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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 654, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510174

RESUMO

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10-17), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10-13), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Sarcopenia/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/genética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 194-201, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357513

RESUMO

Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, investigations into host susceptibility to infectious diseases and downstream sequelae have never been more relevant. Pneumonia is a lung disease that can cause respiratory failure and hypoxia and is a common complication of infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Few genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of host susceptibility and severity of pneumonia have been conducted. We performed GWASs of pneumonia susceptibility and severity in the Vanderbilt University biobank (BioVU) with linked electronic health records (EHRs), including Illumina Expanded Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGAEX)-genotyped European ancestry (EA, n= 69,819) and African ancestry (AA, n = 15,603) individuals. Two regions of large effect were identified: the CFTR locus in EA (rs113827944; OR = 1.84, p value = 1.2 × 10-36) and HBB in AA (rs334 [p.Glu7Val]; OR = 1.63, p value = 3.5 × 10-13). Mutations in these genes cause cystic fibrosis (CF) and sickle cell disease (SCD), respectively. After removing individuals diagnosed with CF and SCD, we assessed heterozygosity effects at our lead variants. Further GWASs after removing individuals with CF uncovered an additional association in R3HCC1L (rs10786398; OR = 1.22, p value = 3.5 × 10-8), which was replicated in two independent datasets: UK Biobank (n = 459,741) and 7,985 non-overlapping BioVU subjects, who are genotyped on arrays other than MEGAEX. This variant was also validated in GWASs of COVID-19 hospitalization and lung function. Our results highlight the importance of the host genome in infectious disease susceptibility and severity and offer crucial insight into genetic effects that could potentially influence severity of COVID-19 sequelae.


Assuntos
/complicações , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Bronquite/genética , /fisiopatologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido
3.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002680, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined how expanding electrocardiographic trait genome-wide association studies to include ancestrally diverse populations, prioritize more precise phenotypic measures, and evaluate evidence for shared genetic effects enabled the detection and characterization of loci. METHODS: We decomposed 10 seconds, 12-lead electrocardiograms from 34 668 multi-ethnic participants (15% Black; 30% Hispanic/Latino) into 6 contiguous, physiologically distinct (P wave, PR segment, QRS interval, ST segment, T wave, and TP segment) and 2 composite, conventional (PR interval and QT interval) interval scale traits and conducted multivariable-adjusted, trait-specific univariate genome-wide association studies using 1000-G imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Evidence of shared genetic effects was evaluated by aggregating meta-analyzed univariate results across the 6 continuous electrocardiographic traits using the combined phenotype adaptive sum of powered scores test. RESULTS: We identified 6 novels (CD36, PITX2, EMB, ZNF592, YPEL2, and BC043580) and 87 known loci (adaptive sum of powered score test P<5×10-9). Lead single-nucleotide polymorphism rs3211938 at CD36 was common in Blacks (minor allele frequency=10%), near monomorphic in European Americans, and had effects on the QT interval and TP segment that ranked among the largest reported to date for common variants. The other 5 novel loci were observed when evaluating the contiguous but not the composite electrocardiographic traits. Combined phenotype testing did not identify novel electrocardiographic loci unapparent using traditional univariate approaches, although this approach did assist with the characterization of known loci. CONCLUSIONS: Despite including one-third as many participants as published electrocardiographic trait genome-wide association studies, our study identified 6 novel loci, emphasizing the importance of ancestral diversity and phenotype resolution in this era of ever-growing genome-wide association studies.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e033695, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Infant anthropometric growth varies across socioeconomic factors, including maternal education and income, and may serve as an indicator of environmental influences in early life with long-term health consequences. Previous research has identified sociodemographic gradients in growth with a focus on the first year and beyond, but estimates are sparse for growth before 6 months. Thus, our objective was to examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors and infant growth patterns between birth and 5 months of age. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTINGS: Low-income to middle-income neighbourhoods in Santiago, Chile (1991-1996). PARTICIPANTS: 1412 participants from a randomised iron-deficiency anaemia preventive trial in healthy infants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Longitudinal anthropometrics including monthly weight (kg), length (cm) and weight-for-length (WFL) values. For each measure, we estimated three individual-level growth parameters (size, timing and velocity) from SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation models. Size and timing changes represent vertical and horizontal growth curve shifts, respectively, and velocity change represents growth rate shifts. We estimated the linear association between growth parameters and gestational age, maternal age, education and socioeconomic position (SEP). RESULTS: Lower SEP was associated with a slower linear (length) velocity growth parameter (-0.22, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.13)-outcome units are per cent change in velocity from the average growth curve. Lower SEP was associated with later WFL growth timing as demonstrated through the tempo growth parameter for females (0.25, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.42)-outcome units are shifts in days from the average growth curve. We found no evidence of associations between SEP and the weight size, timing or velocity growth rate parameters. CONCLUSION: Previous research on growth in older infants and children shows associations between lower SEP with slower length velocity. We found evidence supporting this association in the first 5 months of life, which may inform age-specific prevention efforts aimed at infant length growth.

