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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578860

RESUMO

Whole grain consumption has been associated with the reduced risk of several chronic diseases with significant healthcare monetary burden, including cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers globally, with the highest rates reported in Australia. Three servings of whole grains provide a 15% reduction in total cancer and 17% reduction in CRC risk; however, 70% of Australians fall short of this level of intake. The aim of this study was to assess the potential savings in healthcare costs associated with reductions in the relative risk of CRC and total cancer mortality following the whole grain Daily Target Intake (DTI) of 48 g in Australia. A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted using input parameters from: (1) estimates of current and targeted whole grain intakes among proportions (5%, 15%, 50%, and 100%) of the Australian adult (≥20 years) population; (2) estimates of reductions in relative risk (with 95% confidence intervals) of CRC and total cancer mortality associated with specific whole grain intake from meta-analysis studies; and (3) estimates of annual healthcare costs of CRC and all cancers from disease expenditure national databases. A very pessimistic (5% of population) through to universal (100% of population) adoption of the recommended DTI in Australia were shown to potentially yield savings in annual healthcare costs equal to AUD 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.4) to AUD 37.2 (95% CI 24.1-48.1) million for CRC and AUD 20.3 (95% CI 12.2-27.0) to AUD 405.1 (95% CI 243.1-540.1) million for total cancers. As treatment costs for CRC and other cancers are increasing, and dietary measures exchanging whole grains for refined grains are not cost preclusive nor does the approach increase energy intake, there is an opportunity to facilitate cost-savings along with reductions in disease for Australia. These results suggest specific benefits of encouraging Australians to swap refined grains for whole grains, with greater overall adherence to suggestions in dietary guidelines.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579100

RESUMO

Evidence supports regular dietary inclusion of legumes due to their positive effects on both human and planetary health. Intake within Australia is suboptimal, with consumer data suggesting that an inability to integrate legumes into usual dietary patterns is a barrier to consumption. This places the food industry in a unique position to offer Australians the ability to incorporate legumes into usual dietary patterns via innovative new products. The aim of this study was to explore the legume category and compare nutrition product data and the use of nutrition and health claims between 2019 and 2021. An audit of legume products from four major metropolitan Sydney supermarkets (Aldi, Coles, IGA, Woolworths) collected ingredient lists, nutrition information and on-pack claims for baked beans, legume dips, legume flours, legume snacks (including subcategories of legume chips and whole legume snacks), canned legumes, dried legumes, frozen legumes, and pulse pasta. The total number of legume products available on the market nearly doubled from 2019 (n = 312) to 2021 (n = 610); this was driven by traditional plain canned and dried legumes and some new and convenient options, particularly snacks (legume chips) where the largest growth occurred. Of all legume products (n = 610), 82% met the Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criteria, 86.8% were at least a source of dietary fibre, and 55.9% were at least a source of protein. Nutrition content claims relating to dietary fibre, gluten free and protein more than doubled since 2019, with each featuring on over one third of the products identified in 2021. Vegan/vegetarian on-pack claims more than doubled since 2019, and claims related to the term plant-based/plant protein and environmental sustainability emerged on packs in 2021. By addressing barriers to consumption, such as lack of time and knowledge on how to prepare legumes, innovative legume products may help influence future consumption patterns.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444720

RESUMO

Beta glucan is a type of soluble dietary fibre found in oats and barley with known cholesterol-lowering benefits. Many countries globally have an approved beta glucan health claim related to lowering blood cholesterol, an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, the use of these claims has not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the range and variety of oat and barley products in the Australian and global market within a defined range of grain food and beverage categories and examine the frequency of beta glucan health claims. Australian data were collected via a recognised nutrition audit process from the four major Australian supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (January 2018 and September 2020) and Mintel Global New Product Database was used for global markets where a claim is permitted. Categories included breakfast cereals, bread, savoury biscuits, grain-based muesli bars, flour, noodles/pasta and plant-based milk alternatives and information collected included ingredients lists and nutrition and health claims. Products from Australia (n = 2462) and globally (n = 44,894) were examined. In Australia, 37 products (1.5%) made use of the beta glucan claim (84% related to oat beta glucan and 16% related to barley beta glucan, specifically BARLEYmax®). Of products launched globally, 0.9% (n = 403) displayed beta glucan cholesterol-lowering claims. Despite the number of products potentially eligible to make beta glucan claims, their use in Australia and globally is limited. The value of dietary modification in cardiovascular disease treatment and disease progression deserves greater focus, and health claims are an opportunity to assist in communicating the role of food in the management of health and disease. Further assessment of consumer understanding of the available claims would be of value.


