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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518899

RESUMO

Plasma elevations of the amino acids alloisoleucine and argininosuccinic acid (ASA) are pathognomonic for maple syrup urine disease and argininosuccinate lyase deficiency, respectively. Reliable detection of these biomarkers is typically achieved using methods with tedious sample preparations or long chromatographic separations, and many published amino acid assays report poor specificity and/or sensitivity for one or both of these compounds. This report describes a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that provides rapid quantification of alloisoleucine and ASA in human plasma. The basis of this method is a mixed-mode solid phase separation that achieves baseline resolution of alloisoleucine from isobaric interferents without the use of derivatization or ion pairing agents. The inject-to-inject time is 6 min including elution, column washing and re-equilibration. Validation studies demonstrate excellent limits of quantification (1 µmol/L), linearity (r = 0.999 from 1 to 250 µmol/L), accuracy (bias = -3.8% and -10.1%), and inter-assay imprecision (CV < 8.06%) for plasma analyses. Data from long-term clinical application confirms chromatographic consistency equivalent to more traditional reversed-phase or HILIC based columns. Additional matrix studies indicate low suppression (<10%) for a wide range of amino acids and compatibility with other matrixes such as blood spot analyses. Finally, analysis of our first 257 clinical specimens demonstrates high analytic specificity and sensitivity, allowing the detection of subtle but clinically relevant elevations of alloisoleucine and ASA that may be missed by other less sensitive methods. In conclusion, the novel LC-MS/MS method reported here overcomes a number of the challenges associated with alloisoleucine and ASA quantification. Combining this approach with published incomplete amino acid quantification methods allows, for the first time, a rapid and comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis of underivatized amino acids without the use of ion pairing agents.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(12): 2357-2364, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512387

RESUMO

Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, craniofacial features, tapering digits, short stature, and skeletal deformities. Using whole exome sequencing and high-resolution targeted comparative genomic hybridization array analysis, we identified a novel microduplication encompassing exons five through nine of RPS6KA3 in three full brothers. Each brother presented with intellectual disability and clinical and radiographic features consistent with CLS. qRT-PCR analyses performed on mRNA from the peripheral blood of the three siblings revealed a marked reduction of RPS6KA3 levels suggesting a loss-of-function mechanism. PCR analysis of the patients' cDNA detected a band greater than expected for an exon 4-10 amplicon, suggesting this was likely a direct duplication that lies between exons 4 through 10, which was later confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This microduplication is only the third intragenic duplication of RPS6KA3, and the second and smallest reported to date thought to cause CLS. Our study further supports the clinical utility of methods such as next-generation sequencing and high-resolution genomic arrays to detect small intragenic duplications. These methods, coupled with expression studies and cDNA structural analysis have the capacity to confirm the diagnosis of CLS in these rare cases.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 493-508, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447100

RESUMO

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2138-2143, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290619

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive COX4I1 deficiency has been previously reported in a single individual with a homozygous pathogenic variant in COX4I1, who presented with short stature, poor weight gain, dysmorphic features, and features of Fanconi anemia. COX4I1 encodes subunit 4, isoform 1 of cytochrome c oxidase. Cytochrome c oxidase is a respiratory chain enzyme that plays an important role in mitochondrial electron transport and reduces molecular oxygen to water leading to the formation of ATP. Defective production of cytochrome c oxidase leads to a variable phenotypic spectrum ranging from isolated myopathy to Leigh syndrome. Here, we describe two siblings, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with encephalopathy, developmental regression, hypotonia, pathognomonic brain imaging findings resembling Leigh-syndrome, and a novel homozygous variant on COX4I1, expanding the known clinical phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in COX4I1.

