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1.
Heart Fail Clin ; 18(1): 177-188, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776078

RESUMO

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare genetic disorder. The most common cause is a mutation in both alleles of the gene encoding for the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, although other causative mutations have been identified. Complications of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are common in these patients; therefore, reducing the elevated LDL-cholesterol burden is critical in their management. Conventionally, this is achieved by patients initiating lipid-lowering therapy, but this can present challenges in clinical practice. Fortunately, novel therapeutic strategies have enabled promising innovations in HoFH treatment. This review highlights recent and ongoing studies examining new therapeutic options for patients with HoFH.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis , LDL-Colesterol , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética
2.
Int J Cardiol ; 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to describe the characteristics and the natural course of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in a well-characterized consecutive cohort of infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs). METHODS: Sixty consecutive IDMs with LVH have been retrospectively identified and enrolled in the study. All IDMs were evaluated at baseline and every 6 months until LV wall thickness regression, defined as the decrease of wall thickness measurement into the normal reference range for cardiac parameters (z-score > -2 and < 2). A comprehensive assessment was performed in those patients with diagnostic markers suggestive of a different cause and/or without significant reduction of the LVH during follow-up. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, all IDMs showed a significant reduction of maximal wall thickness MWT (6.00 mm [IQR 5.00-712] vs. 5.50 mm [IQR 5.00-6.00], p-value <0.001; MWT-z-score: 4.86 [IQR 3.93-7.61] vs. 1.72 [IQR 1.08-2.85], p-value <0.001) compared to baseline, and all patients showed LV wall thickness regression or residual mild or moderate LVH (57%, 28%, and 12%, respectively), except 2 patients with persistent severe LVH, that after a comprehensive clinical-genetic assessment were diagnosed as Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines. At multivariate analysis, MWT was negatively associated with LV wall thickness regression at 1-year follow-up (MWT-mm: OR 0.48[0.29-0.79], p-value = 0.004; MWT-z-score: OR 0.71[0.56-0.90], p-value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: LVH in IDMs represents a benign condition with complete regression during the first years of life. In those patients without LV wall thickness regression, combined with clinical markers suggesting a specific disease, a complete work-up is required for a definite diagnosis.

5.
Circulation ; 144(16): 1323-1343, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662163

RESUMO

Contemporary evidence supports device-based transcatheter interventions for the management of patients with structural heart disease. These procedures, which include aortic valve implantation, mitral or tricuspid valve repair/implantation, left atrial appendage occlusion, and patent foramen ovale closure, profoundly differ with respect to clinical indications and procedural aspects. Yet, patients undergoing transcatheter cardiac interventions require antithrombotic therapy before, during, or after the procedure to prevent thromboembolic events. However, these therapies are associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications. To date, challenges and controversies exist regarding balancing the risk of thrombotic and bleeding complications in these patients such that the optimal antithrombotic regimens to adopt in each specific procedure is still unclear. In this review, we summarize current evidence on antithrombotic therapies for device-based transcatheter interventions targeting structural heart disease and emphasize the importance of a tailored approach in these patients.

7.
Int J Cardiol ; 345: 7-13, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695525

RESUMO

AIM: To analyze the prevalence and clinical implications of the eligibility criteria for prolonged dual antithrombotic therapy with ticagrelor 60 mg twice daily and/or rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily in a contemporary real-world ACS registry. METHODS: Patients from the START-ANTIPLATELET registry (NCT02219984) were stratified according to the eligibility criteria of the PEGASUS and COMPASS studies to investigate the proportion of patients eligible for prolonged dual antithrombotic therapy at discharge and after 1-year of DAPT. Net adverse clinical events (NACE), defined as all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and major bleeding, at 1 year were also evaluated and compared among groups. RESULTS: 1844 were considered for the analysis at baseline. Out of 849 event-free patients continually receiving dual antiplatelet therapy for at least 1 year, 577 (68%) and 583 (68.7%) met at least one eligibility criterion for ticagrelor and rivaroxaban, respectively. In the PEGASUS-like patients, age was the most common criterion (71% of cases). The presence ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors was the most common eligibility criterion in the COMPASS-like patients (80.8%). At 1-year follow-up, 211 (11.4%) and 119 (6.5%) patients experienced NACE and MACE, respectively. The incidence of NACEs was higher in the PEGASUS-only group (15.4% vs. 8.4%; p = 0.008) and numerically higher in the COMPASS-only group (10.9% vs. 8.4%; p = 0.299). CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary real-world ACS cohort, approximately two-thirds of patients that complete 1-year DAPT met the eligibility criteria for ticagrelor 60 mg twice daily or rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily, showing a higher risk of NACEs.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Aspirina , Fibrinolíticos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 755-768, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565074