Assuntos
Avena , Colesterol/sangue , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Hordeum , Grãos Integrais , beta-Glucanas , Austrália , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072326

RESUMO

Many dietary guidelines emphasise "mostly" whole grain food choices as part of an overall healthy eating pattern based on evidence for enhancing nutritional status and reducing chronic disease. Still, countries including Australia fall short of their consumption targets. Furthermore, healthcare cost savings associated with increasing the consumption of whole grains in alignment with the Daily Target Intake (DTI) recommendation of 48 g are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the potential savings in costs of healthcare and lost productivity associated with a reduction in the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) through meeting the 48 g DTI recommendation for whole grains among the Australian adult population (>20 years). A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted using input parameters from: 1) estimates of proportions of consumers (5%, 15%, 50%, and 100%) who would increase their current intake of whole grains to meet the recommended DTI in Australia; 2) relative reductions in risk of T2DM and CVD associated with specific whole grain consumption, as reported in meta-analysis studies; and 3) data on costs of healthcare and productivity loss based on monetary figures by national healthcare authorities. A very pessimistic (5% of the population) through to universal (100% of the population) adoption of the recommended DTI was shown to potentially yield AUD 37.5 (95% CI 22.3-49.3) to AUD 750.7 (95% CI 445.7-985.2) million, and AUD 35.9 (95% CI 8.3-60.7) to AUD 717.4 (95% CI 165.5-1214.1) million in savings on annual healthcare and lost productivity costs for T2DM and CVD, respectively. Given such economic benefits of the recommended consumption of whole grains, in exchange for refined grains, there is a real opportunity to facilitate relevant socioeconomic cost-savings for Australia and reductions in disease. These results are suggestive of a much greater opportunity to communicate the need for dietary change at all levels, but particularly through food-based dietary guidelines and front-of-pack labelling initiatives.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Dieta Saudável/economia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grãos Integrais/economia , Adulto , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540761

RESUMO

Breakfast cereal improves overall diet quality yet is under constant scrutiny with assertions that the category has not improved over time. This study aimed to comprehensively analyse the category of breakfast cereals, the nutritional values, and health claims across eight distinct sub-categories at four time points (2013, 2015, 2018, and 2020). An audit of products from four major supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (Aldi, Coles, IGA, and Woolworths) collected ingredient lists, nutrition information, claims and Health Star Rating (HSR) for biscuits and bites; brans; bubbles, puffs, and flakes; granola and clusters; hot cereal flavoured; hot cereal plain; muesli; breakfast biscuits. The median (IQR) were calculated for energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, sugars, dietary fibre, and sodium for comparisons over time points by nutrient. Data from 2013 was compared with 2020 (by sub-category and then for a sub-section of common products available at each time point). Product numbers between 2013 (n = 283) and 2020 (n = 543) almost doubled, led by granola and clusters. Whole grain cereals ≥ 8 g/serve made up 67% of products (↑114%). While there were positive changes in nutrient composition over time within the full data set, the most notable changes were in the nutrition composition of cereals marketed as the same product in both years (n = 134); with decreases in mean carbohydrate (2%), sugar (10%) and sodium (16%) (p < 0.000), while protein and total fat increased significantly (p = 0.036; p = 0.021). Claims regarding Dietary Fibre and Whole Grain doubled since 2013. Analysis of sub-categories of breakfast cereal assisted in identifying some changes over time, but products common to both timeframes provided a clearer analysis of change within the breakfast category, following introduction of HSR. Whole grain products were lower in the two target nutrients, sodium and sugars, and well-chosen products represent a better choice within this category.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Grão Comestível , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/classificação , Ingestão de Energia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Grãos Integrais/química
6.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708949

