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1.
iScience ; 24(11): 103196, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746691

RESUMO

The rs58542926C >T (E167K) variant of the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 gene (TM6SF2) is associated with increased risks for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Nevertheless, the role of the TM6SF2 rs58542926 variant in glucose metabolism is poorly understood. We performed a sex-stratified analysis of the association between the rs58542926C >T variant and T2D in multiple cohorts. The E167K variant was significantly associated with T2D, especially in males. Using an E167K knockin (KI) mouse model, we found that male but not the female KI mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. As an ER membrane protein, TM6SF2 was found to interact with inositol-requiring enzyme 1 α (IRE1α), a primary ER stress sensor. The male Tm6sf2 KI mice exhibited impaired IRE1α signaling in the liver. In conclusion, the E167K variant of TM6SF2 is associated with glucose intolerance primarily in males, both in humans and mice.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1578-1589, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265237

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by dilation of the aortic root or ascending/descending aorta. TAA is a heritable disease that can be potentially life threatening. While 10%-20% of TAA cases are caused by rare, pathogenic variants in single genes, the origin of the majority of TAA cases remains unknown. A previous study implicated common variants in FBN1 with TAA disease risk. Here, we report a genome-wide scan of 1,351 TAA-affected individuals and 18,295 control individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Project and Michigan Genomics Initiative at the University of Michigan. We identified a genome-wide significant association with TAA for variants within the third intron of TCF7L2 following replication with meta-analysis of four additional independent cohorts. Common variants in this locus are the strongest known genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although evidence indicates the presence of different causal variants for TAA and type 2 diabetes at this locus, we observed an opposite direction of effect. The genetic association for TAA colocalizes with an aortic eQTL of TCF7L2, suggesting a functional relationship. These analyses predict an association of higher expression of TCF7L2 with TAA disease risk. In vitro, we show that upregulation of TCF7L2 is associated with BCL2 repression promoting vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, a key driver of TAA disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Michigan , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4350, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272381

RESUMO

Genes underneath signals from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kidney function are promising targets for functional studies, but prioritizing variants and genes is challenging. By GWAS meta-analysis for creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics Consortium and UK Biobank (n = 1,201,909), we expand the number of eGFRcrea loci (424 loci, 201 novel; 9.8% eGFRcrea variance explained by 634 independent signal variants). Our increased sample size in fine-mapping (n = 1,004,040, European) more than doubles the number of signals with resolved fine-mapping (99% credible sets down to 1 variant for 44 signals, ≤5 variants for 138 signals). Cystatin-based eGFR and/or blood urea nitrogen association support 348 loci (n = 460,826 and 852,678, respectively). Our customizable tool for Gene PrioritiSation reveals 23 compelling genes including mechanistic insights and enables navigation through genes and variants likely relevant for kidney function in human to help select targets for experimental follow-up.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatinas/farmacologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Europa (Continente) , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA-Seq , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Célula Única
4.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127970

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection is initiated by binding of the viral spike protein to its receptor, ACE2, on the surface of host cells. ACE2 expression is heterogeneous both in vivo and in immortalized cell lines, but the molecular pathways that govern ACE2 expression remain unclear. We now report high-throughput CRISPR screens for functional modifiers of ACE2 surface abundance. We identified 35 genes whose disruption was associated with a change in the surface abundance of ACE2 in HuH7 cells. Enriched among these ACE2 regulators were established transcription factors, epigenetic regulators, and functional networks. We further characterized individual cell lines with disruption of SMAD4, EP300, PIAS1 , or BAMBI and found these genes to regulate ACE2 at the mRNA level and to influence cellular susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, our findings clarify the host factors involved in SARS-CoV-2 entry and suggest potential targets for therapeutic development.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(21): 2027-2039, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961016

