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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793186

RESUMO

This introduction to the special issue of AJMG Part C: Overgrowth Syndromes updates the current understanding of overgrowth syndromes. We clarify the terminology associated with overgrowth, review some common pathways to overgrowth and present a preliminary classification based on currently known genomic and epigenetic mechanisms. We introduce the articles of this issue-new research and reviews of well-established and recently described overgrowth syndromes of the brain, body or both.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721432

RESUMO

CHD8 has been reported as an autism susceptibility/intellectual disability gene but emerging evidence suggests that it additionally causes an overgrowth phenotype. This study reports 27 unrelated patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CHD8 variants (25 null variants, two missense variants) and a male:female ratio of 21:6 (3.5:1, p < .01). All patients presented with intellectual disability, with 85% in the mild or moderate range, and 85% had a height and/or head circumference ≥2 standard deviations above the mean, meeting our clinical criteria for overgrowth. Behavioral problems were reported in the majority of patients (78%), with over half (56%) either formally diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder or described as having autistic traits. Additional clinical features included neonatal hypotonia (33%), and less frequently seizures, pes planus, scoliosis, fifth finger clinodactyly, umbilical hernia, and glabellar hemangioma (≤15% each). These results suggest that, in addition to its established link with autism and intellectual disability, CHD8 causes an overgrowth phenotype, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with increased height and/or head circumference in association with intellectual disability.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737996

RESUMO

The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is a major regulator of gene expression involved in pluripotency, lineage commitment, and corticogenesis. This important complex is composed of seven different proteins, with mutations in CHD3, CHD4, and GATAD2B being associated with neurodevelopmental disorders presenting with macrocephaly and intellectual disability similar to other overgrowth and intellectual disability (OGID) syndromes. Pathogenic variants in CHD3 and CHD4 primarily involve disruption of enzymatic function. GATAD2B variants include loss-of-function mutations that alter protein dosage and missense variants that involve either of two conserved domains (CR1 and CR2) known to interact with other NuRD proteins. In addition to macrocephaly and intellectual disability, CHD3 variants are associated with inguinal hernias and apraxia of speech; whereas CHD4 variants are associated with skeletal anomalies, deafness, and cardiac defects. GATAD2B-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (GAND) has phenotypic overlap with both of these disorders. Of note, structural models of NuRD indicate that CHD3 and CHD4 require direct contact with the GATAD2B-CR2 domain to interact with the rest of the complex. Therefore, the phenotypic overlaps of CHD3- and CHD4-related disorders with GAND are consistent with a loss in the ability of GATAD2B to recruit CHD3 or CHD4 to the complex. The shared features of these neurodevelopmental disorders may represent a new class of OGID syndrome: the NuRDopathies.

4.
Brain ; 142(11): 3351-3359, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504246

RESUMO

Using trio exome sequencing, we identified de novo heterozygous missense variants in PAK1 in four unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, macrocephaly and seizures. PAK1 encodes the p21-activated kinase, a major driver of neuronal development in humans and other organisms. In normal neurons, PAK1 dimers reside in a trans-inhibited conformation, where each autoinhibitory domain covers the kinase domain of the other monomer. Upon GTPase binding via CDC42 or RAC1, the PAK1 dimers dissociate and become activated. All identified variants are located within or close to the autoinhibitory switch domain that is necessary for trans-inhibition of resting PAK1 dimers. Protein modelling supports a model of reduced ability of regular autoinhibition, suggesting a gain of function mechanism for the identified missense variants. Alleviated dissociation into monomers, autophosphorylation and activation of PAK1 influences the actin dynamics of neurite outgrowth. Based on our clinical and genetic data, as well as the role of PAK1 in brain development, we suggest that gain of function pathogenic de novo missense variants in PAK1 lead to moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, macrocephaly caused by the presence of megalencephaly and ventriculomegaly, (febrile) seizures and autism-like behaviour.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.