RESUMO

Legumes are a rich source of dietary fibre, plant protein, and low-Glycaemic Index (GI) carbohydrate. Evidence suggests a positive effect on glycaemic control following a single meal; however, the effects of habitual consumption are less clear. This review aimed to investigate whether medium-to-long-term legume consumption had an effect on markers of glycaemic control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, without diabetes mellitus, or with prediabetes. As per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol, the online databases MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and CINAHL were searched from inception through to 31 March 2020. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ≥6 weeks in duration, reporting ≥1 of the following: fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FBI), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), or 2-h postprandial glucose (2-h PPG), were deemed eligible. The overall quality of evidence was determined using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) assessment. A total of 18 RCTs were included, of which, 5 focused on individuals with diabetes mellitus, 12 on individuals without diabetes mellitus, and one on individuals with prediabetes. Only studies of those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 5) reported significant effects for legume interventions, three of which consistently reported reductions in FBG, two reported reductions in HbA1c, one reported a reduction in FBI, and another a reduction in 2-h PPG (p < 0.05); however, the overall quality of evidence was very low. The findings of this review support the dietary inclusion of legumes; however, the need for further high-quality RCTs to be conducted is also highlighted, particularly among individuals with prediabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus and type 1 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Fabaceae , Controle Glicêmico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Jejum , Abordagem GRADE , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Metanálise como Assunto , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707905

RESUMO

Previous research has not considered the effect of high amylose wheat noodles on postprandial glycaemia. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of consumption of high amylose noodles on postprandial glycaemia over 2-h periods by monitoring changes in blood glucose concentration and calculating the total area under the blood glucose concentration curve. Twelve healthy young adults were recruited to a repeated measure randomised, single-blinded crossover trial to compare the effect of consuming noodles (180 g) containing 15%, 20% and 45% amylose on postprandial glycaemia. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were taken via finger-prick blood samples. Postprandial blood glucose concentrations were taken at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjects consuming high amylose noodles made with flour containing 45% amylose had significantly lower blood glucose concentration at 15, 30 and 45 min (5.5 ± 0.11, 6.1 ± 0.11 and 5.6 ± 0.11 mmol/L; p = 0.01) compared to subjects consuming low amylose noodles with 15% amylose (5.8 ± 0.12, 6.6 ± 0.12 and 5.9 ± 0.12 mmol/L). The total area under the blood glucose concentration curve after consumption of high amylose noodles with 45% amylose was 640.4 ± 9.49 mmol/L/min, 3.4% lower than consumption of low amylose noodles with 15% amylose (662.9 ± 9.49 mmol/L/min), p = 0.021. Noodles made from high amylose wheat flour attenuate postprandial glycaemia in healthy young adults, as characterised by the significantly lower blood glucose concentration and a 3.4% reduction in glycaemic response.


Assuntos
Amilose/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Período Pós-Prandial , Triticum/química , Adulto , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Amido/análise , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708000

RESUMO

Whole grains may assist in reducing risk of non-communicable disease, but consumption is limited in many countries. In Australia, the reasons for poor consumption are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' knowledge, attitudes and identification of whole grains, incorporating an exploration of factors influencing consumption, promotion and provision. An online semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather responses from 735 participants (61% complete responses). Although 92% of respondents consumed grains, only 8% reported an intake consistent with age and gender recommendations. Refined pasta and rice were the most frequently purchased grain foods followed by wholemeal/whole grain bread. Of whole grain foods, bread and breakfast cereals were consumed more frequently. However, overall, participants did not prioritise consumption of whole grains. Despite this, 93% of participants had seen food packaging information drawing attention to whole grain content, with a high proportion describing whole grain as less processed (72%) or high in dietary fibre (67%). Two-thirds were aware of health benefits but stated that if they had further information, they would be more likely to swap to whole grain. Further education, increasing exposure, accessibility and extensive promotion of whole grain health benefits are required to facilitate whole grain consumption. Furthermore, removing the negative stigma associated with carbohydrate foods, including grains, will be necessary to improve consumption.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Austrália , Pão/análise , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 55(5): 489-496, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628260