RESUMO

Circulating cardiac troponin proteins are associated with structural heart disease and predict incident cardiovascular disease in the general population. However, the genetic contribution to cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations and its causal effect on cardiovascular phenotypes are unclear. We combine data from two large population-based studies, the Trøndelag Health Study and the Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study, and perform a genome-wide association study of high-sensitivity cTnI concentrations with 48 115 individuals. We further use two-sample Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal effects of circulating cTnI on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). We identified 12 genetic loci (8 novel) associated with cTnI concentrations. Associated protein-altering variants highlighted putative functional genes: CAND2, HABP2, ANO5, APOH, FHOD3, TNFAIP2, KLKB1 and LMAN1. Phenome-wide association tests in 1688 phecodes and 83 continuous traits in UK Biobank showed associations between a genetic risk score for cTnI and cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic and anthropometric measures. Using two-sample Mendelian randomization, we confirmed the non-causal role of cTnI in AMI (5948 cases, 355 246 controls). We found indications for a causal role of cTnI in HF (47 309 cases and 930 014 controls), but this was not supported by secondary analyses using left ventricular mass as outcome (18 257 individuals). Our findings clarify the biology underlying the heritable contribution to circulating cTnI and support cTnI as a non-causal biomarker for AMI in the general population. Using genetically informed methods for causal inference helps inform the role and value of measuring cTnI in the general population.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2182, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846329

RESUMO

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10-72), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-4), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10-5). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common, familial genitourinary disorder, and a major cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) and kidney failure. The genetic basis of VUR is not well understood. METHODS: A diagnostic analysis sought rare, pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) disorders among 1737 patients with VUR. A GWAS was performed in 1395 patients and 5366 controls, of European ancestry. RESULTS: Altogether, 3% of VUR patients harbored an undiagnosed rare CNV disorder, such as the 1q21.1, 16p11.2, 22q11.21, and triple X syndromes ((OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.54; P=6.35×10-8) The GWAS identified three study-wide significant and five suggestive loci with large effects (ORs, 1.41-6.9), containing canonical developmental genes expressed in the developing urinary tract (WDPCP, OTX1, BMP5, VANGL1, and WNT5A). In particular, 3.3% of VUR patients were homozygous for an intronic variant in WDPCP (rs13013890; OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.39 to 5.56; P=1.86×10-9). This locus was associated with multiple genitourinary phenotypes in the UK Biobank and eMERGE studies. Analysis of Wnt5a mutant mice confirmed the role of Wnt5a signaling in bladder and ureteric morphogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of VUR. Altogether, 6% of patients with VUR harbored a rare CNV or a common variant genotype conferring an OR >3. Identification of these genetic risk factors has multiple implications for clinical care and for analysis of outcomes in VUR.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009285, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513160

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is a causal and modifiable risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A critical pathway regulating cholesterol homeostasis involves the receptor-mediated endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins into hepatocytes, mediated by the LDL receptor. We applied genome-scale CRISPR screening to query the genetic determinants of cellular LDL uptake in HuH7 cells cultured under either lipoprotein-rich or lipoprotein-starved conditions. Candidate LDL uptake regulators were validated through the synthesis and secondary screening of a customized library of gRNA at greater depth of coverage. This secondary screen yielded significantly improved performance relative to the primary genome-wide screen, with better discrimination of internal positive controls, no identification of negative controls, and improved concordance between screen hits at both the gene and gRNA level. We then applied our customized gRNA library to orthogonal screens that tested for the specificity of each candidate regulator for LDL versus transferrin endocytosis, the presence or absence of genetic epistasis with LDLR deletion, the impact of each perturbation on LDLR expression and trafficking, and the generalizability of LDL uptake modifiers across multiple cell types. These findings identified several previously unrecognized genes with putative roles in LDL uptake and suggest mechanisms for their functional interaction with LDLR.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Colesterol/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Endocitose/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , RNA Guia/genética
9.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(5): 1436-1448.e6, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate aortic disease progression and reintervention after an initial thoracic aortic dissection in pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Of 175 participants diagnosed with thoracic aortic dissection, 31 had a pathogenic variant (pathogenic group) across 6 genes (COL3A1, FBN1, LOX, PRKG1, SMAD3, TGFBR2) identified by whole exome sequencing. Those with benign or normal variants (benign/normal group, n = 144) comprised the control group. Clinical data were collected through medical record review (1985-2018) and supplemented with the National Death Index database (December 2018). RESULTS: The entire cohort (n = 175) consisted of 108 type A aortic dissections and 67 type B aortic dissections, similarly distributed between groups. The pathogenic group was significantly younger (43 vs 56 years, P < .0001) and had significantly more aortic root replacements and similar extents of arch replacement at initial type A aortic dissection repair. The median follow-up time was 7.5 (4.6-12) years. After initial treatment, the pathogenic group required significantly more aortic reinterventions (median 1 vs 0, P < .0001) and mean cumulative aortic reinterventions for each patient (10 years: 1 vs 0.5, P = .029). Both incidence rate (12%/year vs 1.2%/year, P = .0001) and cumulative incidence of reinterventions (9 years: 70% vs 6%, P < .0001) for the preserved native aortic root were significantly higher in the pathogenic group, but were similar for the preserved native aortic arch and distal aorta between groups. Ten-year survival was similar in the pathogenic and benign/normal groups (92% vs 85%). CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive aortic root replacement and similar arch management should be considered in pathogenic variant carriers at initial type A aortic dissection repair compared with benign/normal variant carriers.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6417, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339817