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a close connection between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Several cross-sectional studies report that NAFLD is related to preclinical atherosclerotic damage, and to coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular events. Similar results have been showed by prospective studies and also by meta-analyzes on observational studies. The pathophysiological mechanisms of NAFLD are related to insulin resistance, which causes a dysfunction in adipokine production, especially adiponectin, from adipose tissue. A proinflammatory state and an increase in oxidative stress, due to increased reacting oxygen species (ROS) formation with consequent oxidation of free fatty acids and increased de novo lipogenesis with accumulation of triglycerides, are observed. These mechanisms may have an impact on atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression, and they can lead to increased cardiovascular risk in subjects with NAFLD. This review extensively discusses and comments current and developing NAFLD therapies and their possible impact on cardiovascular outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fígado , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491323

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing invasive management. The value of adjunctive antithrombotic strategies, such as bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin (UFH) on the risk of AKI is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 7213 patients enrolled in the MATRIX-Antithrombin and Treatment Duration study, 128 subjects were excluded due to incomplete information on serum creatinine (sCr) or end-stage renal disease on dialysis treatment. The primary endpoint was AKI defined as an absolute (>0.5 mg/dL) or a relative (>25%) increase in sCr. AKI occurred in 601 patients (16.9%) treated with bivalirudin and 616 patients (17.4%) treated with UFH [odds ratio (OR): 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.09; P = 0.58]. A >25% sCr increase was observed in 597 patients (16.8%) with bivalirudin and 616 patients (17.4%) with UFH (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.85-1.08; P = 0.50), whereas a >0.5 mg/dL absolute sCr increase occurred in 176 patients (5.0%) with bivalirudin vs. 189 patients (5.4%) with UFH (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.75-1.14; P = 0.46). By implementing the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, the risk of AKI was not significantly different between bivalirudin and UFH groups (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.72-1.07; P = 0.21). Subgroup analyses of the primary endpoint suggested a benefit with bivalirudin in patients randomized to femoral access. CONCLUSION: Among ACS patients undergoing invasive management, the risk of AKI was not significantly lower with bivalirudin compared with UFH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01433627.

10.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The radial artery is recommended by international guidelines as the default vascular access in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) managed invasively. However, crossover from radial to femoral access is required in 4-10% of cases and has been associated with worse outcomes. No standardised algorithm exists to predict the risk of radial crossover. AIMS: We sought to derive and externally validate a risk score to predict radial crossover in patients with ACS managed invasively. METHODS: The derivation cohort consisted of 4,197 patients with ACS undergoing invasive management via the randomly allocated radial access from the MATRIX trial. Using logistic regression, we selected predictors of radial crossover and developed a numerical risk score. External validation was accomplished among 3,451 and 491 ACS patients managed invasively and randomised to radial access from the RIVAL and RIFLE-STEACS trials, respectively. RESULTS: The MATRIX score (age, height, smoking, renal failure, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, Killip class, radial expertise) showed a c-index for radial crossover of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.67-0.75) in the derivation cohort. Discrimination ability was modest in the RIVAL (c-index: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.59-0.67) and RIFLE-STEACS (c-index: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.57-0.75) cohorts. A cut-off of ≥41 points was selected to identify patients at high risk of radial crossover. CONCLUSIONS: The MATRIX score is a simple eight-item risk score which provides a standardised tool for the prediction of radial crossover among patients with ACS managed invasively. This tool can assist operators in anticipating and better addressing difficulties related to transradial procedures, potentially improving outcomes.