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and the nutritional approaches implemented with patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records for patients admitted to a tertiary hospital for alcohol withdrawal was completed over a 5-year period 2013-2017. Data on nutrition-related assessment and management were extracted and descriptively analysed. RESULTS: A total of 109 medical records were included (M = 73, F = 36), with the mean age of patients 47.3 years (SD ± 11.2, range 22-70). The average length of stay was 3.7 days (SD ± 3.9, range 0.70-27.8). Approaches towards nutritional care emerged from micronutrient assessment and supplementation and/or dietetic consultation. Nutrition-related biochemistry data was available for most patients, notably serum levels of sodium, urea and creatinine (102 patients; 93.5%) and magnesium and phosphate (66 patients, 60.5%). There was evidence of some electrolyte abnormalities on admission to hospital. Eight patients had serum micronutrient status assessed; no patients had serum thiamine levels assessed. Parenteral thiamine was provided to 96 patients (88.0%) for 1.9 days (SD ± 1.1, range 1.0-6.0) with a mean dose of 2458.7 mg (SD ± 1347.6, range 300-6700 mg). Multivitamin supplementation was provided to 24 patients (22.0%). Only 23 patients (21.2%) were seen by a dietician of whom 16 underwent a comprehensive nutritional assessment and 3 were screened using the malnutrition screening tool. CONCLUSION: Inconsistent nutritional assessment and management practices were identified across a diverse population group, whilst nutritional professionals were underutilized. Future research should benchmark current guidelines and multidisciplinary approaches considering the role of nutritional specialists in the team.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Admissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tiamina/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664438

RESUMO

Flour, typically derived from wheat, rye, corn and rice is a pantry staple, providing structure to bread and baked goods. This study aimed to provide a cross-sectional analysis of flour for home baking, highlighting the nutrition composition of whole grain flour and identifying novel categories. An audit was undertaken in February 2020, in four major supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (Aldi, Coles, IGA and Woolworths). Ingredient lists, Nutrition Information Panel, claims, and country of origin were collected. The median and range were calculated for energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, sugars, dietary fibre and sodium. Overall, 130 products were collected, including 26 plain flour, 12 self-raising, 17 plain wholemeal, 4 wholemeal self-raising, 20 bread-making mixes (4 were whole grain), 20 other refined grain (including corn and rice flour), 17 gluten-free, 3 legume, 4 fruit/vegetable, 4 coconut and 3 other non-grain (e.g., hemp seed, cricket flour) products. Plain wheat flour dominated the category, while whole grain (wholemeal) made up 19% of products, yet they contained significantly more dietary fibre (p < 0.001) and protein (p < 0.001). Self-raising flours were significantly higher in sodium (p < 0.001) and gluten-free products were lower in protein and dietary fibre, making legume, buckwheat and quinoa flour a better choice. Sustainability principles in fruit and vegetable production and novel insect products have driven new product development. There is a clear opportunity for further on-pack promotion of whole grain and dietary fibre within the category via food product labelling.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Grãos Integrais/química , Austrália , Pão/análise , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível , Fagopyrum/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Supermercados , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química
11.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354190

RESUMO

Growing ethical, environmental and health concerns have encouraged demand for novel plant-based milk alternatives, yet it remains nebulous whether these products are nutritionally adequate as cow's milk replacements. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional survey of plant-based milk alternatives available in major Australian supermarkets and selected niche food retailers from November 2019 to January 2020 and assess two dietary scenarios (adolescents and older women) where dairy serves were substituted for plant-based alternatives against Australian Estimated Average Requirements (EAR). We collected compositional data from nutrition panels in juxtaposition with derivatives from the Australian Food Composition database, with a total of 115 products, including tree nuts and seeds (n = 48), legumes (n = 27), coconut (n = 10), grains (n = 19) and mixed sources (n = 10). Just over 50% of products were fortified, but only 1/3 contained similar calcium content to cow's milk. Indiscriminate substitutions might reduce intakes of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, B2, B12, iodine and zinc, and lead to reductions >50% of the EARs for protein, zinc and calcium in the chosen dietary scenarios. To avoid unintended dietary outcomes, it is vital that consumers make pragmatic decisions regarding dietary replacements for cow's milk.