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical drugs targeting dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may increase the risk of fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. To identify potential novel CVD drug targets without these adverse effects, we perform genome-wide analyses of participants in the HUNT Study in Norway (n = 69,479) to search for protein-altering variants with beneficial impact on quantitative blood traits related to cardiovascular disease, but without detrimental impact on liver function. We identify 76 (11 previously unreported) presumed causal protein-altering variants associated with one or more CVD- or liver-related blood traits. Nine of the variants are predicted to result in loss-of-function of the protein. This includes ZNF529:p.K405X, which is associated with decreased low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = 1.3 × 10-8) without being associated with liver enzymes or non-fasting blood glucose. Silencing of ZNF529 in human hepatoma cells results in upregulation of LDL receptor and increased LDL uptake in the cells. This suggests that inhibition of ZNF529 or its gene product should be prioritized as a novel candidate drug target for treating dyslipidemia and associated CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Genoma Humano , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Inativação Gênica , Marcação de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fenômica , Receptores de LDL/genética , Reino Unido
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4093, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097703

RESUMO

A major challenge in genetic association studies is that most associated variants fall in the non-coding part of the human genome. We searched for variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD) after enriching the discovery cohort for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations by sequencing a subset of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, followed by imputation in the remaining sample (N = 19,705), and identified ten known BMD loci. However, one previously unreported variant, LoF mutation in MEPE, p.(Lys70IlefsTer26, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.8%), was associated with decreased ultradistal forearm BMD (P-value = 2.1 × 10-18), and increased osteoporosis (P-value = 4.2 × 10-5) and fracture risk (P-value = 1.6 × 10-5). The MEPE LoF association with BMD and fractures was further evaluated in 279,435 UK (MAF = 0.05%, heel bone estimated BMD P-value = 1.2 × 10-16, any fracture P-value = 0.05) and 375,984 Icelandic samples (MAF = 0.03%, arm BMD P-value = 0.12, forearm fracture P-value = 0.005). Screening for the MEPE LoF mutations before adulthood could potentially prevent osteoporosis and fractures due to the lifelong effect on BMD observed in the study. A key implication for precision medicine is that high-impact functional variants missing from the publicly available cosmopolitan panels could be clinically more relevant than polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3981, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769997