5.
PLoS Genet ; 15(12): e1008500, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869403

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association and fine-mapping studies to date have been conducted in individuals of European descent, and genetic studies of populations of Hispanic/Latino and African ancestry are limited. In addition, these populations have more complex linkage disequilibrium structure. In order to better define the genetic architecture of these understudied populations, we leveraged >100,000 phased sequences available from deep-coverage whole genome sequencing through the multi-ethnic NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program to impute genotypes into admixed African and Hispanic/Latino samples with genome-wide genotyping array data. We demonstrated that using TOPMed sequencing data as the imputation reference panel improves genotype imputation quality in these populations, which subsequently enhanced gene-mapping power for complex traits. For rare variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.5%, we observed a 2.3- to 6.1-fold increase in the number of well-imputed variants, with 11-34% improvement in average imputation quality, compared to the state-of-the-art 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 and Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels. Impressively, even for extremely rare variants with minor allele count <10 (including singletons) in the imputation target samples, average information content rescued was >86%. Subsequent association analyses of TOPMed reference panel-imputed genotype data with hematological traits (hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and white blood cell count (WBC)) in ~21,600 African-ancestry and ~21,700 Hispanic/Latino individuals identified associations with two rare variants in the HBB gene (rs33930165 with higher WBC [p = 8.8x10-15] in African populations, rs11549407 with lower HGB [p = 1.5x10-12] and HCT [p = 8.8x10-10] in Hispanics/Latinos). By comparison, neither variant would have been genome-wide significant if either 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 or Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels had been used for imputation. Our findings highlight the utility of the TOPMed imputation reference panel for identification of novel rare variant associations not previously detected in similarly sized genome-wide studies of under-represented African and Hispanic/Latino populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Globinas beta/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(12): 1920-1932, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Cardiopatias/genética , Nutrientes , Idoso , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Energia/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5141, 2018 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510157

RESUMO

Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque. Colocalization analysis with nearby vascular expression quantitative loci (cis-eQTLs) derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues obtained from patients with CHD identifies candidate genes at two potentially additional loci, ADAMTS9 and LOXL4. LD score regression reveals significant genetic correlations between cIMT and plaque traits, and both cIMT and plaque with CHD, any stroke subtype and ischemic stroke. Our study provides insights into genes and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms linking atherosclerosis both to its functional genomic origins and its clinical consequences in humans.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Placa Aterosclerótica/genética , Proteína ADAMTS9/genética , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Humanos , Escore Lod , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 22, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275878

RESUMO

Even though there has been great success in identifying lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the mechanisms through which the SNPs act on each trait are poorly understood. The emergence of large, complex biological data sets in well-characterized cohort studies offers an opportunity to investigate the genetic effects on trait variability as a way of informing the causal genes and biochemical pathways that are involved in lipoprotein metabolism. However, methods for simultaneously analyzing multiple omics, environmental exposures, and longitudinally measured, correlated phenotypes are lacking. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the utility of the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to inform our understanding of the pathways by which genetic variants lead to disease risk. With the SEM method, we examine multiple pathways directly and indirectly through previously identified triglyceride (TG)-associated SNPs, methylation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), including sex, age, and smoking behavior, while adding in biologically plausible direct and indirect pathways. We observed significant SNP effects (P < 0.05 and directionally consistent) on TGs at visit 4 (TG4) for five loci, including rs645040 (DOCK7), rs964184 (ZPR1/ZNF259), rs4765127 (ZNF664), rs1121980 (FTO), and rs10401969 (SUGP1). Across these loci, we identify three with strong evidence of an indirect genetic effect on TG4 through HDL, one with evidence of pleiotropic effect on HDL and TG4, and one variant that acts on TG4 indirectly through a nearby methylation site. Such information can be used to prioritize candidate genes in regions of interest, inform mechanisms of action of methylation effects, and highlight possible genes with pleiotropic effects.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(16): 2940-2953, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878111