Assuntos
Cálcio/análise , Cocos , Grão Comestível , Fabaceae , Análise de Alimentos , Substitutos do Leite , Nutrientes/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Nozes , Sementes , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Iodo/análise , Substitutos do Leite/química , Vitaminas/análise , Zinco/análise
12.
Foods ; 9(2)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012822

RESUMO

Establishing sensory and physico-chemical differences between products made from red and white wheat may guide the choice of wheat for use in whole grain and high fibre products. As sensory acceptance is key to consumption, this scoping review aimed to document sensory and physico-chemical research demonstrating quantitative differences in red and white wheat and the associated bran. The following databases were systematically searched following the PRISMA protocol: PubMed, Medline, Scopus, CINHAL and ScienceDirect (1990-2019). Of 16 studies, 13 were sensory studies with 529 participants (six of which included quantitative analysis) and three additional quantitative studies. Overall, 10 studies were in favour of white wheat (seven sensory studies, two focused on quantitative analysis and two with additional quantitative studies). Whole grain (wholemeal) bread, pita bread, crackers, noodles, tortillas, flour, intact grains and bran were examined. Aside from the seed coat colour, levels of bound versus free phenolic compounds and polyphenol oxidase activity appeared most responsible for the differences in red and white wheat. Ensuring the sample size for sensory studies are large enough to detect between-group preferences and linking to physico-chemical analysis are recommended. Attention to blinding techniques in sensory testing and use of food products realistically and consistently prepared with commercial potential are also suggested. This scoping review provides confidence in preference for white wheat for whole grain products, particularly for breads, tortillas and in the choice of white wheat for products suitable for the Asian market.

13.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991603

RESUMO

The Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code does not regulate on-pack claims describing the amount of whole grain in foods. In July 2013, The Grains & Legumes Nutrition CouncilTM (GLNC) established a voluntary Code of Practice for Whole Grain Ingredient Content Claims (the Code) providing guidance for whole grain claims, with cut-off values and suggested wording ≥8 g, ≥16 g, and ≥24 g per manufacturer serve (contains; high and very high in whole grain), based on a 48 g whole grain daily target intake. The aim of this impact assessment was to report the uptake of the Code by manufacturers, changes in numbers of whole grain products, and claims on-pack since 2013, including compliance. The impact assessment was undertaken in August 2019, comparing current registered manufacturers ("users") and their products to the total number of products in the market deemed eligible for registration through GLNC product audits since 2013. Reporting included breakfast cereals, bread products, crispbreads, crackers, rice/corn cakes, rice, pasta, noodles, couscous, other grains (e.g., quinoa, buckwheat, freekeh), and grain-based muesli bars. As of 30 June 2019, there were 33 registered users and 531 registered products in Australia and New Zealand representing 43% of the eligible manufacturers and 65% of the eligible whole grain foods. Three-quarters (78% and 74%) of the eligible breakfast cereals and bread products were registered with the Code in 2019, followed by 62% of grain-based muesli bars. Only 39% of crispbread, crackers, rice/corn cakes, and rice, pasta, noodles, couscous, and other grains were registered. From 2013 there has been a 71% increase in the number of whole grain foods making claims, demonstrating strong uptake by industry, with clearer, more consistent, and compliant on-pack communication regarding whole grain content.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Rotulagem de Alimentos/tendências , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais/tendências , Grãos Integrais , Austrália , Comportamento de Escolha , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Recomendações Nutricionais/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Nutr Diet ; 77(1): 76-89, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797519

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this review is to describe the nature of nutritional interventions for people admitted to hospital for alcohol withdrawal reported in the scientific literature and the health outcomes achieved. METHODS: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017081884). The following databases were systematically searched following the PRISMA protocol: CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Eligible studies were those published in English, in a hospital inpatient setting with the primary reason for admission being alcohol withdrawal. Studies of patient populations with the diagnosis of pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis were excluded. Studies were screened for eligibility, and data were extracted and descriptively analysed. Identified articles were assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research produced by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. RESULTS: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Given the heterogeneity of studies, only a descriptive analysis of interventions could be achieved. Nutrition interventions included supplementation with thiamine, multivitamins, amino acids, antioxidant compounds, probiotics, magnesium or were educational interventions. Outcome measures included memory function, biochemical and anthropometrical indices, withdrawal symptoms, bowel flora levels and nutrition knowledge. However, the overall body of evidence was limited, particularly as there was a wide variation in participant age, study designs and duration of interventions. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of nutrition interventions were identified, mostly involving nutrient supplements ameliorating inadequacies. Future research might also consider total dietary interventions as well as studies on the perspectives of people undergoing alcohol withdrawal.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/dietoterapia , Antropometria , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dietética , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
15.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671655