12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108959, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280467

RESUMO

A hyperglycemic state, also in non-diabetic subjects, may be associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Aim of this review is to describe the pathophysiologic association between ACS and hyperglycemic state, the protective mechanisms of a tight glycaemic control in ACS on CV outcomes, and the supporting clinical evidence. Several mechanisms may be responsible of a poor CV outcome in subjects with hyperglycemia during ACS. Endothelial NAPDH oxidase-2 (NOX2) activation in response to high glucose alters the balance between Raf/MAPK-dependent vasoconstriction and PI3K/Akt-dependent vasodilation in favour of constriction. Hyperglycaemia induces an overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron transport chain through different molecular mechanisms. Moreover, hyperglycaemia increases the size of the infarct by causing myocardial cell death through apoptosis and reducing the collateral blood flow. High FFA concentrations lead to toxicity mechanisms in acutely ischemic myocardium. On the other hand, a tight glycaemic control in ACS exerts a cardioprotective action by anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, anti-oxidative stress, endothelium protection, FFA reduction, anti-glucotoxic effect, IR and cardiac fuel metabolisms improvement, heart stem cells protection and reduced activation of adrenergic system. Unfortunately, the clinical studies supporting the above pathophysiological background are few and sometimes controversial, more likely due the risk of hypoglycemia linked to the insulin therapy generally used during ACS. Intriguingly, GLP-1 RA and SGLT2i, demonstrated highly effective in the cardiovascular prevention in high-risk subjects without the risk of hypoglycemia, might keep this cardioprotective effect even in acute conditions such as ASC.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Hiperglicemia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Insulina , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e021965, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098740

RESUMO

Background Female sex was not included among the high bleeding risk (HBR) criteria by the Academic Research Consortium (ARC) as it remains unclear whether it constitutes an HBR condition after percutaneous coronary intervention. We investigated whether female sex associates with HBR and assessed the performance of ARC HBR criteria separately in women and men. Methods and Results Among all consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention between 2009 and 2018, bleeding occurrences up to 1 year were prospectively collected and centrally adjudicated. All but one of the originally defined ARC HBR criteria were assessed, and the ARC HBR score generated accordingly. Among 16 821 patients, 25.6% were women. Compared with men, women were older and had lower creatinine clearance and hemoglobin values. After adjustment, female sex was independently associated with access-site (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.22-3.74; P=0.008) but not with overall or non-access-site 1-year Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3 or 5 bleeding. This association remained consistent when the femoral but not the radial approach was chosen. The ARC HBR score discrimination, using the original criteria, was lower among women than men (c-index 0.644 versus 0.688; P=0.048), whereas a revised ARC HBR score, in which age, creatinine clearance, and hemoglobin were modeled as continuous rather than dichotomized variables, performed similarly in both sexes. Conclusions Female sex is an independent predictor for access-site bleeding but not for overall bleeding events at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention. The ARC HBR framework shows an overall good performance in both sexes, yet is lower in women than men, attributable to dichotomization of age, creatinine clearance, and hemoglobin values, which are differently distributed between sexes. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02241291.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMJ ; 373: n1332, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risks and benefits of P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy compared with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and whether these associations are modified by patients' characteristics. DESIGN: Individual patient level meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in Ovid Medline, Embase, and three websites (www.tctmd.com, www.escardio.org, www.acc.org/cardiosourceplus) from inception to 16 July 2020. The primary authors provided individual participant data. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing effects of oral P2Y12 monotherapy and DAPT on centrally adjudicated endpoints after coronary revascularisation in patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite of all cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, tested for non-inferiority against a margin of 1.15 for the hazard ratio. The key safety endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 3 or type 5 bleeding. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included data from six trials, including 24 096 patients. The primary outcome occurred in 283 (2.95%) patients with P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy and 315 (3.27%) with DAPT in the per protocol population (hazard ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.09; P=0.005 for non-inferiority; P=0.38 for superiority; τ2=0.00) and in 303 (2.94%) with P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy and 338 (3.36%) with DAPT in the intention to treat population (0.90, 0.77 to 1.05; P=0.18 for superiority; τ2=0.00). The treatment effect was consistent across all subgroups, except for sex (P for interaction=0.02), suggesting that P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy lowers the risk of the primary ischaemic endpoint in women (hazard ratio 0.64, 0.46 to 0.89) but not in men (1.00, 0.83 to 1.19). The risk of bleeding was lower with P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy than with DAPT (97 (0.89%) v 197 (1.83%); hazard ratio 0.49, 0.39 to 0.63; P<0.001; τ2=0.03), which was consistent across subgroups, except for type of P2Y12 inhibitor (P for interaction=0.02), suggesting greater benefit when a newer P2Y12 inhibitor rather than clopidogrel was part of the DAPT regimen. CONCLUSIONS: P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy was associated with a similar risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, with evidence that this association may be modified by sex, and a lower bleeding risk compared with DAPT. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020176853.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/normas , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/prevenção & controle
15.
EuroIntervention ; 17(11): e898-e909, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of bleeding risk factors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is essential to inform subsequent management. Whether clinical presentation per se affects bleeding risk after PCI remains unclear. AIMS: We aimed to assess whether clinical presentation per se predisposes to bleeding in patients undergoing PCI and if the Academic Research Consortium (ARC) High Bleeding Risk (HBR) criteria perform consistently in acute (ACS) and chronic (CCS) coronary syndrome patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing PCI from the Bern PCI Registry were stratified by clinical presentation. Bleeding events at one year were compared in ACS versus CCS patients, and the originally defined ARC-HBR criteria were assessed. RESULTS: Among 16,821 patients, 9,503 (56.5%) presented with ACS. At one year, BARC 3 or 5 bleeding occurred in 4.97% and 3.60% of patients with ACS and CCS, respectively. After adjustment, ACS remained associated with higher BARC 3 or 5 bleeding risk (adjusted HR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43; p=0.034), owing to non-access site-related occurrences, which accrued mainly within the first 30 days after PCI. The ARC-HBR score had lower discrimination among ACS compared with CCS patients, and its performance slightly improved when ACS was computed as a minor criterion. CONCLUSIONS: ACS presentation per se predicts one-year major bleeding risk after PCI. The ARC-HBR score discrimination appeared lower in ACS than CCS, and its overall performance improved numerically when ACS was computed as an additional minor risk criterion.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070765