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a circulating biomarker indicative of systemic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate genetic associations with CRP levels among non-European-ancestry populations through discovery, fine-mapping and conditional analyses. A total of 30 503 non-European-ancestry participants from 6 studies participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology study had serum high-sensitivity CRP measurements and ∼200 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on the Metabochip. We evaluated the association between each SNP and log-transformed CRP levels using multivariate linear regression, with additive genetic models adjusted for age, sex, the first four principal components of genetic ancestry, and study-specific factors. Differential linkage disequilibrium patterns between race/ethnicity groups were used to fine-map regions associated with CRP levels. Conditional analyses evaluated for multiple independent signals within genetic regions. One hundred and sixty-three unique variants in 12 loci in overall or race/ethnicity-stratified Metabochip-wide scans reached a Bonferroni-corrected P-value <2.5E-7. Three loci have no (HACL1, OLFML2B) or only limited (PLA2G6) previous associations with CRP levels. Six loci had different top hits in race/ethnicity-specific versus overall analyses. Fine-mapping refined the signal in six loci, particularly in HNF1A. Conditional analyses provided evidence for secondary signals in LEPR, IL1RN and HNF1A, and for multiple independent signals in CRP and APOE. We identified novel variants and loci associated with CRP levels, generalized known CRP associations to a multiethnic study population, refined association signals at several loci and found evidence for multiple independent signals at several well-known loci. This study demonstrates the benefit of conducting inclusive genetic association studies in large multiethnic populations.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Metagenômica , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Carbono-Carbono Liases , Enoil-CoA Hidratase/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/genética , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Nutrients ; 9(10)2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039795

RESUMO

Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective: Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods: A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks). Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results: Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03) z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting "almost never" consuming milk. Conclusions: Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos , Demência , Leite , Afro-Americanos , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Laticínios , Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Lactase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
11.
Elife ; 62017 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895531

RESUMO

Achieving confidence in the causality of a disease locus is a complex task that often requires supporting data from both statistical genetics and clinical genomics. Here we describe a combined approach to identify and characterize a genetic disorder that leverages distantly related patients in a health system and population-scale mapping. We utilize genomic data to uncover components of distant pedigrees, in the absence of recorded pedigree information, in the multi-ethnic BioMe biobank in New York City. By linking to medical records, we discover a locus associated with both elevated genetic relatedness and extreme short stature. We link the gene, COL27A1, with a little-known genetic disease, previously thought to be rare and recessive. We demonstrate that disease manifests in both heterozygotes and homozygotes, indicating a common collagen disorder impacting up to 2% of individuals of Puerto Rican ancestry, leading to a better understanding of the continuum of complex and Mendelian disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colágeno/epidemiologia , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágenos Fibrilares/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Linhagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Hispano-Americanos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/etnologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14977, 2017 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443625

RESUMO

Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epistasia Genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril
13.
BMC Proc ; 10(Suppl 7): 321-327, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is great interindividual variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) as a result of the influences of several factors, including sex, ancestry, smoking status, medication use, and, especially, age. The majority of genetic studies have examined SBP measured cross-sectionally; however, SBP changes over time, and not necessarily in a linear fashion. Therefore, this study conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study of SBP change trajectories using data available through the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) of 959 individuals from 20 extended Mexican American families from the San Antonio Family Studies with up to 4 measures of SBP. We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) while taking into account potential genetic effects to identify how, if at all, to include covariates in estimating the SBP change trajectories using a mixture model based latent class growth modeling (LCGM) approach for use in the GWA analyses. RESULTS: The semiparametric LCGM approach identified 5 trajectory classes that captured SBP changes across age. Each LCGM identified trajectory group was ranked based on the average number of cumulative years as hypertensive. Using a pairwise comparison of these classes the heritability estimates range from 12 to 94 % (SE = 17 to 40 %). CONCLUSION: These identified trajectories are significantly heritable, and we identified a total of 8 promising loci that influence one's trajectory in SBP change across age. Our results demonstrate the potential utility of capitalizing on extant genetic data and longitudinal SBP assessments available through GAW19 to explore novel analytical methods with promising results.