7.
J Pediatr ; 211: 207-210, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079856

RESUMO

Meconium ileus is caused by cystic fibrosis; however, mutations in the GUCY2C gene also cause this disease. We report non-cystic fibrosis meconium ileus in an infant of non-Middle Eastern origin with compound heterozygous mutations in GUCY2C.

8.
Neurogenetics ; 20(3): 129-143, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041561

RESUMO

We previously reported a pathogenic de novo p.R342W mutation in the transcriptional corepressor CTBP1 in four independent patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities [1]. Here, we report the clinical phenotypes of seven additional individuals with the same recurrent de novo CTBP1 mutation. Within this cohort, we identified consistent CtBP1-related phenotypes of intellectual disability, ataxia, hypotonia, and tooth enamel defects present in most patients. The R342W mutation in CtBP1 is located within a region implicated in a high affinity-binding cleft for CtBP-interacting proteins. Unbiased proteomic analysis demonstrated reduced interaction of several chromatin-modifying factors with the CtBP1 W342 mutant. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis in human glioblastoma cell lines expressing -CtBP1 R342 (wt) or W342 mutation revealed changes in the expression profiles of genes controlling multiple cellular processes. Patient-derived dermal fibroblasts were found to be more sensitive to apoptosis during acute glucose deprivation compared to controls. Glucose deprivation strongly activated the BH3-only pro-apoptotic gene NOXA, suggesting a link between enhanced cell death and NOXA expression in patient fibroblasts. Our results suggest that context-dependent relief of transcriptional repression of the CtBP1 mutant W342 allele may contribute to deregulation of apoptosis in target tissues of patients leading to neurodevelopmental phenotypes.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2059-2069, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of different DEAF1 variants on the phenotype of patients with autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns and on DEAF1 activity in vitro. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 23 patients with de novo and biallelic DEAF1 variants, described the genotype-phenotype correlation, and investigated the differential effect of de novo and recessive variants on transcription assays using DEAF1 and Eif4g3 promoter luciferase constructs. RESULTS: The proportion of the most prevalent phenotypic features, including intellectual disability, speech delay, motor delay, autism, sleep disturbances, and a high pain threshold, were not significantly different in patients with biallelic and pathogenic de novo DEAF1 variants. However, microcephaly was exclusively observed in patients with recessive variants (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We propose that different variants in the DEAF1 gene result in a phenotypic spectrum centered around neurodevelopmental delay. While a pathogenic de novo dominant variant would also incapacitate the product of the wild-type allele and result in a dominant-negative effect, a combination of two recessive variants would result in a partial loss of function. Because the clinical picture can be nonspecific, detailed phenotype information, segregation, and functional analysis are fundamental to determine the pathogenicity of novel variants and to improve the care of these patients.

10.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2036-2042, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics of patients with variants in TCF20, we describe 27 patients, 26 of whom were identified via exome sequencing. We compare detailed clinical data with 17 previously reported patients. METHODS: Patients were ascertained through molecular testing laboratories performing exome sequencing (and other testing) with orthogonal confirmation; collaborating referring clinicians provided detailed clinical information. RESULTS: The cohort of 27 patients all had novel variants, and ranged in age from 2 to 68 years. All had developmental delay/intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorders/autistic features were reported in 69%, attention disorders or hyperactivity in 67%, craniofacial features (no recognizable facial gestalt) in 67%, structural brain anomalies in 24%, and seizures in 12%. Additional features affecting various organ systems were described in 93%. In a majority of patients, we did not observe previously reported findings of postnatal overgrowth or craniosynostosis, in comparison with earlier reports. CONCLUSION: We provide valuable data regarding the prognosis and clinical manifestations of patients with variants in TCF20.

11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(1): 154-160, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656193

RESUMO

COX20/FAM36A encodes a mitochondrial complex IV assembly factor important for COX2 activation. Only one homozygous COX20 missense mutation has been previously described in two separate consanguineous families. We report four subjects with features that include childhood hypotonia, areflexia, ataxia, dysarthria, dystonia, and sensory neuropathy. Exome sequencing in all four subjects identified the same novel COX20 variants. One variant affected the splice donor site of intron-one (c.41A>G), while the other variant (c.157+3G>C) affected the splice donor site of intron-two. cDNA and protein analysis indicated that no full-length cDNA or protein was generated. These subjects expand the phenotype associated with COX20 deficiency.