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) affects up to over 20% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), even more in the elderly. Although, in T2DM, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory status induced by insulin resistance are crucial in cardiac function impairment, SGLT2i cardioprotective mechanisms against HF are several. In particular, these beneficial effects seem attributable to the significant reduction of intracellular sodium levels, well-known to exert a cardioprotective role in the prevention of oxidative stress and consequent cardiomyocyte death. From a molecular perspective, patients' exposure to gliflozins' treatment mimics nutrient and oxygen deprivation, with consequent autophagy stimulation. This allows to maintain the cellular homeostasis through different degradative pathways. Thus, since their introduction in the clinical practice, the hypotheses on SGLT2i mechanisms of action have changed: from simple glycosuric drugs, with consequent glucose lowering, erythropoiesis enhancing and ketogenesis stimulating, to intracellular sodium-lowering molecules. This provides their consequent cardioprotective effect, which justifies its significant reduction in CV events, especially in populations at higher risk. Finally, the updated clinical evidence of SGLT2i benefits on HF was summarized. Thus, this review aimed to analyze the cardioprotective mechanisms of sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) in patients with HF, as well as their clinical impact on cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética , Idoso , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Eritropoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoese/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Sódio/metabolismo , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(6): 480-489, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037592

RESUMO

Patients with severely calcified coronary lesions undergoing percutaneous revascularization have a substantial risk of adverse outcomes, both during the procedure and in the long term. Over the last decade, a renewed interest has been observed about devices for plaque modification and lesion preparation, new technologies have been introduced in clinical practice and well-known devices have undergone technical and procedural improvements. The available tools for intravascular imaging allow a detailed evaluation of the calcific plaques within all the layers of the vessel wall. The complementary use of all these tools is ultimately aimed at optimizing the mechanics of balloon angioplasty and the delivery and expansion of drug-eluting stents. It has been fully demonstrated that rotational atherectomy improves procedural success when treating heavily calcified lesions. Intravascular lithotripsy, techniques and materials used during complex procedures such as chronic total occlusions, increasing operators' experience, as well as new drug-eluting stents with excellent mechanical characteristics, have further contributed to the feasibility and the safety of treating most fibrotic and heavily calcified vessels. We finally propose an algorithm for evaluation and treatment of severely calcific coronary lesions to demonstrate how such percutaneous revascularization procedures are planned and performed.