14.
BMC Genet ; 16: 131, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26537541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a sensitive period for weight gain and risky health behaviors, such as smoking. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci contributing to adult body mass index (BMI). Evidence suggests that many of these loci have a larger influence on adolescent BMI. However, few studies have examined interactions between smoking and obesity susceptibility loci on BMI. This study investigates the interaction of current smoking and established BMI SNPs on adolescent BMI. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally-representative, prospective cohort of the US school-based population in grades 7 to 12 (12-20 years of age) in 1994-95 who have been followed into adulthood (Wave II 1996; ages 12-21, Wave III; ages 18-27), we assessed (in 2014) interactions of 40 BMI-related SNPs and smoking status with percent of the CDC/NCHS 2000 median BMI (%MBMI) in European Americans (n = 5075), African Americans (n = 1744) and Hispanic Americans (n = 1294). RESULTS: Two SNPs showed nominal significance for interaction (p < 0.05) between smoking and genotype with %MBMI in European Americans (EA) (rs2112347 (POC5): ß = 1.98 (0.06, 3.90), p = 0.04 and near rs571312 (MC4R): ß 2.15 (-0.03, 4.33) p = 0.05); and one SNP showed a significant interaction effect after stringent correction for multiple testing in Hispanic Americans (HA) (rs1514175 (TNNI3K): ß 8.46 (4.32, 12.60), p = 5.9E-05). Stratifying by sex, these interactions suggest a stronger effect in female smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights potentially important sex differences in obesity risk by smoking status in adolescents, with those who may be most likely to initiate smoking (i.e., adolescent females), being at greatest risk for exacerbating genetic obesity susceptibility.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Obesidade/genética , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 102(5): 1266-78, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. RESULTS: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049-ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063-ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic loci known to influence fasting glucose or insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: The association of higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations with meat consumption was not modified by an index of glucose- and insulin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Six of the participating studies are registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0000513 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00149435 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005136 (Family Heart Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study), NCT00083369 (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/genética , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Secreção de Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 93(4): 661-71, 2013 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24094743

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) primarily performed in European-ancestry (EA) populations have identified numerous loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, it is still unclear whether these GWAS loci can be generalized to other ethnic groups, such as African Americans (AAs). Furthermore, the putative functional variant or variants in these loci mostly remain under investigation. The overall lower linkage disequilibrium in AA compared to EA populations provides the opportunity to narrow in or fine-map these BMI-related loci. Therefore, we used the Metabochip to densely genotype and evaluate 21 BMI GWAS loci identified in EA studies in 29,151 AAs from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Eight of the 21 loci (SEC16B, TMEM18, ETV5, GNPDA2, TFAP2B, BDNF, FTO, and MC4R) were found to be associated with BMI in AAs at 5.8 × 10(-5). Within seven out of these eight loci, we found that, on average, a substantially smaller number of variants was correlated (r(2) > 0.5) with the most significant SNP in AA than in EA populations (16 versus 55). Conditional analyses revealed GNPDA2 harboring a potential additional independent signal. Moreover, Metabochip-wide discovery analyses revealed two BMI-related loci, BRE (rs116612809, p = 3.6 × 10(-8)) and DHX34 (rs4802349, p = 1.2 × 10(-7)), which were significant when adjustment was made for the total number of SNPs tested across the chip. These results demonstrate that fine mapping in AAs is a powerful approach for both narrowing in on the underlying causal variants in known loci and discovering BMI-related loci.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Med Genet ; 14: 6, 2013 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23311614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although smoking behavior is known to affect body mass index (BMI), the potential for smoking to influence genetic associations with BMI is largely unexplored. METHODS: As part of the 'Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE)' Consortium, we investigated interaction between genetic risk factors associated with BMI and smoking for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified in genome-wide association studies. We included 6 studies with a total of 56,466 subjects (16,750 African Americans (AA) and 39,716 European Americans (EA)). We assessed effect modification by testing an interaction term for each SNP and smoking (current vs. former/never) in the linear regression and by stratified analyses. RESULTS: We did not observe strong evidence for interactions and only observed two interactions with p-values <0.1: for rs6548238/TMEM18, the risk allele (C) was associated with BMI only among AA females who were former/never smokers (ß = 0.018, p = 0.002), vs. current smokers (ß = 0.001, p = 0.95, p(interaction) = 0.10). For rs9939609/FTO, the A allele was more strongly associated with BMI among current smoker EA females (ß = 0.017, p = 3.5 x 10(-5)), vs. former/never smokers (ß = 0.006, p = 0.05, p(interaction) = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses provide limited evidence that smoking status may modify genetic effects of previously identified genetic risk factors for BMI. Larger studies are needed to follow up our results. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00000611.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Proteínas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética , Adulto Jovem
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