12.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(9): 1128-1133, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250868

RESUMO

Mutations in FARS2, the gene encoding the mitochondrial phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase (mtPheRS), have been linked to a range of phenotypes including epileptic encephalopathy, developmental delay, and motor dysfunction. We report a 9-year-old boy with novel compound heterozygous variants of FARS2, presenting with a pure spastic paraplegia syndrome associated with bilateral signal abnormalities in the dentate nuclei. Exome sequencing identified a paternal nonsense variant (Q216X) lacking the catalytic core and anticodon-binding regions, and a maternal missense variant (P136H) possessing partial enzymatic activity. This case confirms and expands the phenotype related to FARS2 mutations with regards to clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings.

14.
Neurology ; 91(6): e562-e570, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether congenital arhinia/Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome (BAMS) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 2 (FSHD2), 2 seemingly unrelated disorders both caused by heterozygous pathogenic missense variants in the SMCHD1 gene, might represent different ends of a broad single phenotypic spectrum associated with SMCHD1 dysfunction. METHODS: We examined and/or interviewed 14 patients with FSHD2 and 4 unaffected family members with N-terminal SMCHD1 pathogenic missense variants to identify BAMS subphenotypes. RESULTS: None of the patients with FSHD2 or family members demonstrated any congenital defects or dysmorphic features commonly found in patients with BAMS. One patient became anosmic after nasal surgery and one patient was hyposmic; one man was infertile (unknown cause) but reported normal pubertal development. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that arhinia/BAMS and FSHD2 do not represent one phenotypic spectrum and that SMCHD1 pathogenic variants by themselves are insufficient to cause either of the 2 disorders. More likely, both arhinia/BAMS and FSHD2 are caused by complex oligogenic or multifactorial mechanisms that only partially overlap at the level of SMCHD1.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(8): 1768-1772, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055029

RESUMO

Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome (HRD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder attributed to the mutations in the tubulin-specific chaperone E (TBCE) gene, which is vital for microtubule function during mitosis, organelle positioning, and neuronal cytokinesis. HRD is a congenital syndromic hypoparathyroidism associated with growth deficiency, microcephaly, intellectual disability, ocular anomalies, and facial dysmorphism. To our knowledge, there is only one published case of mild HRD-like syndrome with no identifiable genetic etiology. We report a case of severe TBCE-negative phenotypic HRD in a 4-year-old female from India presenting with hypocalcemic seizures due to congenital hypoparathyroidism, extreme microcephaly, growth deficiency, ocular anomalies, and facial dysmorphism. SNP microarray and whole exome sequencing (WES) did not detect any abnormalities in TBCE or other genes of interest. WES revealed two variants of unknown clinical significance in CASC5 gene, which codes for a protein in the kinetochore and, interestingly similar to TBCE, is essential for proper microtubule function during mitosis and cell proliferation and has been implicated in primary microcephaly disorders. However, further targeted sequencing in the parents revealed both variants inherited from the unaffected mother. Significant copy number variant noise in the proband and her parents limited further analysis. At this time the role of variants in the CASC5 gene is unclear and cannot explain our patient's phenotype. In conclusion, we report a severe case of phenotypic HRD syndrome, in which extensive genetic evaluation failed to reveal an etiology. Our case demonstrates that the pathogenesis of HRD may be genetically heterogenous, meriting further genetic investigations.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 245-260, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057031