RESUMO

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is critical for normal development and metabolism. To better understand the genetic contribution to TSH levels, we conduct a GWAS meta-analysis at 22.4 million genetic markers in up to 119,715 individuals and identify 74 genome-wide significant loci for TSH, of which 28 are previously unreported. Functional experiments show that the thyroglobulin protein-altering variants P118L and G67S impact thyroglobulin secretion. Phenome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank demonstrates the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants and a polygenic score for higher TSH levels is associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer in the UK Biobank and three other independent studies. Two-sample Mendelian randomization using TSH index variants as instrumental variables suggests a protective effect of higher TSH levels (indicating lower thyroid function) on risk of thyroid cancer and goiter. Our findings highlight the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants on thyroid function and growth of malignant and benign thyroid tumors.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Tireotropina/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Bócio/genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tireoglobulina/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 620, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli lineage ST131 predominates across various spectra of extra-intestinal infections, including urinary tract infection (UTI). The distinctive resistance profile, diverse armamentarium of virulence factors and rapid global dissemination of ST131 E. coli makes it an intriguing pathogen. However, not much is known about the prevalence and genetic attributes of ST131 lineage in Pakistan. METHODS: We estimated prevalence and genetic attributes of E. coli ST131 isolates causing UTI among 155 randomly selected samples. Samples were analyzed for phylogenetic grouping, O-typing and fumC/fimH typing. Isolates were further tested for the ESBL and virulence factors using PCR. RESULTS: Overall, 59% of the UPEC isolates belonged to the phylogenetic group B2, followed by D = 28%, B1 = 8% and A = 5%. Among 18 different Sequence-types, ST131 was the dominant lineage (n = 71; 46%) out of which 72% of the isolates were assigned to the phylogenetic group B2, while 61% adhered to the serogroup O25b. FumC/fimH typing confirmed 49% of the ST131 as H30 sub-types. In this study, significant numbers of the identified ST131 isolates were MDR and 42% showed ESBL phenotypes, out of which 37% carried bla-CTX-M-15. Moreover, different virulence factors were detected in following percentages: fimH,155(100%), iutA 86 (55%), feoB 76 (49%), papC 75 (48%), papGII 70 (45%), kpsMTII 40 (26%), papEF 37 (24%), fyuA 37 (24%), usp 22 (14%), papA 20 (13%), sfa/foc20 (13%), hlyA 18 (12%), afa 15 (10%), cdtB 11 (7%), papGI 6 (4%), papGIII 6 (4%), kpsMTIII 4 (3%) and bmaE2 (1%). CONCLUSION: Conclusively, this study provides important insight into the genetic and virulence attributes of pandemic MDR ST131 strains involved in UTIs. It also highlights higher prevalence of ST131-O25b-H30 UPEC isolates in patients, which was previously unreported from this part of globe.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/patogenicidade , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/classificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/classificação , beta-Lactamases/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1847, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015462

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing health burden currently affecting 10-15% of adults worldwide. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function is commonly used to diagnose CKD. We analyze eGFR data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and Michigan Genomics Initiative and perform a GWAS meta-analysis with public summary statistics, more than doubling the sample size of previous meta-analyses. We identify 147 loci (53 novel) associated with eGFR, including genes involved in transcriptional regulation, kidney development, cellular signaling, metabolism, and solute transport. Additionally, sex-stratified analysis identifies one locus with more significant effects in women than men. Using genetic risk scores constructed from these eGFR meta-analysis results, we show that associated variants are generally predictive of CKD with only modest improvements in detection compared with other known clinical risk factors. Collectively, these results yield additional insight into the genetic factors underlying kidney function and progression to CKD.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 276: 212-217, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) have a significant genetic contribution and commonly co-exist. To compare and contrast genetic determinants of the two diseases, we investigated associations of the LPA and 9p21 loci, i.e. the two strongest CAD risk loci, with risk of AVS. METHODS: We genotyped the CAD-associated variants at the LPA (rs10455872) and 9p21 loci (rs1333049) in the GeneCAST (Genetics of Calcific Aortic STenosis) Consortium and conducted a meta-analysis for their association with AVS. Cases and controls were stratified by CAD status. External validation of findings was undertaken in five cohorts including 7880 cases and 851,152 controls. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis including 4651 cases and 8231 controls the CAD-associated allele at the LPA locus was associated with increased risk of AVS (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.24-1.52, p = 6.9 × 10-10) with a larger effect size in those without CAD (OR 1.53; 95%CI 1.31-1.79) compared to those with CAD (OR 1.27; 95%CI 1.12-1.45). The CAD-associated allele at 9p21 was associated with a trend towards lower risk of AVS (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.88-0.99, p = 0.014). External validation confirmed the association of the LPA risk allele with risk of AVS (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.27-1.47), again with a higher effect size in those without CAD. The small protective effect of the 9p21 CAD risk allele could not be replicated (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.95-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the association of the LPA locus with risk of AVS, with a higher effect in those without concomitant CAD. Overall, 9p21 was not associated with AVS.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1234-1239, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061737

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation underlying atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, we performed a genome-wide association study of >1,000,000 people, including 60,620 atrial fibrillation cases and 970,216 controls. We identified 142 independent risk variants at 111 loci and prioritized 151 functional candidate genes likely to be involved in atrial fibrillation. Many of the identified risk variants fall near genes where more deleterious mutations have been reported to cause serious heart defects in humans (GATA4, MYH6, NKX2-5, PITX2, TBX5)1, or near genes important for striated muscle function and integrity (for example, CFL2, MYH7, PKP2, RBM20, SGCG, SSPN). Pathway and functional enrichment analyses also suggested that many of the putative atrial fibrillation genes act via cardiac structural remodeling, potentially in the form of an 'atrial cardiomyopathy'2, either during fetal heart development or as a response to stress in the adult heart.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Mutação/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Risco
18.
J Chem Inf Model ; 58(7): 1426-1433, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905479

