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2.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Residency interviews are integral to the recruitment process yet imperfect. Through surveys of neurosurgery residency applicants, the authors describe interview content and the perceived utility and stress of topics from the applicant's perspective. METHODS: All 2018-2019 neurosurgery resident applicants applying to three particular programs were surveyed. Across 10 interview topics, survey questions assessed topic frequency and the applicant's opinion of the utility and stress of each topic (Likert scale 1-5). Analyses included descriptive statistics, Spearman's rank correlation, and logistic regression. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-three of 265 surveyed US residency applicants (50%) responded. Extracurricular activities, research, future career, non-medicine interests, and small talk were discussed in all interviews. The least frequent topics included neurosurgical knowledge assessment (79%) and manual dexterity tests (45%). The most useful topics according to respondents were future career objectives (4.78 ± 0.49) and prior research (4.76 ± 0.50); the least useful were neurosurgical knowledge assessment (2.67 ± 1.09) and manual dexterity tests (2.95 ± 1.05). The most stressful topics were neurosurgical knowledge assessment (3.66 ± 1.23) and ethical/behavioral scenarios (2.94 ± 1.28). The utility and stress of manual dexterity tests and neurosurgical knowledge assessments were inversely correlated (r = -0.40, p < 0.01; r = -0.36, p < 0.01), whereas no such correlation existed for ethical/behavioral questions (r = -0.12, p = 0.18), indicating that ethical/behavioral questions may have been stressful but were potentially useful topics. Respondents who attended ≥ 15 interviews were more likely to be asked about the three most stressful topics (each p < 0.05). Respondents with children were less likely to be asked about ethical/behavioral scenarios (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.52, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Applicants found several of the most frequently discussed topics to be less useful, indicating a potential disconnect between applicant opinion and the faculty's preferred questions. Ethical/behavioral scenarios were rated as stressful but still useful, representing a potentially worthwhile type of question. These data provide several avenues for potential standardization and improvement of the interview process.

3.
J Clin Neurosci ; 78: 128-134, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507710

RESUMO

Spinal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a rare mesenchymal malignancy. Radiographically, SFT/HPCs have a mutable appearance, with irregular borders, heterogeneous contrast enhancement, and variable but frequently hypointense T2 signal. We report a series of 5 neurosurgically managed spinal SFT/HPCs treated at our institution, with particular attention to 3 lesions demonstrating marked T2-hypointensity and differential diagnosis for the unusual finding of a "T2 dark" spinal lesion. Retrospective chart review of prospectively maintained surgical database, queried by diagnosis and site codes, 2002-2017. Retrospective radiographic review, with initial screening via keyword search of MR reports for "T2" and "hypointense." Four primary and one metastatic spinal SFT/HPCs were operatively treated during the study period (median follow-up 12 months; range 10-92). Three demonstrated marked T2 hypointensity on preoperative MRI, underwent primary resection-GTR in two, STR in one-and have remained progression-free on routine postoperative surveillance. Two patients with isointense lesions recurred within the follow-up period. Radiographic review identified a host of predominantly rare T2-hypointense lesions, including arteriovenous malformation, disk fragmentations, calcific arachnoiditis, calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis, cavernoma, cord hemorrhage/acute blood, desmoid, granulocytic sarcoma, pigmented villonodular synovitis, Edheim-Chester, extramedullary hematopoiesis, IgG4-negative inflammatory pseudotumor, idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis, B-cell lymphoma, primary melanoma neoplasm, melanotic schwannoma, meningioma, opacification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, osteoblastoma, osteochondroma, osteosarcoma, and synovial cyst. T2 hypointensity is associated with SFT/HPC, and may be an indicator relative indolence. "Dark" T2 spinal lesions are rare, with a narrow differential populated predominantly by rare entities.

4.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(13): E808-E812, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539294

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Review. OBJECTIVE: To provide practicing spine surgeons a primer with key insights for reading, interpreting, and clinically integrating systematic reviews and meta-analyses. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to a family of standardized techniques for critical appraisal of clinical research. Within the contemporary spine literature, EBM is most commonly encountered in the form of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although these analytic techniques are potentially useful when appropriately applied to well-formulated questions with adequate primary data in the literature, the rapid and somewhat indiscriminate increase in volume of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published may be associated with an overall dilution in their quality, as well as misperceptions regarding the applicability of particular EBM studies to spine surgery in general. METHODS: The collective experience of spine specialists with vested interests in advancing EBM and its utility was summarized into a primer. RESULTS: We emphasize components that are pertinent methodologically (search strategy, study number, meta-analysis, bias, and certainty), and pertinent clinically (outcomes) to interpreting, and clinically integrating systematic reviews and meta-analyses into spine surgery practice. CONCLUSIONS: Armed with these insights into these five perspectives, we anticipate that practicing spine surgeons will be better equipped to interpret systematic reviews and meta-analyses in a fashion that will meaningfully impact their patient care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.