RESUMO

Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like (IRF2BPL) encodes a member of the IRF2BP family of transcriptional regulators. Currently the biological function of this gene is obscure, and the gene has not been associated with a Mendelian disease. Here we describe seven individuals who carry damaging heterozygous variants in IRF2BPL and are affected with neurological symptoms. Five individuals who carry IRF2BPL nonsense variants resulting in a premature stop codon display severe neurodevelopmental regression, hypotonia, progressive ataxia, seizures, and a lack of coordination. Two additional individuals, both with missense variants, display global developmental delay and seizures and a relatively milder phenotype than those with nonsense alleles. The IRF2BPL bioinformatics signature based on population genomics is consistent with a gene that is intolerant to variation. We show that the fruit-fly IRF2BPL ortholog, called pits (protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A), is broadly detected, including in the nervous system. Complete loss of pits is lethal early in development, whereas partial knockdown with RNA interference in neurons leads to neurodegeneration, revealing a requirement for this gene in proper neuronal function and maintenance. The identified IRF2BPL nonsense variants behave as severe loss-of-function alleles in this model organism, and ectopic expression of the missense variants leads to a range of phenotypes. Taken together, our results show that IRF2BPL and pits are required in the nervous system in humans and flies, and their loss leads to a range of neurological phenotypes in both species.

17.
Brain ; 140(10): 2610-2622, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969385

RESUMO

Mutations of genes within the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-MTOR pathway are well known causes of brain overgrowth (megalencephaly) as well as segmental cortical dysplasia (such as hemimegalencephaly, focal cortical dysplasia and polymicrogyria). Mutations of the AKT3 gene have been reported in a few individuals with brain malformations, to date. Therefore, our understanding regarding the clinical and molecular spectrum associated with mutations of this critical gene is limited, with no clear genotype-phenotype correlations. We sought to further delineate this spectrum, study levels of mosaicism and identify genotype-phenotype correlations of AKT3-related disorders. We performed targeted sequencing of AKT3 on individuals with these phenotypes by molecular inversion probes and/or Sanger sequencing to determine the type and level of mosaicism of mutations. We analysed all clinical and brain imaging data of mutation-positive individuals including neuropathological analysis in one instance. We performed ex vivo kinase assays on AKT3 engineered with the patient mutations and examined the phospholipid binding profile of pleckstrin homology domain localizing mutations. We identified 14 new individuals with AKT3 mutations with several phenotypes dependent on the type of mutation and level of mosaicism. Our comprehensive clinical characterization, and review of all previously published patients, broadly segregates individuals with AKT3 mutations into two groups: patients with highly asymmetric cortical dysplasia caused by the common p.E17K mutation, and patients with constitutional AKT3 mutations exhibiting more variable phenotypes including bilateral cortical malformations, polymicrogyria, periventricular nodular heterotopia and diffuse megalencephaly without cortical dysplasia. All mutations increased kinase activity, and pleckstrin homology domain mutants exhibited enhanced phospholipid binding. Overall, our study shows that activating mutations of the critical AKT3 gene are associated with a wide spectrum of brain involvement ranging from focal or segmental brain malformations (such as hemimegalencephaly and polymicrogyria) predominantly due to mosaic AKT3 mutations, to diffuse bilateral cortical malformations, megalencephaly and heterotopia due to constitutional AKT3 mutations. We also provide the first detailed neuropathological examination of a child with extreme megalencephaly due to a constitutional AKT3 mutation. This child has one of the largest documented paediatric brain sizes, to our knowledge. Finally, our data show that constitutional AKT3 mutations are associated with megalencephaly, with or without autism, similar to PTEN-related disorders. Recognition of this broad clinical and molecular spectrum of AKT3 mutations is important for providing early diagnosis and appropriate management of affected individuals, and will facilitate targeted design of future human clinical trials using PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Megalencefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Megalencefalia/patologia , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida/métodos , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Transfecção
18.
J Hum Genet ; 62(6): 589-597, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28228639