RESUMO

Mixed-solvent molecular dynamics (MixMD) is a cosolvent simulation technique for identifying binding hotspots and specific favorable interactions on a protein's surface. MixMD studies have the ability to identify these biologically relevant sites by examining the occupancy of the cosolvent over the course of the simulation. However, previous MixMD analysis required a great deal of manual inspection to identify relevant sites. To address this limitation, we have developed MixMD Probeview as a plugin for the freely available, open-source version of the molecular visualization program PyMOL. MixMD Probeview incorporates two analysis procedures: (1) identifying and ranking whole binding sites and (2) identifying and ranking local maxima for each probe type. These functionalities were validated using four common benchmark proteins, including two with both active and allosteric sites. In addition, three different cosolvent procedures were compared to examine the impact of including more than one cosolvent in the simulations. For all systems tested, MixMD Probeview successfully identified known active and allosteric sites based on the total occupancy of neutral probe molecules. As an easy-to-use PyMOL plugin, we expect that MixMD Probeview will facilitate identification and analysis of binding sites from cosolvent simulations performed on a wide range of systems.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Sondas Moleculares/química , Proteínas/química , Solventes/química , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/química , Benchmarking , Sítios de Ligação , Ligantes , Fosfotransferases/química , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/química , Termodinâmica
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 103-115, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290336

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure, and premature death. The pathogenesis of AF remains poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective treatments. To understand the genetic variation and biology underlying AF, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6,337 AF individuals and 61,607 AF-free individuals from Norway, including replication in an additional 30,679 AF individuals and 278,895 AF-free individuals. Through genotyping and dense imputation mapping from whole-genome sequencing, we tested almost nine million genetic variants across the genome and identified seven risk loci, including two novel loci. One novel locus (lead single-nucleotide variant [SNV] rs12614435; p = 6.76 × 10-18) comprised intronic and several highly correlated missense variants situated in the I-, A-, and M-bands of titin, which is the largest protein in humans and responsible for the passive elasticity of heart and skeletal muscle. The other novel locus (lead SNV rs56202902; p = 1.54 × 10-11) covered a large, gene-dense chromosome 1 region that has previously been linked to cardiac conduction. Pathway and functional enrichment analyses suggested that many AF-associated genetic variants act through a mechanism of impaired muscle cell differentiation and tissue formation during fetal heart development.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Coração/embriologia , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Chem Inf Model ; 58(2): 305-314, 2018 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286658

RESUMO

Water molecules are an important factor in protein-ligand binding. Upon binding of a ligand with a protein's surface, waters can either be displaced by the ligand or may be conserved and possibly bridge interactions between the protein and ligand. Depending on the specific interactions made by the ligand, displacing waters can yield a gain in binding affinity. The extent to which binding affinity may increase is difficult to predict, as the favorable displacement of a water molecule is dependent on the site-specific interactions made by the water and the potential ligand. Several methods have been developed to predict the location of water sites on a protein's surface, but the majority of methods are not able to take into account both protein dynamics and the interactions made by specific functional groups. Mixed-solvent molecular dynamics (MixMD) is a cosolvent simulation technique that explicitly accounts for the interaction of both water and small molecule probes with a protein's surface, allowing for their direct competition. This method has previously been shown to identify both active and allosteric sites on a protein's surface. Using a test set of eight systems, we have developed a method using MixMD to identify conserved and displaceable water sites. Conserved sites can be determined by an occupancy-based metric to identify sites which are consistently occupied by water even in the presence of probe molecules. Conversely, displaceable water sites can be found by considering the sites which preferentially bind probe molecules. Furthermore, the inclusion of six probe types allows the MixMD method to predict which functional groups are capable of displacing which water sites. The MixMD method consistently identifies sites which are likely to be nondisplaceable and predicts the favorable displacement of water sites that are known to be displaced upon ligand binding.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas/química , Solventes/química , Sítio Alostérico , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Neuraminidase/química , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Pepsina A/química , Ligação Proteica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/química , Trombina/química , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Água/química , beta-Lactamases/química
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