5.
Dev Cell ; 48(5): 685-696.e5, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713071

RESUMO

Lysosomes and mitochondria are both crucial cellular organelles for metabolic homeostasis and organism health. However, mechanisms linking their metabolic activities to promote organism longevity remain poorly understood. We discovered that the induction of specific lysosomal signaling mediated by a LIPL-4 lysosomal acid lipase and its lipid chaperone LBP-8 increases mitochondrial ß-oxidation to reduce lipid storage and promote longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. We further discovered that increased mitochondrial ß-oxidation reduces mitochondrial electron transport chain complex II activity, contributing to the induction of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria (mtROS) and the longevity effect conferred by LIPL-4-LBP-8 signaling. Moreover, by activating the JUN-1 transcription factor downstream of mtROS, the LIPL-4-LBP-8 signaling pathway induces antioxidant targets and oxidative stress tolerance. Together, these results reveal regulatory mechanisms by which lysosomal signaling triggers adjustments in mitochondrial activity and suggest the significance of these metabolic adjustments for improving metabolic fitness, redox homeostasis, and longevity.


Assuntos
Homeostase/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
6.
Mitochondrion ; 44: 58-64, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307858

RESUMO

Elevations of specific acylcarnitines in blood reflect carboxylase deficiencies, and have utility in newborn screening for life-threatening organic acidemias and other inherited metabolic diseases. In this report, we describe a newly-identified association of biochemical features of multiple carboxylase deficiency in individuals harboring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in MT-ATP6 and in whom organic acidemias and multiple carboxylase deficiencies were excluded. Using retrospective chart review, we identified eleven individuals with abnormally elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) or hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) with mutations in MT-ATP6, most commonly m.8993T>G in high heteroplasmy or homoplasmy. Most patients were ascertained on newborn screening; most had normal enzymatic or molecular genetic testing to exclude biotinidase and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiencies. MT-ATP6 is associated with some cases of Leigh disease; clinical outcomes in our cohort ranged from death from neurodegenerative disease in early childhood to clinically and developmentally normal after several years of follow-up. These cases expand the biochemical phenotype associated with MT-ATP6 mutations, especially m.8993T>G, to include acylcarnitine abnormalities mimicking carboxylase deficiency states. Clinicians should be aware of this association and its implications for newborn screening, and consider mtDNA sequencing in patients exhibiting similar acylcarnitine abnormalities that are biotin-unresponsive and in whom other enzymatic deficiencies have been excluded.


Assuntos
ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Deficiência Múltipla de Carboxilase/genética , Deficiência Múltipla de Carboxilase/patologia , Mutação , Adolescente , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1030-1037, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503518

RESUMO

FUK encodes fucokinase, the only enzyme capable of converting L-fucose to fucose-1-phosphate, which will ultimately be used for synthesizing GDP-fucose, the donor substrate for all fucosyltransferases. Although it is essential for fucose salvage, this pathway is thought to make only a minor contribution to the total amount of GDP-fucose. A second pathway, the major de novo pathway, involves conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. Here we describe two unrelated individuals who have pathogenic variants in FUK and who presented with severe developmental delays, encephalopathy, intractable seizures, and hypotonia. The first individual was compound heterozygous for c.667T>C (p.Ser223Pro) and c.2047C>T (p.Arg683Cys), and the second individual was homozygous for c.2980A>C (p.Lys994Gln). Skin fibroblasts from the first individual confirmed the variants as loss of function and showed significant decreases in total GDP-[3H] fucose and [3H] fucose-1-phosphate. There was also a decrease in the incorporation of [5,6-3H]-fucose into fucosylated glycoproteins. Lys994 has previously been shown to be an important site for ubiquitin conjugation. Here, we show that loss-of-function variants in FUK cause a congenital glycosylation disorder characterized by a defective fucose-salvage pathway.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Glicosilação , Guanosina Difosfato Fucose/genética , Guanosina Difosfato Manose/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Convulsões/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Pele/patologia , Ubiquitina/genética
8.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1277-1285, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349862

RESUMO

De novo variants in DDX3X account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases and are amongst the most common causes of ID especially in females. Forty-seven patients (44 females, 3 males) have been described. We identified 31 additional individuals carrying 29 unique DDX3X variants, including 30 postnatal individuals with complex clinical presentations of developmental delay or ID, and one fetus with abnormal ultrasound findings. Rare or novel phenotypes observed include respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA depletion, and late-onset neurologic decline. Our findings expand the spectrum of DNA variants and phenotypes associated with DDX3X disorders.