RESUMO

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play important roles in brain development and neurological disease. We report two individuals with similar dominant de novo GRIN1 mutations (c.1858 G>A and c.1858 G>C; both p.G620R). Both individuals presented at birth with developmental delay and hypotonia associated with behavioral abnormalities and stereotypical movements. Recombinant NMDARs containing the mutant GluN1-G620R together with either GluN2A or GluN2B were evaluated for changes in their trafficking to the plasma membrane and their electrophysiological properties. GluN1-G620R/GluN2A complexes showed a mild reduction in trafficking, a ~2-fold decrease in glutamate and glycine potency, a strong decrease in sensitivity to Mg2+ block, and a significant reduction of current responses to a maximal effective concentration of agonists. GluN1-G620R/GluN2B complexes showed significantly reduced delivery of protein to the cell surface associated with similarly altered electrophysiology. These results indicate these individuals may have suffered neurodevelopmental deficits as a result of the decreased presence of GluN1-G620R/GluN2B complexes on the neuronal surface during embryonic brain development and reduced current responses of GluN1-G620R-containing NMDARs after birth. These cases emphasize the importance of comprehensive functional characterization of de novo mutations and illustrates how a combination of several distinct features of NMDAR expression, trafficking and function can be present and influence phenotype.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Adulto , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Glicina/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Transporte Proteico/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 962-973, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666370

RESUMO

Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal elements coordinating and supporting a variety of neuronal processes, including cell division, migration, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. Mutations in genes encoding tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins are known to cause neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence suggests that altered microtubule dynamics may also underlie or contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegeneration. We report that biallelic mutations in TBCD, encoding one of the five co-chaperones required for assembly and disassembly of the αß-tubulin heterodimer, the structural unit of microtubules, cause a disease with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative features characterized by early-onset cortical atrophy, secondary hypomyelination, microcephaly, thin corpus callosum, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, optic atrophy, and spastic quadriplegia. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted long-range and/or local structural perturbations associated with the disease-causing mutations. Biochemical analyses documented variably reduced levels of TBCD, indicating relative instability of mutant proteins, and defective ß-tubulin binding in a subset of the tested mutants. Reduced or defective TBCD function resulted in decreased soluble α/ß-tubulin levels and accelerated microtubule polymerization in fibroblasts from affected subjects, demonstrating an overall shift toward a more rapidly growing and stable microtubule population. These cells displayed an aberrant mitotic spindle with disorganized, tangle-shaped microtubules and reduced aster formation, which however did not alter appreciably the rate of cell proliferation. Our findings establish that defective TBCD function underlies a recognizable encephalopathy and drives accelerated microtubule polymerization and enhanced microtubule stability, underscoring an additional cause of altered microtubule dynamics with impact on neuronal function and survival in the developing brain.


Assuntos
Alelos , Encefalopatias/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Dobramento de Proteína , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Fuso Acromático/patologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/química
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(10): 2632-7, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27151206

RESUMO

Patients with KCNK9 imprinting syndrome demonstrate congenital hypotonia, variable cleft palate, normal MRIs and EEGs, delayed development, and feeding problems. Associated facial dysmorphic features include dolichocephaly with bitemporal narrowing, short philtrum, tented upper lip, palatal abnormalities, and small mandible. This disorder maps to chromosomal region 8q24, and it is caused by a specific missense mutation 770G>A in exon 2, replacing glycine at position 236 by arginine (G236R) in the maternal copy of KCNK9 within this locus. KCNK9 (also called TASK3) encodes a member of the two pore- domain potassium channel (K2P) subfamily. This gene is normally imprinted with paternal silencing, thus a mutation in the maternal copy of the gene will result in disease, whereas a mutation in the paternal copy will have no effect. Exome sequencing in four new patients with developmental delay and central hypotonia revealed de novo G236R mutations. Older members of a previously reported Arab-Israeli family have intellectual disability of variable severity, persistent feeding difficulties in infancy with dysphagia of liquids and dysphonia with a muffled voice in early adulthood, generalized hypotonia, weakness of proximal muscles, elongated face with narrow bitemporal diameter, and reduced facial movements. We describe the clinical features in four recently recognized younger patients and compare them with those found in members of the originally reported Arab-Israeli family and suggest this may be a treatable disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Impressão Genômica , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Facies , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo
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