly pointed tips; (2) supragenital plate quadrangular with a distinct round dorsal protrusion; (3) a vulvar scale with a small median lobe. Results of phylogenetic species delimitation support monophyly of Drusus sharrensis sp. n. and recover it as sister to a clade comprising (Drusus pelasgus Oláh, 2010 + Drusus juliae + Drusus arbanios Oláh, 2010 + Drusus plicatus + (Drusus dacothracus Oláh, 2010 + Drusus illyricus Oláh, 2010)). The new species is a micro-endemic of the Sharr Mountains, a main biodiversity hotspot in the Balkan Peninsula. Main threats to the aquatic ecosystems of this part of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed.

17.
Zootaxa ; 4083(4): 483-500, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985141

RESUMO

Drusinae (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) are highland caddisflies inhabiting high-gradient, turbulent running water and spring habitats. They are disjunctly distributed over the Eurasian mountain ranges, and the majority of species is endemic to particular mountain areas. The most diverse of three main groups of the Drusinae, the grazer clade, consists of species in which larvae feed on epiltihic biofilm and algae. In this paper we describe three previously unknown grazer-clade Drusinae larvae: Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans), D. vernonensis Malicky 1989 (endemic to the Hellenic western Balkans), and D. vespertinus Marinkovic 1976 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans). The larvae of these species have toothless mandibles typical of the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated using molecular genetic data, i.e., the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment (mtCOI3-P). Morphological characteristics of the larvae are described and the diagnostic features enabling species-level identification are illustrated. We further discuss the ecology and distribution of three Western Balkan endemic species.


Assuntos
Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Península Balcânica , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Larva
18.
Zootaxa ; 4057(3): 444-50, 2015 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701493

RESUMO

The previously unknown larva of Rhyacophila balcanica Radovanovic 1953 is described. The diagnostic features of the species are listed and illustrated and some information on its ecology and distribution is included. In addition, diagnostic characters for larvae of the known Greek Rhyacophila species are provided.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
Zootaxa ; 4032(5): 551-68, 2015 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624385

RESUMO

The Balkan Peninsula is one of the most important European hotspots of freshwater biodiversity. The region is, however, to a large extent insufficiently investigated. Here we present data on distribution of caddisflies in one particularly understudied area, the Republic of Kosovo. Our data include the first records of Adicella altandroconia Botosaneanu & Novak and Halesus tessellatus (Rambur) for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna, and a new locality for the recently described Ecclisopteryx keroveci Previsic, Graf, & Vitecek. Further, we describe the new caddisfly species Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. from the Kopaonik Mountains. The new species belongs to the D. discophorus Species Group and differs morphologically from its most similar congeners (D. discophorus Radovanovic, D. balcanicus Kumanski, and D. bureschi Kumanski) mainly in exhibiting (1) subtrianglar superior appendages; (2) a narrow, dorsal spinate area of tergite VIII; and (3) evenly rounded tips of intermediate appendages in caudal view. In phylogenetic analysis, D. dardanicus sp. nov. is well delineated and recovered as a sister taxon to D. osogovicus Kumanski, a species recorded from Bulgaria. The recent discovery of a new species and other rare or microendemic species presents important contributions to the knowledge on the rich freshwater biodiversity in Kosovo. These species face increasing anthropogenic pressure and threats to their conservation.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biodiversidade , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/genética , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 93: 249-260, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26265260

RESUMO

The caddisfly subfamily Drusinae BANKS comprises roughly 100 species inhabiting mountain ranges in Europe, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. A 3-gene phylogeny of the subfamily previously identified three major clades that were corroborated by larval morphology and feeding ecologies: scraping grazers, omnivorous shredders and filtering carnivores. Larvae of filtering carnivores exhibit unique head capsule complexities, unknown from other caddisfly larvae. Here we assess the species-level relationships within filtering carnivores, hypothesizing that head capsule complexity is derived from simple shapes observed in the other feeding groups. We summarize the current systematics and taxonomy of the group, clarify the systematic position of Cryptothrix nebulicola, and present a larval key to filtering carnivorous Drusinae. We infer relationships of all known filtering carnivorous Drusinae and 34 additional Drusinae species using Bayesian species tree analysis and concatenated Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 3805bp of sequence data from six gene regions (mtCOI5-P, mtCOI3-P, 16S mrDNA, CADH, WG, 28S nrDNA), morphological cladistics from 308 characters, and a total evidence analysis. All analyses support monophyly of the three feeding ecology groups but fail to fully resolve internal relationships. Within filtering carnivores, variation in head setation and frontoclypeus structure may be associated with progressive niche adaptation, with less complex species recovered at a basal position. We propose that diversification of complex setation and frontoclypeus shape represents a recent evolutionary development, hypothetically enforcing speciation and niche specificity within filtering carnivorous Drusinae.


Assuntos
Insetos/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Carnivoridade , Europa (Continente) , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genes de Insetos , Especiação Genética , Cabelo/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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