6.
JAMA Surg ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579196
8.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (AX) are uncommon sources of neurosurgical infections, particularly in immunocompetent hosts. We report the first published case of intracranial AX abscess and polymicrobial AX-MAC abscess, as well as the fourth MAC abscess in a non-immunocompromised patient. METHODS: This case report was conducted via retrospective chart review. A literature review was completed in compliance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. RESULTS: Ten years following mucocele resection, a 60-year-old man presented with sinus congestion and headache. Head imaging revealed a left frontal lesion abutting the cribriform plate and ethmoid roof. The patient had a left frontal craniotomy for abscess drainage. Intraoperative cultures demonstrated polymicrobial growth of AX and MAC, managed with antimicrobial therapy and staged skull base reconstruction. Three cases of MAC abscess and 16 cases of AX ventriculitis or meningitis have been reported in immunocompetent patients. All MAC cerebral abscesses occurred in adults, one of whom succumbed to the infection. Of the 9 AX meningitis cases, 4 occurred in neonates and 2 in pediatric patients. Six of the 7 AX ventriculitis cases occurred after neurosurgical operations at the same hospital from contaminated chlorhexidine basins. Except for the neonates, AX ventriculitis or meningitis patients had undergone neurosurgery or had a history of cranial trauma. There were no reports of polymicrobial AX-MAC intracranial abscess. CONCLUSIONS: AX and MAC are rare causes of intracranial infection. Patients with these pathogens identified in the central nervous system require a multidisciplinary approach for successful management.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 139: e708-e715, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Departments of neurosurgery in the United States have had a long history of hosting international visitors for the advancement of their neurosurgical education. The goal of the present study was to determine the existence of a geographic profile of international visitors for education purposes, both students and graduates, to the United States through the anecdotal experience of 1 department to explore the reach and worth of hosting such opportunities. METHODS: Administrative records were retrospectively reviewed for international visitors over the preceding 10 years, 2009-2019, were surveyed at 1 institution. Visitors were grouped as either medical students or graduates, visiting for clinical or research purposes. Geographic trends were compared using the Pearson chi-squared test. RESULTS: We identified 128 visitors from 33 countries during the study period. The most common home countries were Italy (10%), China (9%), and India (7%). The cohort involved 62 (48%) students and 66 (52%) graduates, and 59 (46%) and 69 (54%) visited for clinical and research purposes, respectively. The geographic distribution of student versus graduate visitors was statistically significant by region (P < 0.01). However, the geographic distribution of clinical versus research visitors was not statistically different by region (P = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be international appeal worldwide to participate in neurosurgical education in the United States. At our institution, every geographic region was represented in our most recent decade of experience. International visitor profiles appear to be associated with particular geographic patterns depending on their status as either a medical student or graduate.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 12-19, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ewing-like sarcoma with capicua transcriptional repressor (CIC) rearrangement is a unique class of undifferentiated round cell sarcomas characterized by CIC-double homeobox 4 gene fusion. Despite showing great histologic resemblance to Ewing sarcomas, they have proved to be a distinct pathological entity from the immunohistochemistry and genetic examinations and the response to treatment. We have presented a case of CIC-rearranged Ewing-like sarcoma with cerebral metastasis managed with operative resection and gamma knife radiosurgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 56-year-old woman had initially presented with an ulcerating lesion of the right fifth toe. The histological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed features consistent with CIC-rearranged Ewing-like sarcoma, which was confirmed with genetic analysis. Despite aggressive local control and a multidrug chemotherapy regimen, the patient developed multifocal metastases involving the lungs, femur, and cerebrum. The cerebral lesions were managed with surgery and gamma knife radiosurgery, with mixed results. CONCLUSION: CIC-rearranged Ewing-like sarcomas have recently been recognized as a distinct disease entity with a highly aggressive course. Treatment paradigms have yet to be defined to properly manage such an aggressive pathological process.