10.
Brain Res ; 1679: 155-170, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217155

RESUMO

In this study, we analyze the neuropathological and biochemical alterations involved in the pathogenesis of a neurodegenerative/movement disorder during different developmental stages in juvenile rats with a mutant Myosin5a (Myo5a). In mutant rats, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation characterized by the absence of Myo5a protein expression in the brain is associated with a syndrome of locomotor dysfunction, altered coat color, and neuroendocrine abnormalities. Myo5a encodes a myosin motor protein required for transport and proper distribution of subcellular organelles in somatodendritic processes in neurons. Here we report marked hyperphosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and tau, as well as region-specific buildup of the autotoxic dopamine metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde (DOPAL), related to decreased aldehyde dehydrogenases activity and neurodegeneration in mutant rats. Alpha-synuclein accumulation in mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons is associated with impaired enzymatic respiratory complex I and IV activity. The behavioral and biochemical lesions progress after 15 days postnatal, and by 30-40 days the animals must be euthanized because of neurological impairment. Based on the obtained results, we propose a pleiotropic pathogenesis that links the Myo5a gene mutation to deficient neuronal development and progressive neurodegeneration. This potential model of a neurodevelopmental disorder with neurodegeneration and motor deficits may provide further insight into molecular motors and their associated proteins responsible for altered neurogenesis and neuronal disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso , Mutação/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Miosina Tipo V/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/análogos & derivados , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/metabolismo , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Miosina Tipo V/metabolismo , Fosforilação/genética , Ratos , Ratos Mutantes , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/ultraestrutura , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/ultraestrutura
11.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1493, 2017 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138395

RESUMO

Kidney injury initiates metabolic reprogramming in tubule cells that contributes to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Exercise has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with CKD. Here we show that the induction of a myokine, irisin, improves kidney energy metabolism and prevents kidney damage. In response to kidney injury, mice with muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression (mPGC-1α) exhibit reduced kidney damage and fibrosis. Metabolomics analysis reveals increased ATP production and improved energy metabolism in injured kidneys from mPGC-1α mice. We identify irisin as a serum factor that mediates these metabolic effects during progressive kidney injury by inhibiting TGF-ß type 1 receptor. Irisin depletion from serum blunts the induction of oxygen consumption rate observed in tubule cells treated with mPGC-1α serum. In mice, recombinant irisin administration attenuates kidney damage and fibrosis and improves kidney functions. We suggest that myokine-mediated muscle-kidney crosstalk can suppress metabolic reprograming and fibrogenesis during kidney disease.


Assuntos
Fibronectinas/fisiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Fibronectinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrose , Rim/patologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
12.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(12): e173438, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973083