RESUMO

Demand for plant-based meat substitutes is growing globally for nutritional and environmental reasons, with Australia the third-fastest growing vegan market worldwide. This study aimed to profile and compare plant-based meat substitutes (mimicking meat) with equivalent meat products, and 2015 data. An audit undertaken in May (updated in September 2019) from four metropolitan Sydney supermarkets (Coles, Woolworths, Aldi, IGA), collected nutrition information and Health Star Rating (HSR) from 137 products (50 burgers, 10 mince, 29 sausages, 24 chicken, 9 seafood, 15 other). Mean (± standard deviation (SD)) and median (range) was calculated for nutrients and HSR. Plant-based options were generally lower in kilojoules, total and saturated fat, higher in carbohydrate, sugars, and dietary fibre compared with meat. Only 4% of products were low in sodium (58-1200 mg/100 g). Less than a quarter of products (24%) were fortified with vitamin B12, 20% with iron, and 18% with zinc. HSR featured on 46% (3.6-4.4 stars). On-pack claims were vegetarian/vegan/plant-based (80%), protein (63%), non-genetically modified/organic (34%), gluten free (28%). Product numbers increased five-fold (↑429%) in four years. The plant protein trend has prompted innovation in meat substitutes, however wide nutrient ranges and higher sodium levels highlights the importance of nutrition guidelines in their development to ensure equivalence with animal-based proteins.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Carne , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas de Plantas , Comércio , Análise de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Política Nutricional
16.
Foods ; 8(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466287

RESUMO

Muesli bars are consumed by 16% of children, and 7.5% of adults, and are classified as discretionary in Australian Dietary Guidelines, containing "higher fat and added sugars" compared with core food choices. This study aimed to provide a nutritional overview of grain-based muesli bars, comparing data from 2019 with 2015. An audit of muesli bars, grain-based bars, and oat slices was undertaken in January 2019 (excluding fruit, nut, nutritional supplement, and breakfast bars) from the four major supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for all nutrients on-pack, including whole grain per serve and per 100g. Health Star Rating (HSR) was calculated if not included on-pack. Of all bars (n = 165), 63% were ≤ 600 kJ (268-1958 kJ), 12% were low in saturated fat, 56% were a source of dietary fibre, and none were low in sugar. Two-thirds (66%) were whole grain (≥8 g/serve), with an average of 10 g/serve, 16% of the 48 g Daily Target Intake. HSR featured on 63% of bars (average 3.2), with an overall HSR of 2.7. Compared to 2015, mean sugars declined (26.6 g to 23.7 g/100 g; p < 0.001), and 31% more bars were whole grain (109 up from 60 bars). Although categorised as discretionary, there were significant nutrient differences across grain-based muesli bars. Clearer classification within policy initiatives, including HSR, may assist consumers in choosing products high in whole grain and fibre at the supermarket shelf.

17.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336897

RESUMO

While health benefits of legume consumption are well documented, intake is well below recommendations in many Western cultures, and little is known regarding culinary use and consumer understanding of these foods. This study aimed to investigate consumption, knowledge, attitudes, and culinary use of legumes in a convenience sample of Australians. An online computer-based survey was used to gather data and demographic characteristics. Respondents (505 individuals answered in full or in part) were regular consumers of legumes (177/376 consumed legumes 2-4 times weekly). Chickpeas, green peas, and kidney beans were most often consumed, and were made into most commonly Mexican, then Indian and Middle Eastern meals. Consumers correctly identified protein and dietary fibre (37%) as key nutritional attributes. For non-consumers (7%; 34/463), taste, a lack of knowledge of how to prepare and include legumes, and the time taken to prepare, along with family preferences, hindered consumption. Participants identified the food category as "beans" rather than "legumes", and this may have implications for dietary guidance at an individual and policy level. Addressing barriers to consumption, perhaps through food innovation, emphasizing positive health attributes, and clarification within dietary guidelines, are important considerations for increasing consumption of legumes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária , Fabaceae , Valor Nutritivo , Austrália , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781440