12.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare and complex pediatric neoplasms, the optimal management of which remains an area of active investigation. OBJECTIVE: To present an updated cohort study, with particular attention to novel diagnostic methods and posttreatment clinical phenotypes. METHODS: A single-institution cohort study of 80 primary, neurosurgically managed, CNS GCTs was conducted at Mayo Clinic, 1988-2017. RESULTS: Postchemotherapy resection (eg, second-look surgery) was frequently required (27.0%), especially after adjuvant therapies for nongerminomatous GCTs (NGGCTs; 14 of 28 cases, excluding mature teratoma) and significantly associated with pineal lesions, as compared to neurohypophyseal or bifocal lesions (43.6% vs 5.9% vs 6.7%, P = .004), a finding that retained statistical significance after adjusting for index extent of resection and histology (P = .04). Essentially every NGGCT case underwent at least 1 craniotomy, either on presentation, as second-look surgery, or following local recurrence. Mature teratomatous tissue was highly incident in second-look specimens (84.2%), even among lesions initially diagnosed as germinomas. Pretreatment cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell fraction analysis demonstrated an association between single lesions and neutrophil predominance, whereas nongerminomatous GCTs were associated with increased monocyte fractions. CONCLUSION: CNS GCTs are clinically heterogeneous lesions, resulting in numerous opportunities for improved understanding and clinical management via novel diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Samples from second-look surgeries for recurrent germinomas frequently demonstrate teratomatous tissue, suggesting possible underdiagnosis of mixed GCTs-particularly among pineal lesions. GCT subtypes demonstrate differential cell fraction distributions on CSF analysis, a novel and perhaps diagnostically helpful finding that requires validation in external cohorts.

13.
J Clin Neurosci ; 75: 35-39, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245599

RESUMO

Patients treated with craniotomy for subdural hematoma (SDH) evacuation have a higher readmission incidence when compared to other neurosurgical patients. Factors predictive of readmission following craniotomy for SDH are incompletely understood. The National Surgical Quality Improvement (NSQIP) database was queried for all patients treated by craniotomy for SDH of any etiology (e.g. acute, chronic, spontaneous, traumatic) during the study period (2012-2014). Patients requiring repeat hospitalization within 30 days of surgery were identified and classified by reason for readmission. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of readmission. 1024 patients met inclusion criteria, among whom 109 (10.6%) were readmitted within 30 days. The most common causes of readmission were recurrent SDH (n = 27; 33.3%), seizure (n = 8; 9.9%), new neurological deficit (n = 6; 7.4%), stroke (n = 6; 7.4%), and altered mental status (AMS) (n = 6; 7.4%). Multivariable modeling identified hypertension requiring medication (OR = 2.78, P = 0.013) and abnormal INR (OR = 2.66, P = 0.035) as significantly associated with readmission following chronic SDH, while postoperative UTI (OR = 3.64, P = 0.01) and stroke (OR = 4.86, P = 0.018) were significant predictors of readmission following acute SDH. Readmission was associated with recurrent hemorrhage after chronic/spontaneous SDH, while seizures, AMS, and neurological deficits drove readmissions after acute/traumatic SDH. Careful management of anticoagulation and antihypertensive medications may be helpful in reducing the risk of readmission following craniotomy for chronic SDH.

14.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a safe and effective treatment for acromegaly. OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of clinical and dosimetric factors predicting biochemical remission. METHODS: A single-institution cohort study of nonsyndromic, radiation-naïve patients with growth hormone-producing pituitary adenomas (GHA) having single-fraction SRS between 1990 and 2017. Exclusions were treatment with pituitary suppressive medications at the time of SRS, or <24 mo of follow-up. The primary outcome was biochemical remission-defined as normalization of insulin-like growth factor-1 index (IGF-1i) off suppression. Biochemical remission was assessed using Cox proportional hazards. Prior studies reporting IGF-1i were assessed via systematic literature review and meta-analysis using random-effect modeling. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients met study criteria. Of these, 46 patients (45%) were female. The median age was 49 yr (interquartile range [IQR] = 37-59), and the median follow-up was 63 mo (IQR = 29-100). The median pre-SRS IGF-1i was 1.66 (IQR = 1.37-3.22). The median margin dose was 25 Gy (IQR = 21-25); the median estimated biologically effective dose (BED) was 169.49 Gy (IQR = 124.95-196.00). Biochemical remission was achieved in 58 patients (57%), whereas 22 patients (22%) had medication-controlled disease. Pre-SRS IGF-1i ≥ 2.25 was the strongest predictor of treatment failure, with an unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.51 (95% CI = 0.26-0.91, P = .02). Number of isocenters, margin dose, and BED predicted remission on univariate analysis, but after adjusting for sex and baseline IGF-1i, only BED remained significant-and was independently associated with outcome in continuous (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01, P = .02) and binary models (HR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.39-5.22, P = .002). A total of 24 patients (29%) developed new post-SRS hypopituitarism. Pooled HR for biochemical remission given subthreshold IGF-1i was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.33-3.16, P < .0001). CONCLUSION: IGF-1i is a reliable predictor of biochemical remission after SRS. BED appears to predict biochemical outcome more reliably than radiation dose, but confirmatory study is needed.