RESUMO

Importance: While congenital malformations and genetic diseases are a leading cause of early infant death, to our knowledge, the contribution of single-gene disorders in this group is undetermined. Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield and use of clinical exome sequencing in critically ill infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Clinical exome sequencing was performed for 278 unrelated infants within the first 100 days of life who were admitted to Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas, during a 5-year period between December 2011 and January 2017. Exome sequencing types included proband exome, trio exome, and critical trio exome, a rapid genomic assay for seriously ill infants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Indications for testing, diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing, turnaround time, molecular findings, patient age at diagnosis, and effect on medical management among a group of critically ill infants who were suspected to have genetic disorders. Results: The mean (SEM) age for infants participating in the study was 28.5 (1.7) days; of these, the mean (SEM) age was 29.0 (2.2) days for infants undergoing proband exome sequencing, 31.5 (3.9) days for trio exome, and 22.7 (3.9) days for critical trio exome. Clinical indications for exome sequencing included a range of medical concerns. Overall, a molecular diagnosis was achieved in 102 infants (36.7%) by clinical exome sequencing, with relatively low yield for cardiovascular abnormalities. The diagnosis affected medical management for 53 infants (52.0%) and had a substantial effect on informed redirection of care, initiation of new subspecialist care, medication/dietary modifications, and furthering life-saving procedures in select patients. Critical trio exome sequencing revealed a molecular diagnosis in 32 of 63 infants (50.8%) at a mean (SEM) of 33.1 (5.6) days of life with a mean (SEM) turnaround time of 13.0 (0.4) days. Clinical care was altered by the diagnosis in 23 of 32 patients (71.9%). The diagnostic yield, patient age at diagnosis, and medical effect in the group that underwent critical trio exome sequencing were significantly different compared with the group who underwent regular exome testing. For deceased infants (n = 81), genetic disorders were molecularly diagnosed in 39 (48.1%) by exome sequencing, with implications for recurrence risk counseling. Conclusions and Relevance: Exome sequencing is a powerful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of critically ill infants with suspected monogenic disorders in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units and its use has a notable effect on clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exoma , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
13.
Mol Genet Metab ; 121(4): 314-319, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28673551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To interrogate the metabolic profile of five subjects from three families with rare, nonsense and missense mutations in SLC13A5 and Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathies (EIEE) characterized by severe, neonatal onset seizures, psychomotor retardation and global developmental delay. METHODS: Mass spectrometry of plasma, CSF and urine was used to identify consistently dysregulated analytes in our subjects. RESULTS: Distinctive elevations of citrate and dysregulation of citric acid cycle intermediates, supporting the hypothesis that loss of SLC13A5 function alters tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) metabolism and may disrupt metabolic compartmentation in the brain. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that analysis of plasma citrate and other TCA analytes in SLC13A5 deficient patients define a diagnostic metabolic signature that can aid in diagnosing children with this disease.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Espasmos Infantis/metabolismo , Simportadores/deficiência , Simportadores/genética , Criança , Ácido Cítrico/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Convulsões/metabolismo , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Mol Genet Metab ; 122(1-2): 60-66, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28693988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cobalamin C disease is a multisystemic disease with variable manifestations and age of onset. Genotype-phenotype correlations are well-recognized in this disorder. Here, we present a large cohort of individuals with cobalamin C disease, several of whom are heterozygous for the c.482G>A pathogenic variant (p.Arg161Gln). We compared clinical characteristics of individuals with this pathogenic variant to those who do not have this variant. To our knowledge, this study represents the largest single cohort of individuals with the c.482G>A (p.Arg161Gln) pathogenic variant. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 27 individuals from 21 families with cobalamin C disease who are followed at our facility was conducted. RESULTS: 13 individuals (48%) are compound heterozygous with the c.482G>A (p.Arg161Gln) on one allele and a second pathogenic variant on the other allele. Individuals with the c.482G>A (p.Arg161Gln) pathogenic variant had later onset of symptoms and easier metabolic control. Moreover, they had milder biochemical abnormalities at presentation which likely contributed to the observation that 4 individuals (31%) in this group were missed by newborn screening. CONCLUSION: The c.482G>A (p.Arg161Gln) pathogenic variant is associated with milder disease. These individuals may not receive a timely diagnosis as they may not be identified on newborn screening or because of unrecognized, late onset symptoms. Despite the milder presentation, significant complications can occur, especially if treatment is delayed.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Variação Genética , Homocistinúria/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Homocistinúria/diagnóstico , Homocistinúria/terapia , Humanos , Hidroxocobalamina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxocobalamina/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Triagem Neonatal , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/terapia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(7)2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704930