Assuntos
Aterectomia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Calcificação Vascular , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
18.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(3 Suppl 1): 25S-31S, 2021 03.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847320

RESUMO

Alcohol septal ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective procedure for the treatment of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) who remain symptomatic despite maximal medical therapy. Originally performed by Ulrich Sigwart in 1994, the procedure causes a iatrogenic infarction - through the injection of absolute alcohol - of the basal portion of the interventricular septum and aims at reducing LVOT obstruction in order to improve patient's hemodynamics and symptoms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness and safety of the procedure, making it a valid alternative to surgical myectomy. The success of alcohol septal ablation depends upon the selection of the patient and the experience of both the operators and the center where the procedure is performed. In this review, we summarize current evidence on alcohol septal ablation, describe its procedural aspects and propose a multidisciplinary approach that involves a team of clinical cardiologists, interventionists, and cardiac surgeons, the Cardiomyopathy Team, with high experience in the clinical management of these patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Etanol , Septos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 42(5): 1133-1140, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864103

RESUMO

Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) have an increased risk of aortic dilation and aortic dissection or rupture. The impact of physical training on the natural course of aortopathy in BAV patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of regular physical activity on aortic diameters in a consecutive cohort of paediatric patients with BAV. Consecutive paediatric BAV patients were evaluated and categorized into two groups: physically active and sedentary subjects. Only the subjects with a complete 2-year follow-up were included in the study. To evaluate the potential impact of physical activity on aortic size, aortic diameters were measured at the sinus of Valsalva and mid-ascending aorta using echocardiography. We defined aortic diameter progression the increase of aortic diameter ≥ 10% from baseline. Among 90 BAV patients (11.5 ± 3.4 years of age, 77% males), 53 (59%) were physically active subjects. Compared to sedentary, physically active subjects were not significantly more likely to have > 10% increase in sinus of Valsalva (13% vs. 8%, p-value = 0.45) or mid-ascending aorta diameter (9% vs. 13%, p-value = 0.55) at 2 years follow-up, both in subjects with sinus of Valsalva diameter progression (3.7 ± 1.0 mm vs. 3.5 ± 0.8 mm, p-value = 0.67) and in those with ascending aorta diameter progression (3.0 ± 0.8 mm vs. 3.2 ± 1.3 mm, p-value = 0.83). In our paediatric cohort of BAV patients, the prevalence and the degree of aortic diameter progression was not significantly different between physically active and sedentary subjects, suggesting that aortic dilation is unrelated to regular physical activity over a 2-year period.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/patologia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(6): 1583-1591, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616877

RESUMO

The risk of ischemic events carried by different clusters of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the setting of secondary prevention is not definite and the association between DM and bleeding complications is controversial. We explored these issues in the START-ANTIPLATELET, a multicenter Italian registry including acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Study outcome was 1-year incidence of the net composite endpoint including major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or any bleeding and its individual components across different DM strata (no DM, DM with or without insulin). Out of 951 patients, 20.0% had diabetes not on insulin and 2.5% had diabetes on insulin. The rate of the net composite endpoint was highest in patients receiving insulin (39.4 per 100 person-years vs 11.7 in diabetic patients not on insulin vs 14.0 in those without DM; p = 0.007). In DM, the higher risk of MACE was regardless of insulin use (p = 0.36). Conversely, the increase in bleeding complications was limited to patients on insulin (Hazard Ratio 2.31, 95% CI 0.93-5.71 vs no DM; p = 0.0105 across DM strata). On top of aspirin, the rates of the net composite endpoint were similar with ticagrelor/prasugrel or clopidogrel irrespective of DM status (p for interaction 0.63). In conclusion, in ACS patients, type 2 DM enhances the risk of MACE regardless of the DM cluster, whereas the propensity to bleeding related to DM seems confined to insulin-treated patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hemorragia/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
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