16.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140720

RESUMO

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the neurosurgical literature have surged in popularity over the last decade. It is our concern that, without a renewed effort to critically interpret and appraise these studies as high or low quality, we run the risk of the quality and value of evidence-based medicine in neurosurgery being misinterpreted. Correspondingly, we have outlined 4 major domains to target in interpreting neurosurgical systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on the lessons learned by a collaboration of clinicians and academics summarized as 4 pearls. The domains of (1) heterogeneity, (2) modeling, (3) certainty, and (4) bias in neurosurgical systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified as aspects in which the authors' approaches have changed over time to improve robustness and transparency. Examples of how and why these pearls were adapted were provided in areas of cranial neuralgia, spine, pediatric, and neuro-oncology to demonstrate how neurosurgical readers and writers may improve their interpretation of these domains. The incorporation of these pearls into practice will empower neurosurgical academics to effectively interpret systematic reviews and meta-analyses, enhancing the quality of our evidence-based medicine literature while maintaining a critical focus on the needs of the individual patients in neurosurgery.

17.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare malignant neoplasms that arise predominantly in adolescents and young adults. CNS GCTs demonstrate characteristic trends in national associations, with implications for both tumor incidence and genetics. Although the incidence of CNS GCTs is markedly higher in East Asia than Western countries, direct comparative analyses between these CNS GCT populations are limited. METHODS: In Japan, to facilitate the genomic analyses of CNS GCTs, the Intracranial Germ Cell Tumor Genome Analysis Consortium was established in 2011, and more than 200 cases of GCTs are available for both tumor tissue and clinical data, which is organized by the National Cancer Center (NCC) Japan. At the Mayo Clinic, there have been 98 cases of intracranial GCTs treated by the Department of Neurologic Surgery since 1988. In this paper, the authors compared the epidemiology, clinical presentation including location and histology, and prognosis between cases treated in the US and Japan. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age and sex distributions between the databases. However, there was a significant difference in the tumor locations; specifically, the frequency of basal ganglia was higher in the NCC database compared with the Mayo Clinic (8.4% vs 0%, p = 0.008), and bifocal location (neurohypophysis and pineal gland) was higher at the Mayo Clinic than at the NCC (18.8% vs 5.8%, p = 0.002). There was no difference in histological subdivisions between the databases. There was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of germinoma cases and OS of nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) cases treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy covering whole ventricles. However, PFS of NGGCTs differed significantly, and was better in the NCC cohorts (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a differential distribution of GCTs by neuroanatomical location between major geographic and national groups. Further study is warranted to better characterize any underlying genomic, epigenetic, or environmental factors that may be driving the phenotypic differences.

18.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No guidelines have been published regarding stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of Spetzler-Martin grade I and II arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). OBJECTIVE: To establish SRS practice guidelines for grade I-II AVMs on the basis of a systematic literature review. METHODS: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)-compliant search of Medline, Embase, and Scopus, 1986-2018, for publications reporting post-SRS outcomes in ≥10 grade I-II AVMs with a follow-up of ≥24 mo. Primary endpoints were obliteration and hemorrhage; secondary outcomes included Spetzler-Martin parameters, dosimetric variables, and "excellent" outcomes (defined as total obliteration without new post-SRS deficit). RESULTS: Of 447 abstracts screened, 8 were included (n = 1, level 2 evidence; n = 7, level 4 evidence), representing 1102 AVMs, of which 836 (76%) were grade II. Obliteration was achieved in 884 (80%) at a median of 37 mo; 66 hemorrhages (6%) occurred during a median follow-up of 68 mo. Total obliteration without hemorrhage was achieved in 78%. Of 836 grade II AVMs, Spetzler-Martin parameters were reported in 680: 377 were eloquent brain and 178 had deep venous drainage, totaling 555/680 (82%) high-risk SRS-treated grade II AVMs. CONCLUSION: The literature regarding SRS for grade I-II AVM is low quality, limiting interpretation. Cautiously, we observed that SRS appears to be a safe, effective treatment for grade I-II AVM and may be considered a front-line treatment, particularly for lesions in deep or eloquent locations. Preceding publications may be influenced by selection bias, with favorable AVMs undergoing resection, whereas those at increased risk of complications and nonobliteration are disproportionately referred for SRS.