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the neuropathology associated with status epilepticus (SE) and is implicated in the development of epilepsy. While excitotoxic mechanisms are well-known mediators affecting mitochondrial health following SE, whether hyperactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) also contributes to SE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be examined. Here we first evaluated the temporal evolution of poly-ADP-ribosylated protein levels in hippocampus following kainic acid-induced SE as a marker for PARP-1 activity, and found that PARP-1 was hyperactive at 24 h following SE. We evaluated oxidative metabolism and found decreased NAD⁺ levels by enzymatic cycling, and impaired NAD⁺-dependent mitochondrial respiration as measured by polarography at 24 h following SE. Stereological estimation showed significant cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions 72 h following SE. PARP-1 inhibition using N-(6-Oxo-5,6-dihydro-phenanthridin-2-yl)- N,N-dimethylacetamide (PJ-34) in vivo administration was associated with preserved NAD⁺ levels and NAD⁺-dependent mitochondrial respiration, and improved CA1 neuronal survival. These findings suggest that PARP-1 hyperactivation contributes to SE-associated mitochondrial dysfunction and CA1 hippocampal damage. The deleterious effects of PARP-1 hyperactivation on mitochondrial respiration are in part mediated through intracellular NAD⁺ depletion. Therefore, modulating PARP-1 activity may represent a potential therapeutic target to preserve intracellular energetics and mitochondrial function following SE.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Estado Epiléptico/metabolismo , Estado Epiléptico/patologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Eletroencefalografia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
PLoS Genet ; 13(6): e1006825, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640802

RESUMO

Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects. Using metabolomics we uncovered defects in multiple biochemical pathways including defects outside the canonical specialized lipid pathways performed by peroxisomal enzymes. These included unanticipated changes in metabolites in glycolysis, glycogen metabolism, and the pentose phosphate pathway, carbohydrate metabolic pathways that do not utilize known peroxisomal enzymes. In addition, mutant flies are starvation sensitive and are very sensitive to glucose deprivation exhibiting dramatic shortening of lifespan and hyperactivity on low-sugar food. We use bioinformatic transcriptional profiling to examine gene co-regulation between peroxisomal genes and other metabolic pathways and we observe that the expression of peroxisomal and carbohydrate pathway genes in flies and mouse are tightly correlated. Indeed key steps in carbohydrate metabolism were found to be strongly co-regulated with peroxisomal genes in flies and mice. Moreover mice lacking peroxisomes exhibit defective carbohydrate metabolism at the same key steps in carbohydrate breakdown. Our data indicate an unexpected link between these two metabolic processes and suggest metabolism of carbohydrates could be a new therapeutic target for patients with PBD.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Transtornos Peroxissômicos/genética , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Fator 2 da Biogênese de Peroxissomos , Peroxissomos/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
Hum Mutat ; 38(10): 1365-1371, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649782

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in genes encoding components of the BRG1-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. We identified heterozygous, novel variants in ACTL6A, a gene encoding a component of the BAF complex, in three subjects with varying degrees of intellectual disability. Two subjects have missense variants affecting highly conserved amino acid residues within the actin-like domain. Missense mutations in the homologous region in yeast actin were previously reported to be dominant lethal and were associated with impaired binding of the human ACTL6A to ß-actin and BRG1. A third subject has a splicing variant that creates an in-frame deletion. Our findings suggest that the variants identified in our subjects may have a deleterious effect on the function of the protein by disturbing the integrity of the BAF complex. Thus, ACTL6A gene mutation analysis should be considered in patients with intellectual disability, learning disabilities, or developmental language disorder.