RESUMO

The Australian front-of-pack labelling system, Health Star Rating (HSR), does not include whole grain (WG) in its algorithm, but uses dietary fibre (DF), despite Dietary Guidelines recommending WG over refined grain (RG) foods. This study aimed to determine how effectively HSR differentiates WG and RG foods. Product label data were collected 2017⁻18 from bread, rice, pasta, noodles, flour and breakfast cereals (n = 1127). Products not displaying HSR, DF per 100 g, and %WG ingredients were excluded, leaving a sample of 441 products; 68% were WG (≥8 g/manufacturer serving). There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in HSR between WG bread and breakfast cereal over RG varieties, yet the mean difference in stars depicted on the pack was only 0.4 for bread and 0.7 for breakfast cereal. There was no difference for rice (p = 0.131) or flour (p = 0.376). Median HSR also poorly differentiated WG. More WG foods scored 4⁻5 stars compared to RG, yet there was notable overlap between 3.5⁻5 stars. DF content between RG and WG subcategories was significantly different, however wide variation and overlap in DF highlights that this may not be a sufficient proxy measure, raising concerns that the HSR algorithm may not adequately communicate the benefits for consumers of swapping to WG foods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Grãos Integrais , Austrália , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos
19.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115880

RESUMO

Bread is a vehicle for a range of nutrients within the Australian diet, but has been the target of negative press. The aim of this study was to examine bread products, particularly white, whole grain and gluten-free loaves, including nutrients, health claims and Health Star Rating (HSR). An audit of four supermarkets and a bakery franchise (2017) was compared with 2014 data. Median and range was calculated for whole grain content, dietary fibre, sodium, protein, carbohydrate and sugar. Of all breads (n = 456), 29% were eligible to make a whole grain claim with 27% very high in whole grain (≥24 g/serve), an 18% increase from 2014. Within loaves (n = 243), 40% were at least a source of whole grain (≥8 g/serve), 79% were at least a source of dietary fibre, 54% met the sodium reformulation target (≤400 mg/100 g), 78% were a 'source' and 20% were a 'good source' of protein (10 g/serve), and 97% were low in sugar. Despite significant differences between loaves for all nutrients assessed, HSR did not differ between white and whole grain varieties. Compared to 2014, there were 20 fewer white loaves and 20 additional whole grain loaves which may assist more Australians achieve the 48g whole grain daily target intake.


Assuntos
Pão , Grãos Integrais , Austrália , Fibras na Dieta , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
20.
Br J Nutr ; 111(10): 1862-70, 2014 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24503141

RESUMO

Weight loss results from an energy deficit, although the quality of food choices making up the diet may also be important. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a diet quality tool based on food categories to monitor dietary change in clinical weight-loss settings. The Food Choices Score (FCS) was based on seventeen food categories, each scoring up to five points, totalling 85. In addition to content validity, the tool was validated using (1) two energy-deficit diet models (6500 and 7400 kJ) assuring nutrient and food-group targets and (2) dietary data from two weight-loss trials (n 189). First, the diet models confirmed that an optimal score of 85 was achievable. Second, change in scores was compared with weight loss achieved at 3 months. The trial data produced a mean FCS of 42·6 (sd 8·6), increasing to 49·1 (sd 7·6) by 3 months. Participants who lost weight achieved a higher FCS at 3 months than those who did not (P= 0·027), and there was an even greater improvement in the FCS (P= 0·024) in participants losing ≥ 5 % body weight than in those losing < 5 %. A greater change in the FCS (Δ ≥ 7) resulted in a greater change in BMI (P =0·044), and score change was correlated with weight change (P= 0·023). Participants with the highest scores ( ≥ 56 v. ≤ 44/85) consumed more fruit (P< 0·001) and low-fat dairy foods (P =0·004), less fatty meat (P< 0·001), non-whole-grain cereals (P< 0·001), non-core foods and drinks (NCFD) (P< 0·001), less energy (P =0·018), less dietary fat (P< 0·001) and more dietary fibre (P= 0·013). Weight loss was 35·5 % less likely to be achieved with every increase in the serves of NCFD (P =0·004) in the study sample. The FCS is a valid tool for assessing diet quality in clinical weight-loss settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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