19.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e383-e388, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgery residency in the United States is highly sought after by many international medical graduates (IMGs), and the geographic distribution of IMG candidates who have successfully matched has not been quantitatively explored to date. The aim of this study was to highlight the countries in which successfully matched IMG residents obtained their medical degrees and the states of their respective residency destinations. METHODS: All available resident lists of approved neurosurgical residency programs within the United States with at least 7 years of history were reviewed for IMGs in the most currently updated rosters. Demographic and geographic characteristics were summarized. RESULTS: A total of 1393 current neurosurgical residents in U.S. residency programs were identified from 99 programs across 39 states. Of 1393 residents, 87 were IMGs (6%). The IMG contingent originated from 39 countries, the most common of which was Lebanon (n = 14/87 [16%]). The Middle East was the most represented geographic region (n = 23/87 [26%]). The states with the highest number of IMGs were Kentucky, New York, and Texas (all n = 7/87 [8%]). CONCLUSIONS: IMGs constitute a small but appreciable portion of current neurosurgical residents in U.S. training programs. Particular countries have contributed more IMGs to neurosurgical programs than others, and particular states have higher counts and proportions of IMG residents than others. These outcomes are not geographically homogeneous, and the mechanisms by which IMG applicants successfully match to U.S. neurosurgery programs require more biographic granularity to elucidate.

20.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial germ cell tumors (iGCTs) often arise at the neurohypophysis, their second most common origination, following the pineal region. Neurohypophyseal iGCTs present with stereotypical symptoms, including pituitary dysfunction and visual field deficit, due to their suprasellar location. The goal of this study was to present a large, longitudinal single-institution experience with neurohypophyseal iGCTs to better understand their natural history and identify opportunities for further improvement in treatment outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-institution cohort study of neurohypophyseal iGCTs treated between 1988 and 2017, with a focus on the epidemiology, presentation, natural history, and treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-five neurosurgically managed patients met inclusion criteria; the median age was 18 years (3 months to 49 years), and 74% of patients were male (n = 26). Thirty-one tumors were germinomas, and 4 were nongerminomatous iGCTs. Presenting symptoms included pituitary insufficiency in 76% (n = 25), visual deficit in 45% (n = 15), and diabetes insipidus (DI) in 61% (n = 20) of patients. Index symptoms included isolated DI in 10 (36%), isolated hormone deficiency in 14 (50%), and concomitant DI and hormone deficiency symptoms in 4 (14%). Radiographic diagnostic latency was common, occurring at a median of 363 days (range 9-2626 days) after onset of the first symptoms and was significantly associated with both DI and hormone deficiency as the index symptoms (no DI vs DI: 360 vs 1083 days, p = 0.009; no hormone deficiency vs hormone deficiency: 245 vs 953 days, p = 0.004). Biochemical abnormalities were heterogeneous; each pituitary axis was dysfunctional in at least 1 patient, with most patients demonstrating at least 2 abnormalities, and pretreatment dysfunction demonstrating a nonsignificant trend toward association with long-term posttreatment hormone supplementation. Among germinomas, whole-brain or whole-ventricle radiotherapy demonstrated significantly improved progression-free and overall survival compared with local therapy (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Neurohypophyseal iGCTs are insidious tumors that may pose a diagnostic dilemma, as evidenced by the prolonged latency before radiographic confirmation. Serial imaging and close endocrine follow-up are recommended in patients with a characteristic clinical syndrome and negative imaging, due to the propensity for radiographic latency. Pretreatment biochemical abnormalities may indicate higher risk of posttreatment pituitary insufficiency, and all patients should receive careful endocrine follow-up. Local radiotherapy is prone to treatment failure, while whole-ventricle treatment is associated with improved survival in germinomas.

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