Assuntos
Actinas/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Exoma , Face , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Micrognatismo/genética , Micrognatismo/fisiopatologia , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 26, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the rarity of most single-gene Mendelian disorders, concerted efforts of data exchange between clinical and scientific communities are critical to optimize molecular diagnosis and novel disease gene discovery. METHODS: We designed and implemented protocols for the study of cases for which a plausible molecular diagnosis was not achieved in a clinical genomics diagnostic laboratory (i.e. unsolved clinical exomes). Such cases were recruited to a research laboratory for further analyses, in order to potentially: (1) accelerate novel disease gene discovery; (2) increase the molecular diagnostic yield of whole exome sequencing (WES); and (3) gain insight into the genetic mechanisms of disease. Pilot project data included 74 families, consisting mostly of parent-offspring trios. Analyses performed on a research basis employed both WES from additional family members and complementary bioinformatics approaches and protocols. RESULTS: Analysis of all possible modes of Mendelian inheritance, focusing on both single nucleotide variants (SNV) and copy number variant (CNV) alleles, yielded a likely contributory variant in 36% (27/74) of cases. If one includes candidate genes with variants identified within a single family, a potential contributory variant was identified in a total of ~51% (38/74) of cases enrolled in this pilot study. The molecular diagnosis was achieved in 30/63 trios (47.6%). Besides this, the analysis workflow yielded evidence for pathogenic variants in disease-associated genes in 4/6 singleton cases (66.6%), 1/1 multiplex family involving three affected siblings, and 3/4 (75%) quartet families. Both the analytical pipeline and the collaborative efforts between the diagnostic and research laboratories provided insights that allowed recent disease gene discoveries (PURA, TANGO2, EMC1, GNB5, ATAD3A, and MIPEP) and increased the number of novel genes, defined in this study as genes identified in more than one family (DHX30 and EBF3). CONCLUSION: An efficient genomics pipeline in which clinical sequencing in a diagnostic laboratory is followed by the detailed reanalysis of unsolved cases in a research environment, supplemented with WES data from additional family members, and subject to adjuvant bioinformatics analyses including relaxed variant filtering parameters in informatics pipelines, can enhance the molecular diagnostic yield and provide mechanistic insights into Mendelian disorders. Implementing these approaches requires collaborative clinical molecular diagnostic and research efforts.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Genômica/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(5)2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27748010

RESUMO

Pediatric renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare cancer that can be associated with inherited diseases including tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) caused by germline mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. Somatic mutations in TSC1 and TSC2 have also been reported in adult RCC, which predict response to mTOR inhibitors. Here, we present the first case of RCC in a child with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA). Clinical whole exome sequencing of blood and tumor samples confirmed the diagnosis of MMA and revealed two somatic inactivating mutations in TSC2, suggesting the potential consideration of an mTOR inhibitor in the event of tumor recurrence.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa
20.
Genet Med ; 19(1): 45-52, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27195816

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Truncating mutations in the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, which is located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-13, have recently been reported to cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome, a Prader-Willi-like disease that manifests as developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and autism spectrum disorder. The causality of the reported variants in the context of the patients' phenotypes was questioned, as MAGEL2 whole-gene deletions seem to cause little or no clinical phenotype. METHODS: Here we report a total of 18 newly identified individuals with Schaaf-Yang syndrome from 14 families, including 1 family with 3 individuals found to be affected with a truncating variant of MAGEL2, 11 individuals who are clinically affected but were not tested molecularly, and a presymptomatic fetal sibling carrying the pathogenic MAGEL2 variant. RESULTS: All cases harbor truncating mutations of MAGEL2, and nucleotides c.1990-1996 arise as a mutational hotspot, with 10 individuals and 1 fetus harboring a c.1996dupC (p.Q666fs) mutation and 2 fetuses harboring a c.1996delC (p.Q666fs) mutation. The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome ranges from fetal akinesia to neurobehavioral disease and contractures of the small finger joints. CONCLUSION: This study provides strong evidence for the pathogenicity of truncating mutations of the paternal allele of MAGEL2, refines the associated clinical phenotypes, and highlights implications for genetic counseling for affected families.Genet Med 19 1, 45-52.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/fisiopatologia
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